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Coral reefs off coast of Florida bleached as water temperatures top 100 degrees Fahrenheit

Video vocabulary

join

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US / dʒɔɪn /

UK / dʒɔɪn /

A1
  • verb
  • To bring something close to another, to become one
  • To become a member of
  • To participate in an activity with others

only

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US / ˈəunli /

UK / ˈonli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just one; just that amount or thing; not more than
  • Not very important or serious
  • Just that type of thing, person
  • Short time ago; not before a certain time
  • conjunction
  • Except; but

perhaps

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US / pəˈhæps /

UK / pɚˈhæps /

A1
  • adverb
  • Possibly, but not certainly; maybe

two

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • number
  • 2

trigger

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US / 'trɪɡə(r) /

UK / ˈtrɪɡɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Lever on a gun that you pull to fire
  • Device that starts a process
  • verb
  • To start a process off e.g. a memory

any

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US / 'enɪ /

UK / ˈɛni /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One, or some, no matter which
  • pronoun
  • One (thing) of many; some

come

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US / kʌm /

UK / kʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To arrive at a place
  • (Of mail) to be delivered
  • To move toward someone; go with someone
  • To reach a certain point or state

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

game

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US / ɡeɪm /

UK / ɡem /

A1
  • noun
  • Activity with rules that people play to have fun
  • Birds and animals people hunt to kill and eat
  • Match between two teams

newshour

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US / /

UK / /

A1

wave

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US / weɪv /

UK / wev /

A2
  • noun
  • Movement of sound, air or energy
  • Deep and strong emotion that is suddenly felt
  • Slightly curved shape in hair
  • Frequency of movement of objects together
  • Up and down movement of water in a lake or sea
  • Signal with your hand to say hello or goodbye
  • verb
  • To cause to move side to side or back and forth
  • To swing back and forth as a result of the wind
  • To move your hand or arm to say hello or goodbye

early

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US / ˈɜ:li /

UK / ˈɜ:rli /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or appearing before
  • adverb
  • Coming/happening before others in a time sequence
  • Happening sooner than expected

direct

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US / də'rekt /

UK / dɪˈrɛkt, daɪ- /

A2
  • adverb
  • Coming straight from something
  • verb
  • To tell someone in a very clear way to do something
  • To show the way by conducting or leading
  • To control the acting in a movie or play

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

administration

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US / ədˌmɪnɪˈstreɪʃn /

UK / ædˌmɪnɪˈstreʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of giving e.g. medicine to a patient
  • The work of running something, e.g. a business
  • People managing a business, government etc.

anything

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US / ˈeniθɪŋ /

UK / ˈɛniˌθɪŋ /

A1
  • pronoun
  • A thing of any kind

fish

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US / fɪʃ /

UK / fɪʃ /

A1
  • noun
  • Animal that swims and lives in water
  • verb
  • To go fishing with a net or hook

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

hot

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US / hɒt /

UK / hɑ:t /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Angry or excited
  • Being very good at something
  • Having a high temperature
  • Popular and causing a great deal of excitement
  • Attractive in a sexually exciting way
  • (Of food) very spicy
  • Stolen; dangerous to buy or trade in

national

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US / 'næʃnəl /

UK / ˈnæʃənəl, ˈnæʃnəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a nation as a whole
  • noun
  • A person of a particular country

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

over

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US / 'əʊvə(r) /

UK / ˈovɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Finished; no longer happening
  • Towards the ground/away from a standing position
  • noun
  • A set of six consecutive balls bowled in cricket
  • other
  • Finished
  • preposition
  • Showing the relation when a thing is above another
  • On or covering something
  • Above or across something
  • More than you need
  • From one side to the other
  • In the direction of; toward

temperature

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US / ˈtemprətʃə(r) /

UK / ˈtɛmpərəˌtʃʊr,-tʃɚ,ˈtɛmprə- /

A2
  • noun
  • When you your body heat is above normal
  • How hot or cold something is, e.g. the weather

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

base

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US / beɪs /

UK / bes /

A2
  • noun
  • Place military personnel live, train, and operate
  • Bottom part of an object that touches a surface
  • Unit of counting, e.g. 10 for counting
  • Most important idea or ingredient to add others
  • Origin or start from which something came
  • Main place where an organization or a person works
  • verb
  • To use as the starting point or origin for
  • To have as the main location for (company, etc.)

back

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US / bæk /

UK / bæk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Farthest from the front e.g. in a classroom
  • adverb
  • Have returned to a place you were before
  • noun
  • The part of a chair that the upper body leans upon
  • Location at the rear of something
  • The reverse of side something
  • Area on the rear of your body
  • verb
  • To bet money on something
  • To go backwards in a car
  • To support and encourage someone or some cause

breath

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US / breθ /

UK / brɛθ /

A2
  • noun
  • Air you take in and out of your body

coral

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US / 'kɒrəl /

UK / ˈkɑrəl /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Color that is a combination of pink and orange
  • noun
  • Marine substance made from bones of sea creatures

hope

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US / həʊp /

UK / hop /

A1
  • noun
  • When you wish something will happen; what you wish
  • verb
  • To expect and want something to happen

environmental

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US / ɪnˌvaɪrənˈmentl /

UK / ɛnˌvaɪrənˈmɛntl:, -ˌvaɪən /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of the natural world of plants and animals

something

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US / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

UK / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In some degree or measure
  • noun
  • a person or thing of some value or consequence
  • pronoun
  • Thing that is not yet known or named
  • Approximately

bin

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US / bɪn /

UK / bɪn /

B1
  • noun
  • Type of container, usually for trash
  • verb
  • To throw something away in the trash

issue

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US / 'ɪʃu: /

UK / ˈɪʃu /

A2
  • noun
  • Important topic discussed, debated or argued over
  • Single edition of a magazine
  • verb
  • To make something available to be used or sold
  • To deliver a statement, etc. in an official manner

call

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US / kɔ:l /

UK / kɔl /

A1
  • noun
  • A order or request for action
  • The sound an animal makes, often when in danger
  • A correct prediction, e.g. a decision in a game
  • A short visit to a place or person
  • A decision by a referee or umpire in a game
  • verb
  • To make a request or order for action
  • (Animal) to make sounds to warn of danger
  • To announce the date of an election
  • To make a judgment about something
  • To give someone or something a name
  • To guess in advance the result or outcome
  • To visit a place or person for a short time
  • To phone someone
  • To speak, announce or shout in a loud voice

where

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US / hwɛə /

UK / hwɛr, wɛr /

A1
  • conjunction
  • At or in the place which
  • In whatever place
  • pronoun
  • Word you use to ask the location of something

closely

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US / 'kləʊslɪ /

UK / ˈkloslɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a careful manner
  • Nearby; just next to

diversity

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US / daɪ'vɜ:sətɪ /

UK / dɪˈvə:sɪti, daɪ- /

B1
  • noun
  • Having a range of different races, ideas etc.

example

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US / ɪgˈzɑ:mpl /

UK / ɪɡˈzæmpəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Thing, person which represents a category

happen

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US / 'hæpən /

UK / ˈhæpən /

A1
  • verb
  • To take place or occur

tourism

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US / ˈtʊərɪzəm /

UK / ˈtʊrɪzəm /

A2
  • noun
  • Visiting to new places, e.g. abroad, for vacations

track

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US / træk /

UK / træk /

A2
  • noun
  • A circular course for running
  • Course or way someone takes, e.g. in education
  • Path in a field or a forest made by walkers
  • Often circular course laid out for car racing
  • One of multiple musical recordings on an album
  • Band surrