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The Canadian provinces best positioned to withstand an economic downturn

Video vocabulary

cumulative

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US / ˈkju:mjələtɪv /

UK / ˈkju:mjəleɪtɪv /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Getting larger slowly through more additions

necessary

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US / 'nesəsərɪ /

UK / ˈnɛsɪˌsɛri /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Needed or required; unavoidable

would

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate something imagined
  • Used to ask or request something politely
  • Verb used to indicate possibility, request etc.
  • Used to indicate a preference
  • Used to indicate a reaction
  • Indicates something that occurred repeatedly
  • Used to indicate willingness or ability to do

canadian

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US / kəˈneɪdiən /

UK / kəˈnediən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of Canada
  • noun
  • Person from Canada

decision

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US / dɪ'sɪʒn /

UK / dɪˈsɪʒən /

A1
  • noun
  • Choice made after thinking; final judgment
  • Ability to make quick and confident choices

recent

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US / 'ri:snt /

UK / ˈrisənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or beginning not long ago

record

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US / 'rekɔ:d /

UK / ˈrekərd /

A1
  • noun
  • Highest or most extreme level achieved
  • Round plastic disc on which music has been stored
  • History of a person's past actions or achievements
  • verb
  • To indicate a temperature, speed, etc.; register
  • To write down or say what happened
  • To put music, sounds onto a device to store it

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

our

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to us

output

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US / 'aʊtpʊt /

UK / ˈaʊtˌpʊt /

A2
  • noun
  • Amount of something that is produced
  • verb
  • To produce data or information, as a computer

become

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US / bɪ'kʌm /

UK / bɪˈkʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To begin to be; grow to be; develop into
  • To be suitable for a particular job or role

feeling

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US / ˈfi:lɪŋ /

UK / ˈfilɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • Sensation or emotion you experience
  • verb
  • To be aware of or experience an emotion, sensation
  • To sense through direct contact; touch

role

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US / rəʊl /

UK / rol /

A2
  • noun
  • Character played by an actor
  • Part you play in an activity; job; responsibility

slow

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US / sləʊ /

UK / sloʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Lacking activity, busyness or excitement
  • (Clock) showing time earlier than the actual time
  • Having difficulty understanding simple things
  • Moving or happening without speed; not fast
  • verb
  • To move, with less speed than before
  • To move or go without much speed

dot

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US / dɒt /

UK / dɑt /

B1
  • noun
  • Small round mark
  • verb
  • To place small amounts/things in various places
  • To mark something by placing a small, round spot

expect

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US / ɪk'spekt /

UK / ɪkˈspɛkt /

A1
  • verb
  • To believe something is probably going to happen

provincial

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US / prəˈvɪnʃl /

UK / prəˈvɪnʃəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • People living out of a main city
  • Unsophisticated; narrow-minded

significant

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US / sɪgˈnɪfɪkənt /

UK / sɪɡˈnɪfɪkənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Large enough to be noticed or have an effect
  • Having meaning; important; noticeable
  • (Statistics) being clearly different

want

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US / wɔnt /

UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

weigh

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US / weɪ /

UK / weɪ /

A2
  • verb
  • To balance things against each other
  • To consider something carefully to form an opinion
  • To determine the weight of, using scales

yet

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US / jet /

UK / jɛt /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a later time (used after ‘not’)
  • (Used to emphasize that thing is, will be greater)
  • Eventually; at a future time
  • Until now; up to the present
  • conjunction
  • Adding to what has been said, often as a contrast

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

business

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US / ˈbɪznəs /

UK / ˈbɪznɪs /

A1
  • noun
  • A company formed for making profit
  • Matter that has to be dealt with; task; situation
  • Activity of working to make a profit

effect

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US / ɪ'fekt /

UK / ɪˈfɛkt /

A1
  • noun
  • An advantage, benefit
  • Change brought about by a cause; result

resume

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US / rɪ'zju:m /

UK / rɪˈzum /

B2
  • noun
  • A record of your achievements and qualifications
  • verb
  • To return to your seat, a place or position
  • To continue something after a pause or break

support

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US / səˈpɔ:t /

UK / səˈpɔrt, -ˈport /

A1
  • noun
  • Assistance or advice given to someone
  • Evidence that helps prove something is true
  • A thing to hold up or prevent from falling down
  • verb
  • To give assistance or advice to someone
  • To help prove or show that something is true
  • To hold up or prevent from falling down

firstly

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US / ˈfɜ:stli /

UK / ˈfɚstli /

A2
  • adverb
  • Before anything else

now

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US / naʊ /

UK / naʊ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At the present time or moment
  • Right away or in the next possible moment
  • Used to refer to something that just happened
  • Time between the present and a moment in the past
  • conjunction
  • Resulting from or because of something

recovery

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US / rɪˈkʌvəri /

UK / rɪˈkʌvəri /

A2
  • noun
  • Process of returning to a former (good) state
  • Act of getting back something that was lost

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

generally

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US / /

UK / /

A2
  • adverb
  • Usually; as a rule; by, to or for most people

good

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US / ɡʊd /

UK / ɡʊd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper, appropriate or right
  • (Of an amount) enough; plenty
  • Excellent; high quality
  • Acting well or properly; of moral character
  • In a positive or happy emotional state
  • noun
  • Advantage or benefit

expansion

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US / ɪkˈspænʃn /

UK / ɪkˈspænʃən /

B2
  • noun
  • Making or becoming larger

actually

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US / ˈæktʃuəli /

UK / ˈæktʃuəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to add new (often different) information

speak

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US / spi:k /

UK / spik /

A1
  • verb
  • To be able to use a certain language
  • To use words to tell information, express thoughts

population

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US / ˌpɒpjuˈleɪʃn /

UK / ˌpɑpjəˈleʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Number of people who live in a country, area etc.

reality

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US / rɪ'ælətɪ /

UK / riˈælɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • What is true, as opposed to what is imagined

story

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US / 'stɔ:rɪ /

UK / ˈstɔri, ˈstori /

A1
  • noun
  • One of many floors or levels in a building
  • Account or description of how something happened

complicate

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US / ˈkɒmplɪkeɪt /

UK / ˈkɑ:mplɪkeɪt /

B1
  • verb
  • To make more difficult to do, understand or use

housing

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US / ˈhaʊzɪŋ /

UK / ˈhaʊzɪŋ /

A2
  • noun
  • Homes; houses in general
  • Cover for a machine
  • verb
  • To give someone a place to live
  • To contain or store something

here

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • adverb
  • In this place; at this location, position or time

new

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US / nju: /

UK / nu, nju /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not old, recently born, built or made
  • Being or doing something for the first time
  • Not felt, seen or known previously
  • Having been recently bought or obtained

production

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US / prəˈdʌkʃn /

UK / prəˈdʌkʃən, pro- /

A2
  • noun
  • Process of producing or growing food naturally
  • Process of making something on a large scale
  • Process of making a movie or TV show

small

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US / smɔ:l /

UK / smɔl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Little in size; not big
  • (Of letters) not written in capital letters
  • Being insignificant or minor
  • (Of a business) with few people or things; local
  • (Of voice) being soft and quiet
  • (Of a child) being young

try

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US / traɪ /

UK / traɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of putting the ball over the rugby goal line
  • verb
  • To make an effort, to attempt to do something
  • To examine someone or something in a court of law
  • To test to see if it is good or you like it
  • To make a person go through hardship; test
  • To examine something to see if it works

relate

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US / rɪ'leɪt /

UK / rɪˈlet /

A2
  • verb
  • To demonstrate a logical relationship between
  • To understand or sympathize with, e.g. a problem
  • To tell a story, or tell about a particular event

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

area

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US / 'eərɪə /

UK / ˈɛriə /

A1
  • noun
  • Amount of measured space
  • A specific section or space; part of a region
  • A subject or field of study

feel

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US / fi:l /

UK / fil /

A1
  • verb
  • To be aware of or experience an emotion, sensation
  • To sense through direct contact; touch

input

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US / ˈɪnpʊt /

UK / ˈɪnˌpʊt /

A2
  • noun
  • Advice or ideas that someone provides
  • verb
  • To put in information, advice or opinions

market

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US / ˈmɑ:kɪt /

UK / ˈmɑ:rkɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • Need or demand for a particular product or service
  • Area or region where a certain product is sold
  • Public event where people sell goods on tables
  • Institution where stocks are bought and sold
  • verb
  • To publicize products to get you to buy; advertise

severely

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US / sə'vɪrlɪ /

UK / səˈvɪrlɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • Extremely bad or harsh

too

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition, also; with emphasis
  • Say that something is more than you want

day

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US / deɪ /

UK / de /

A1
  • noun
  • A period of 24 hours beginning at midnight
  • The period of time when it is light outside
  • Person's name

explain

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US / ɪk'spleɪn /

UK / ɪkˈsplen /

A1
  • verb
  • To make clear or easy to understand by describing

point

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US / pɔɪnt /

UK / pɔɪnt /

A1
  • noun
  • An item to be discussed
  • Small spot or dot
  • Fact or detail
  • Feature of something
  • The size of the text on a page or screen
  • A certain time or stage in a process
  • Certain position in time or space
  • Idea or fact you try to convince people about
  • Measurement of scores in a game, sport
  • Sharp end of something, e.g. a pen or pin
  • verb
  • To face a certain direction, e.g. north
  • To indicate something with your finger to others

third

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US / θɜ:d /

UK / θɜ:rd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 3rd: Number after second

economy

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US / ɪ'kɒnəmɪ /

UK / ɪˈkɑnəmi /

A1
  • noun
  • Using money, resources in a careful, effective way
  • Total of all goods, services and wages in an area

publish

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US / 'pʌblɪʃ /

UK / ˈpʌblɪʃ /

A2
  • verb
  • To prepare and make available a book magazine etc.
  • To release information to the general public

while

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US / waɪl /

UK / hwaɪl, waɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • In spite of the fact that; although
  • During the time that; at the same time
  • noun
  • Short amount of time

joke

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US / dʒəʊk /

UK / dʒoʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • A funny or amusing statement
  • Something or someone not taken seriously
  • verb
  • To say or do things that are meant to be funny

marc

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US / mɑ:k /

UK / mɑ:rk /

A1
  • other
  • Made from residue of grapes or apples after pressing

automobile

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US / ˈɔ:təməbi:l /

UK / ˌɔtəmoˈbil, -ˈmoˌbil /

B2
  • noun
  • Car; a road vehicle with four or more wheels

consumer

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US / kənˈsju:mə(r) /

UK / kənˈsumɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Person who buys goods or services

home

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US / həʊm /

UK / hom /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A sports team's own field or place of play
  • adverb
  • Into the correct or intended position
  • noun
  • House, apartment or building to be rented or sold
  • Institution for sick or elderly people
  • Place where a person or a family lives
  • Country where a person lives or was born
  • Region that is native to peoples, plant or animals
  • verb
  • To move towards a particular target location

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

nation

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US / 'neɪʃn /

UK / ˈneʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Area or region controlled by a government and army

report

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US / rɪ'pɔ:t /

UK / rɪˈpɔrt, ˈport /

A1
  • noun
  • Account of the necessary facts and information
  • The telling of news in the media
  • Official statement about something
  • verb
  • To submit a report or bill to the government
  • To write in a newspaper or speak on a news program
  • To state something officially
  • To officially present yourself to an authority
  • To describe something by telling it to others

talk

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US / tɔ:k /

UK / tɔk /

A1
  • noun
  • Style of speaking
  • Discussion between two countries
  • Giving information in front of people; lecture
  • Saying things or ideas to someone with words
  • verb
  • To make a formal speech about something
  • To say things or ideas to someone with words

lower

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US / 'ləʊə(r) /

UK / ˈlaʊɚ, laʊr /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • In a position more near the bottom
  • verb
  • To move something downward to the ground

newfoundland

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US / ˌnju:fəndˈlænd /

UK / ˈnufənlənd, -ˌlænd, -fənd-, ˈnju- /

A1
  • noun
  • A breed of very large heavy dogs with a thick coarse usually black coat; highly intelligent dogs and
  • other
  • An island in the north Atlantic

pause

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US / pɔ:z /

UK / pɔz /

A2
  • noun
  • A temporary break before continuing
  • Function on a device to stop and restart it
  • Sign to hold a musical note a bit longer
  • verb
  • To stop doing for a while before continuing

since

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US / sɪns /

UK / sɪns /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a point before the present time
  • conjunction
  • For this reason; because
  • preposition
  • From the time in the past that

start

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US / stɑ:t /

UK / stɑrt /

A1
  • noun
  • First time or place that a thing exists; beginning
  • First opportunity to achieve something, e.g. a job
  • Sudden action or movement because you are scared
  • other
  • Beginning of something in place or time
  • verb
  • To do, be or happen for the first time; begin
  • To turn something on

within

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US / wɪˈðɪn /

UK / wɪðˈɪn, wɪθ- /

A1
  • adverb
  • Inside the limits of an area, time or range
  • preposition
  • From the inside of something

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

commodity

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US / kə'mɒdətɪ /

UK / kəˈmɑdɪti /

B1
  • noun
  • Something useful or valuable, usually for sale

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

necessarily

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US / ˌnesəˈserəli /

UK / ˌnɛsɪˈsɛrəli, -ˈsɛr- /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a way that is needed/required/is unavoidable

reminder

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US / rɪˈmaɪndə(r) /

UK / rɪˈmaɪndər /

A2
  • noun
  • Something that causes one to remember something

short

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US / ʃɔ:t /

UK / ʃɔrt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Less than what is needed
  • Suddenly stopping what you are saying or doing
  • verb
  • (Of electric circuit) to spark because faulty
  • adjecitve
  • Measuring a small distance
  • Happening for a small amount of time
  • Unfriendly or rude

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

depend

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US / dɪˈpend /

UK / dɪˈpend /

B1
  • verb
  • Be controlled or determined by (someone/something)

driver

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US / ˈdraɪvə(r) /

UK / ˈdraɪvɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • People who move cattle from one place to another
  • Someone who operates a vehicle
  • A club with a wooden head used when playing golf

green

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US / gri:n /

UK / ɡrin /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Color of young leaves
  • Covered with vegetation, e.g. grass
  • Concerned about protecting the environment
  • The color of young leaves
  • Lacking in experience/knowledge due to being young
  • Being not fully grown or ripe, as in fruit
  • noun
  • Large grassy area
  • used as a part of a name of a place (UK)

restrictive

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US / rɪ'strɪktɪv /

UK / rɪˈstrɪktɪv /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Limiting or controlling what a person can do

cool

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US / ku:l /

UK / kul /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Steady and calm when facing difficulties
  • Almost cold; not warm or hot
  • Smart or stylish in a way (young) people admire
  • Unfriendly in an indirect way; distant
  • verb
  • To make something decrease in temperature
  • (Of an emotion, etc.) to become less strongly felt

per

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US / pə(r) /

UK / pɚ /

A2
  • preposition
  • In the manner directed or suggested
  • For each; during each

overall

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US / ˌəʊvər'ɔ:l /

UK / ˈovɚˌrɔl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Viewed as a whole; in general, not as details

such

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US / sʌtʃ /

UK / sʌtʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Being similar to
  • (Thing) as previously stated or referred to
  • adverb
  • (Used to emphasize the quality of an adjective)

financial

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US / faɪˈnænʃl /

UK / faɪˈnænʃ(ə)l /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Involving money

few

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US / fju: /

UK / fju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Not many, a small number

fact

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US / fækt /

UK / fækt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that is known or proved to be true

much

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US / mʌtʃ /

UK / mʌtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very; to a high level or degree
  • adverb
  • A lot; large amount; a high degree of
  • Nearly; basically
  • On many occasions; often
  • noun
  • A large amount; a great quantity

positive

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US / ˈpɒzətɪv /

UK / ˈpɑzɪtɪv /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Showing agreement or support for something
  • Being sure about something; knowing the truth
  • Having the charge produced by electrons
  • Being good or useful
  • Showing that a chemical is present in a test

strong

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US / strɒŋ /

UK / strɔŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of tea or beer) dark or thick
  • Having big muscles; physically powerful

vehicle

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US / ˈvi:əkl /

UK / ˈvi:hɪkl /

A2
  • noun
  • Machine (such as a car) used to carry things
  • Means of expressing, showing, or achieving

divergence

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US / daɪ'vɜ:dʒəns /

UK / daɪˈvə:dʒəns /

B2
  • noun
  • Moving away; becoming different or separate

those

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US / ðəʊz /

UK / ðoz /

A1
  • determiner
  • The people or things we are talking about
  • pronoun
  • The objects far from the speaker

though

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US / ðəu /

UK / ðo /

A1
  • adverb
  • Although, despite the fact that

stuff

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US / stʌf /

UK / stʌf /

A1
  • noun
  • Generic description for things, materials, objects
  • verb
  • To push material inside something, with force

keep

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US / ki:p /

UK / kip /

A1
  • noun
  • Large, strong tower in the middle of a castle
  • Money spent on you so you can live in a place
  • verb
  • To continue doing something; not to stop
  • To stop balls going in a goal in sports
  • To not give back or return something
  • (Of food) to not spoil or not rot
  • To take possession of something to own, e.g. a pet
  • To have and continue to hold something
  • To do something that you have promised or agreed
  • To stay in a certain place or condition
  • To maintain the rules

something

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US / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

UK / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In some degree or measure
  • noun
  • a person or thing of some value or consequence
  • pronoun
  • Thing that is not yet known or named
  • Approximately

early

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US / ˈɜ:li /

UK / ˈɜ:rli /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or appearing before
  • adverb
  • Coming/happening before others in a time sequence
  • Happening sooner than expected

large

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US / lɑ:dʒ /

UK / lɑ:rdʒ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Big; of great size; broad, tall, wide, or fat

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

reduction

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US / rɪ'dʌkʃn /

UK / rɪˈdʌkʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of making something smaller
  • Amount that a price is decreased by

another

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US / əˈnʌðə(r) /

UK / əˈnʌðɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One more, but not this
  • determiner
  • One more added
  • pronoun
  • One more (thing)

environment

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US / ɪn'vaɪrənmənt /

UK / ɛnˈvaɪrənmənt, -ˈvaɪən- /

A1
  • noun
  • Natural world in which plants and animals live
  • The entire surrounding conditions of something

issue

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US / 'ɪʃu: /

UK / ˈɪʃu /

A2
  • noun
  • Important topic discussed, debated or argued over
  • Single edition of a magazine
  • verb
  • To make something available to be used or sold
  • To deliver a statement, etc. in an official manner

along

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US / əˈlɒŋ /

UK / əˈlɔ:ŋ /

A1
  • adverb
  • As a companion; taken with someone
  • preposition
  • At a point on a line

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

national

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US / 'næʃnəl /

UK / ˈnæʃənəl, ˈnæʃnəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a nation as a whole
  • noun
  • A person of a particular country

over

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US / 'əʊvə(r) /

UK / ˈovɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Finished; no longer happening
  • Towards the ground/away from a standing position
  • noun
  • A set of six consecutive balls bowled in cricket
  • other
  • Finished
  • preposition
  • Showing the relation when a thing is above another
  • On or covering something
  • Above or across something
  • More than you need
  • From one side to the other
  • In the direction of; toward

far

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US / fɑ:(r) /

UK / fɑr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A long way away
  • Being a long way away
  • adverb
  • To a large degree or extent

picture

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US / 'pɪktʃə(r) /

UK / ˈpɪktʃɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • General situation or state of being
  • Mental image of what something is or looks like
  • Movie; film
  • Painting, drawing or photograph on paper or screen
  • verb
  • To understand or imagine something
  • To imagine someone or something in an image

where

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US / hwɛə /

UK / hwɛr, wɛr /

A1
  • conjunction
  • At or in the place which
  • In whatever place
  • pronoun
  • Word you use to ask the location of something

any

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US / 'enɪ /

UK / ˈɛni /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One, or some, no matter which
  • pronoun
  • One (thing) of many; some

come

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US / kʌm /

UK / kʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To arrive at a place
  • (Of mail) to be delivered
  • To move toward someone; go with someone
  • To reach a certain point or state

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

policy

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US / 'pɒləsɪ /

UK / ˈpɑlɪsi /

A2
  • noun
  • Document stating terms of an insurance agreement
  • Course of action proposed by an organization, etc.

think

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US / θɪŋk /

UK / θɪŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To have an idea about something without certainty
  • To have an idea, opinion or belief about something

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

certainly

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US / ˈsə:tnli /

UK / ˈsɚtnli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Sure; of course

increasingly

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US / ɪnˈkri:sɪŋli /

UK / ɪnˈkriːsɪŋli /

A2
  • adverb
  • More and more; in greater degree or amount

lot

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US / lɒt /

UK / lɑt /

A1
  • noun
  • What happens to a person in life from chance; fate
  • A group of people seen together
  • Item for sale at an auction
  • Small area of land used for a purpose e.g. parking

significantly

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US / sɪgˈnɪfɪkəntli /

UK / sɪɡˈnɪfəkəntlɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a way that is important or noticeable
  • In a way that is meaningful

join

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US / dʒɔɪn /

UK / dʒɔɪn /

A1
  • verb
  • To bring something close to another, to become one
  • To become a member of
  • To participate in an activity with others

translate

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US / trænsˈleɪt /

UK / trænsˈlet /

A2
  • verb
  • To change something into a different state
  • To be equivalent to; equate to
  • To change a text, speech into a different language
  • To change words from one language into another

reliant

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US / rɪˈlaɪənt /

UK / rɪˈlaɪənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Depending on another for support

term

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US / tɜ:m /

UK / tɚm /

A1
  • noun
  • Conditions applying to an agreement, contract
  • Length of time something is expected to happen
  • Fixed period of weeks for learning at school
  • The (precise) name given to something
  • verb
  • To call; give a name to

three

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US / θri: /

UK / θri /

A1
  • number
  • Number 3

forward

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US / 'fɔ:wəd /

UK / ˈfɔrwəd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Toward what is ahead; in front
  • Acting in a socially aggressive manner; pushy
  • adverb
  • Toward the front in place; in front
  • Toward a future time; to a more advanced state
  • verb
  • To send something to another address or person

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

stress

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US / stres /

UK / strɛs /

A2
  • noun
  • Emphasis on part of a word or sentence
  • Pressure on something or someone
  • A state of mental tension, worry due to problems
  • verb
  • To emphasize one or more parts of a word, sentence
  • To put pressure on something or someone
  • To say your opinion strongly
  • To be in a state of mental tension due to problems

than

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US / ðən /

UK / ðən /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to compare two things that are not equal

across

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US / əˈkrɔs /

UK / əˈkrɔs,əˈkrɑs /

A1
  • adverb
  • Distance from one side to another
  • (Go) from one side to the other of something

expose

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US / ɪk'spəʊz /

UK / ɪkˈspoʊz /

A2
  • noun
  • News article revealing secret information
  • verb
  • To make visible, without covering or protection
  • To allow light through a cameras lens onto film
  • To be talked about in the media
  • To make a secret known to the public
  • To experience something, often a harmful thing

labrador

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US / 'læbrədɔ:(r) /

UK / 'læbrədɔ:r /

A1
  • noun
  • A retriever of a breed that predominantly has a black or yellow coat, widely used as a gun dog or as
  • proper noun
  • A coastal region of eastern Canada, which forms the mainland part of the province of Newfoundland an

play

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US / pleɪ /

UK / pleɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Loose, free movement between two objects
  • Single action in a sports game
  • Performance in which people act in a theater
  • verb
  • To act as a character in a movie, or on stage
  • To perform music on an instrument
  • To use a device, e.g. a video game
  • To do something for enjoyment and fun
  • To do or perform a game or sport

ready

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US / 'redɪ /

UK / ˈrɛdi /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being likely or about to do something
  • Being willing to do a task
  • verb
  • To prepare something for use or action

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

trend

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US / trend /

UK / trɛnd /

A2
  • noun
  • Current style or fashion
  • Direction things are moving in; current style
  • General direction that is taken
  • verb
  • To be current and popular
  • To move up or down

highlight

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US / ˈhaɪlaɪt /

UK / ˈhaɪˌlaɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Best or most interesting part of something
  • Spot or section lighter than the area around it
  • verb
  • To use chemicals to make some hair a lighter color
  • To make people aware of a problem, subject, issue
  • To focus particular attention on; draw attention
  • To use a pen to mark places of interest in a book

less

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US / les /

UK / lɛs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Smaller in amount or degree
  • adverb
  • To a smaller degree
  • noun
  • A smaller amount
  • preposition
  • With the subtraction of

jurisdiction

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US / ˌdʒʊərɪsˈdɪkʃn /

UK / ˌdʒʊrɪsˈdɪkʃn /

B1
  • noun
  • Specific area of legal authority

level

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US / 'levl /

UK / ˈlɛvəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • (Sports) equal to another
  • Being steady and determined (e.g. a voice)
  • noun
  • Specific height of something
  • Amount of ability you have compared to others
  • Floor or deck within a building
  • Tool used to determine if something is lying flat
  • verb
  • To aim a gun at someone
  • To destroy a building; flatten an area completely
  • To make things flat or even
  • To make a score equal to another, in sports

price

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US / praɪs /

UK / praɪs /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • Cost of something in money
  • verb
  • To determine or set the cost of something

big

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US / bɪɡ /

UK / bɪɡ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Popular
  • Serious
  • Large

investment

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US / ɪnˈvestmənt /

UK / ɪnˈvɛstmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Something purchased hoping its value will increase
  • Act of giving time, energy to see a future reward

little

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US / 'lɪtl /

UK / ˈlɪtl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being short in length of time
  • Not great in size, amount, or degree; small
  • Being very young or younger than others
  • adverb
  • By an amount or degree that is not very much
  • Not often; rarely
  • noun
  • A person's name

mention

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US / 'menʃn /

UK / ˈmɛnʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of referring to or talking about something
  • verb
  • To refer to or talk or write about something

rate

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US / reɪt /

UK / ret /

A1
  • noun
  • Current price or cost of something
  • Speed or frequency of events over time
  • verb
  • To assess something or consider its qualities

stretch

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US / stretʃ /

UK / strɛtʃ /

A2
  • noun
  • Making arm, leg muscles longer to ease them
  • A consecutive row of things
  • A period of time
  • verb
  • To make your arm, leg muscles long to ease them
  • To make something bigger by pulling on it

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

theme

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US / θi:m /

UK / θim /

A2
  • noun
  • An main or dominant idea, motif
  • Main idea of a work of art, writing, or music
  • Main subject being discussed or described

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

kind

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US / kaɪnd /

UK / kaɪnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In a caring and helpful manner
  • friendly and considerate
  • noun
  • One type of thing

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

average

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US / 'ævərɪdʒ /

UK / ˈævərɪdʒ, ˈævrɪdʒ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Typical or normal; usual; ordinary
  • noun
  • Total of numbers divided by the number of items
  • verb
  • To add numbers then divide by the number of items

bank

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US / bæŋk /

UK / bæŋk /

A1
  • noun
  • A financial institution that keeps or lends money
  • The side of a river
  • A row of things in lines (e.g. computers)
  • verb
  • To put or keep your money in a bank
  • To turn a plane when flying; (of a plane) to turn

demand

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US / dɪ'mɑ:nd /

UK / dɪˈmænd /

A2
  • noun
  • Desire customers have to buy product, service
  • A strong request for someone to do something
  • verb
  • To strongly request someone to do something

run

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US / rʌn /

UK / rʌn /

A1
  • noun
  • Journey between two places made by ship or car
  • Series of similar things or successes and failures
  • Act of running; exercise of running
  • verb
  • To depart or travel according to a schedule
  • To cause an animal to move in a certain direction
  • (Of an engine) to be operating
  • To start or use a computer program
  • To flow in a certain direction, like a liquid
  • To manage or operate a business
  • To operate or drive something
  • (Of a road) to go from one place to another
  • To move your legs faster than walking

suggest

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US / səˈdʒest /

UK / səɡˈdʒɛst, səˈdʒɛst /

A1
  • verb
  • To mention something that could be done; propose

country

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US / ˈkʌntri /

UK / ˈkʌntri /

A1
  • noun
  • An area of land that is controlled by a government
  • Open land that is away from towns and cities

look

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US / lʊk /

UK / lʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's beauty or physical attractiveness
  • Particular style of dress, clothes, or appearance
  • The way someone, something appears to be
  • Act of searching for or examining something
  • verb
  • To appear to be; seem

productivity

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US / ˌprɒdʌkˈtɪvəti /

UK / ˌprɑ:dʌkˈtɪvəti /

B1
  • noun
  • Rate at which people or machines produce

thank

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US / θæŋk /

UK / θæŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To tell someone you are grateful to them

sale

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US / seɪl /

UK / sel /

A2
  • noun
  • Event during which the prices of goods are reduced
  • Giving something for money; the amount sold

electric

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US / ɪˈlektrɪk /

UK / ɪˈlɛktrɪk /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Creating a feeling of excitement
  • Using electricity

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

very

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US / 'verɪ /

UK / ˈvɛri /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a large degree or amount
  • adverb
  • A lot; much; many
  • Used to stress or emphasize a noun

main

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US / meɪn /

UK / men /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Most important; most often used

pretty

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US / 'prɪtɪ /

UK / ˈprɪti /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being attractive to the eye in a simple way
  • adverb
  • Very; to a great degree

possible

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US / ˈpɒsəbl /

UK / ˈpɑsəbəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being able or appropriate for a task or purpose
  • Having a chance of happening, or being true

several

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US / ˈsevrəl /

UK / ˈsɛvərəl,ˈsɛvrəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Many of
  • pronoun
  • More than two but not a large amount

stimulate

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US / 'stɪmjʊleɪt /

UK / ˈstɪmjəˌlet /

B1
  • verb
  • To arouse or excite emotionally

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

engine

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US / 'endʒɪn /

UK / ˈɛndʒɪn /

A2
  • noun
  • Machine that changes energy into mechanical motion
  • The part of a train that pulls railway cars

produce

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US / prə'dju:s /

UK / prəˈdus, -ˈdjus, pro- /

A1
  • noun
  • Fresh foods such as fruits and vegetables
  • verb
  • To grow something naturally
  • To make something appear
  • To manufacture something using machines
  • To control the making a movie or television show

move

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US / mu:v /

UK / muv /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of moving a playing piece in chess, etc.
  • An action; doing something
  • Step taken to achieve a goal
  • verb
  • To cause someone to have certain emotions
  • To cause something to change to a different place
  • To change where people live or a business operates
  • To take action to do or achieve something

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

activity

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US / æk'tɪvətɪ /

UK / ækˈtɪvɪti /

A1
  • noun
  • An action or task, e.g. sports, washing clothes

add

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US / æd /

UK / æd /

A1
  • verb
  • To include as well
  • To put two things or numbers together, e.g. 2+2

chug

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US / tʃʌɡ /

UK / tʃʌɡ /

C1
  • verb
  • To move slowly making low sounds like steam trains

project

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US / prəˈdʒekt /

UK / prəˈdʒɛkt /

A1
  • noun
  • A planned piece of work for specific purpose
  • Group of homes built by government for poor people
  • verb
  • To predict what will happen in the future
  • To show something on a screen using light
  • To stick out past the edge of something

absolutely

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US / ˈæbsəlu:tli /

UK / ˈæbsəˌlutli, ˌæbsəˈlutli /

A2
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally; very

mean

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US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular meaning or value

primarily

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US / praɪˈmerəli /

UK / praɪˈmɛrəli, -ˈmɛr- /

A2
  • adverb
  • In the most basic or important way

dynamic

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US / daɪˈnæmɪk /

UK / daiˈnæmik /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Always active or energetic; getting things done

growth

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US / grəʊθ /

UK / groʊθ /

A2
  • noun
  • Improvement, development in a skill over time
  • A mass on the skin or body part related to illness
  • Act of growing

least

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US / li:st /

UK / list /

A1
  • adverb
  • In the smallest or lowest way
  • noun
  • Something that is of the lowest or smallest degree

capita

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US / 'keɪpətə /

UK / 'keɪpətə /

B2
  • noun
  • If you express an amount per capita, you mean that amount for each person.

down

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US / daʊn /

UK / daʊn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being sad, sick, or unhappy
  • Not operating, working, or functioning as expected
  • adverb
  • In a sitting or lying position
  • Towards or on the ground, floor, or bottom
  • Written or copied onto a piece of paper or book
  • noun
  • A period of play in American Football
  • The soft, smooth hairs that cover a bird's body
  • preposition
  • Along something's path, course, or direction
  • Going from a higher position to a lower position
  • verb
  • To eat or drink very quickly and without stopping

then

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US / ðen /

UK / ðɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • A time that is not now
  • Following another thing in time or arrangement
  • Following on reasonably from what was just stated
  • At that time, not now

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

again

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US / ə'ɡen /

UK / əˈɡɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • One more time, once more

different

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US / ˈdɪfrənt /

UK / ˈdɪfrənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not of the same kind; unlike other things

impact

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US / 'ɪmpækt /

UK / ˈɪmˌpækt /

A2
  • noun
  • A striking effect or result to hit with force
  • Very strong influence
  • Act or force of one thing hitting something else
  • verb
  • To hit or strike someone or something with force

even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

outperform

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US / ˌaʊtpəˈfɔ:m /

UK / ˌaʊtpərˈfɔ:rm /

C1
  • verb
  • To achieve more than other competitors

people

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US / 'pi:pl /

UK / ˈpipəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Persons sharing culture, country, background, etc.
  • Men, Women, Children

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

toronto

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US / tə'rɒntəʊ /

UK / tə'rɑnto /

A1
  • proper noun
  • A city in Canada, capital of Ontario, on the northern shore of Lake Ontario; population 2,503,281 (2

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

weaken

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US / 'wi:kən /

UK / ˈwikən /

A2
  • verb
  • To make something or someone less powerful

week

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US / wi:k /

UK / wik /

A1
  • noun
  • Period of seven days from Sunday to Saturday

number

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US / ˈnʌmbə(r) /

UK / ˈnʌmbɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Symbols such as 1, 2, 56, 793
  • Particular song or dance performed during a show
  • Total quantity or amount of things
  • verb
  • To put numbers on things
  • To assign a sequence within a group, series, set
  • To claim to be part of a larger group, series, set

first

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US / fɜ:st /

UK / fɚst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 1st; Coming before all others in time or place
  • noun
  • Something that has not happened before
  • Position of the winner of a competition

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

saskatchewan

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US / sə'skætʃəwən /

UK / sə'skætʃəwən /

A1
  • other
  • One of the three prairie provinces in west central Canada

second

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US / 'sekənd /

UK / ˈsɛkənd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 2nd; the one following first
  • noun
  • Unit of time; one sixtieth of a minute
  • Short period of time that you wait for someone
  • (Do) soon
  • verb
  • To agree to support a proposal at a meeting

fare

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US / feə(r) /

UK / fer /

B1
  • noun
  • Money people pay to travel on buses, taxis, boats
  • Kind of food
  • verb
  • To perform well or poorly

lack

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US / læk /

UK / læk /

A2
  • noun
  • The state of not having or not having enough of
  • A shortage of something
  • verb
  • To not have, or not have enough, of something

happen

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US / 'hæpən /

UK / ˈhæpən /

A1
  • verb
  • To take place or occur

portion

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US / 'pɔ:ʃn /

UK / ˈpɔrʃən, ˈpor- /

B1
  • noun
  • Serving of food that is intended for one person
  • Part of something shared that belongs to a whole
  • verb
  • To separate something to divide among people

province

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US / 'prɒvɪns /

UK / ˈprɑvɪns /

B1
  • noun
  • Subject that a person has a good knowledge of
  • Area a country is divided into outside the capital

sector

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US / ˈsektə(r) /

UK / ˈsɛktɚ, -ˌtɔr /

A2
  • noun
  • Part that a place is divided into
  • Area; type of industry or business

canada

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US / 'kænədə /

UK / ˈkænədə /

A1
  • proper noun
  • A country in northern North America, the second largest country in the world; population 35,900,000

headline

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US / ˈhedlaɪn /

UK / ˈhedlaɪn /

B2
  • noun
  • Title summarizing a news story
  • verb
  • To be the main performer at a show

weakness

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US / ˈwi:knəs /

UK / ˈwiknɪs /

A2
  • noun
  • Fault or bad quality preventing success
  • Liking for something that you are a bit ashamed of

construction

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US / kən'strʌkʃn /

UK / kənˈstrʌkʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of building something; thing that is built
  • Something that is made using different parts
  • The way words are organized in a sentence
  • The way something is made or structured

economist

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US / ɪˈkɒnəmɪst /

UK / ɪˈkɑ:nəmɪst /

A2
  • noun
  • A person who studies economics

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

last

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US / lɑ:st /

UK / læst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Most recent; the latest
  • The one before
  • adverb
  • Final; with nothing following; after all others
  • Most recent; the latest
  • determiner
  • The one at the end
  • verb
  • To remain or continue for a certain period of time

part

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US / pɑ:t /

UK / pɑ:rt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To some degree; half; not fully
  • noun
  • Division of a book
  • Ratio of something, e.g. 3 of gin, 1 of tonic
  • A line in a person's hair, made with a comb
  • Character an actor plays on stage, movie, or TV
  • Some, but not all of a specific thing
  • Role in causing something to happen
  • verb
  • To make a line in a person's hair, by using a comb
  • To move two things apart creating a space
  • To leave someone, or to break off a relationship

affordability

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US / əˌfɔːdəˈbɪlɪti /

UK / əˌfɔrdəˈbɪləti /

B1
  • noun
  • Cheap enough to buy something you want

clear

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US / klɪə(r) /

UK / klɪr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Empty; without anything in it or on it
  • Being certain and without doubt
  • Being without any streaks, spots, or cracks
  • Easy to understand; well-explained; obvious
  • adverb
  • Completely; entirely; through the whole of
  • Away from; free from
  • verb
  • To recover from or remove a problem
  • To get rid of the entire contents of
  • To give permission for something to happen
  • To make a place or surface empty by removing
  • To prove that someone is not guilty or to blame

economic

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US / ˌi:kəˈnɒmɪk /

UK / ˌɛkəˈnɑmɪk, ˌikə- /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning trade, industry, and money

next

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US / nekst /

UK / nɛkst /

A1
  • adverb
  • The one that follows another in time or order
  • At a time or place directly after the present one
  • noun
  • The one that follows after
  • adjecitve
  • Immediately after the previous one
  • First occurrence after the present one

raise

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US / reɪz /

UK / rez /

A1
  • noun
  • Increase in a bet above another when playing cards
  • Pay increase
  • verb
  • To increase a bet above another when playing cards
  • To gather donations for a cause or charity
  • To bring up and educate a child to maturity
  • To bring a dead person to life
  • To increase a quantity, size, intensity or price
  • To lift (e.g. your hand) to a higher position
  • To mention a topic /issue for discussion; bring up
  • To increase (salary, etc.)
  • To grow or care for plants or animals

relatively

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US / ˈrelətɪvli /

UK / ˈrɛlətɪvlɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a manner comparing something to something else

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

decade

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US / ˈdekeɪd /

UK / ˈdɛkˌed, dɛˈked /

B1
  • noun
  • Period of 10 years

strongly

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US / strɒŋlɪ /

UK / ˈstrɔŋlɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • With strength or in a strong manner

exposure

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US / ɪk'spəʊʒə(r) /

UK / ɪkˈspoʒɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Allowing light through a cameras lens onto film
  • Being talked about in the media
  • Act of making something that is secret known
  • Experience of something directly

instance

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US / 'ɪnstəns /

UK / ˈɪnstəns /

A2
  • noun
  • An example of something; case
  • verb
  • To give as an example of something else

spending

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US / ˈspendɪŋ /

UK / ˈspɛndɪŋ /

A2
  • verb
  • To use money to pay for something
  • To use time in order to do something
  • To use up something completely

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

fall

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US / fɔ:l /

UK / fɔl /

A1
  • noun
  • Season after summer and before winter; Autumn
  • A drop in amount; decrease
  • Dropping from a standing position to the ground
  • verb
  • To drop in amount; to decrease
  • To come down from a higher position suddenly
  • To go from standing to the ground, by accident

interest

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US / 'ɪntrəst /

UK / ˈɪntrɪst, -tərɪst, -ˌtrɛst /

A1
  • noun
  • Best or most advantageous thing for someone
  • Activity or subject one enjoys doing or learning
  • Fee for borrowing money
  • verb
  • To make someone want to know about something
  • To persuade to do, become involved with something
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • The Canadian provinces best positioned to withstand an economic downturnCanada is facing a few realities when it comes to its economy. Firstly, commodities play a crucial role in driving economic output in some provinces. Other provinces rely on housing as an economic driver, but the new interest rate environment is weakening this sector in certain parts of the country. Moreover, Canada's record-level population contributes to its overall growth but also adds complexity to the growth story. Desjardins, a financial institution, recently published a report that connects all these dots.Marc Desmoreaux, an economist from Desjardins, discusses the key findings of the report. Ontario's economy is outperforming the national average due to population growth and a rebound in automobile production. Additionally, provinces that are heavily involved in commodity production are expected to weather an economic slowdown better due to their reliance on these key outputs and limited exposure to housing. Population growth has also bolstered economic activity, but GDP per capita has been declining across the country in recent quarters, indicating underlying weakness.Desmoreaux highlights the complexity of population growth in the growth story. Despite the increasing numbers, it adds complications to the overall narrative. This article explores the various factors affecting Canada's provincial economies and provides insights into which provinces are best positioned to withstand an economic downturn.
  • Subtitles section
  • Well, there are a few realities when it comes to Canada.
  • Firstly, commodities remain a key driver for some of our provincial outputs.
  • In other provinces, housing has become an economic driver, and the new interest rate environment is weakening the picture in parts of Canada.
  • Meanwhile, for our nation overall, our population is at a record level, and while that plays a role in our growth, it also complicates the growth story.
  • Desjardins just published a report connecting all of these dots.
  • Marc Desmoreaux is an economist with Desjardins, and he joins us now.
  • Thanks for being with us.
  • So, we talk about this stuff every day, all these different economic inputs, and depending on where you are in the country, can impact provincial output as well.
  • Absolutely.
  • I would highlight three main themes from our most recent report.
  • The first is that Ontario's economy is outperforming the national average, with significant help from population growth, as you mentioned, as well as a recovery in automobile production.
  • Second thing that I'll highlight is commodity production.
  • The commodity producing provinces we think will fare the best when the economy slows over the course of the next year with support from those key outputs, as well as relatively little exposure to housing.
  • And then the third thing I would just highlight population growth.
  • That's helped stimulate economic activity.
  • But GDP per capita has actually been falling across the country for the last several quarters, which suggests more weakness than the headline.
  • Explain that dynamic.
  • What is it about population growth that further complicates the growth story, even if the numbers are trending higher?
  • When you have the kind of population growth that we've been seeing, that adds a lot of support for consumer spending, for household demand, for all these key portions of any economy.
  • But what we are seeing across the country is that the growth we're getting, while it has been positive for the most part, it hasn't kept up with population growth.
  • We look at the last year, for instance.
  • Population growth was about 3% in Canada.
  • Overall economic growth was less than 1.5%.
  • So we want growth, and this is part of that story, but also this issue of productivity has been a big one for Canada for decades now.
  • Productivity has been an issue for Canada.
  • There's been a lack of business investment across the country.
  • When we look at the country in aggregate, that's part of the story here.
  • But it's also about the fact that we're just having very strong population growth, which is needed over the long run at a time when consumers are increasingly feeling the pinch.
  • So even though there is this very strong population growth, it's not necessarily translating into GDP per capita.
  • And at a time when we're talking about a greener future and a lot of electric vehicles, your point about our commodity producing provinces is a reminder of one of the growth engines, at least in the short term, in this country.
  • Certainly we expect that Alberta, Saskatchewan, Newfoundland and Labrador will fare better than most other jurisdictions within Canada over the next year.
  • There's support from rising commodity production.
  • Still pretty good prices.
  • Oil's been rallying strongly in the last few weeks.
  • And then also there's relatively little exposure to housing and to housing related sectors like construction and financial services.
  • So they are less exposed in this environment we're increasingly expecting, where the cumulative effects of interest rates increasingly weigh down the Canadian economy.
  • Has a portion of the economy become too reliant on housing?
  • I mean, when prices were generally moving up, but interest rates were a lot lower and people were feeling a little less stress about this affordability issue, we kind of joke about becoming a housing nation.
  • But now that we're staring at a possible cool down for the economy, do we have too much exposure to that one area?
  • Certainly housing has contributed to the expansion significantly over the last few years.
  • Going forward, we expect it to play a smaller role because primarily of those interest rate impacts weighing it down increasingly.
  • But it's a different story in different parts of the country as well.
  • If we look at, for instance, where housing sales have gone just since the Bank of Canada resumed raising interest rates, Toronto home sales have gone down by more than 20%.
  • In Calgary, they're actually up more than 11% since the bank started raising rates again.
  • So it speaks to the divergences here.
  • Alberta and other parts of the country that are less reliant on housing, less impacted by severely stretched affordability, their housing markets are still chugging along, in large part because they're getting such strong population growth.
  • So we are getting ready for another interest rate decision by the Bank of Canada.
  • When you're trying to project where provincial output is going, are you assuming that we're in this so-called higher for longer interest rate environment for Canada?
  • We think that the Bank of Canada will remain on pause tomorrow.
  • The cumulative effects of rising interest rates have not yet been felt by the overall Canadian economy.
  • And so that is something that we think will happen tomorrow.
  • Going forward, we do think that there will be a reduction in interest rates as we get into early 2024.
  • It will become clear at that point to the Bank of Canada that the economy is slowing and that a less restrictive policy rate is necessary.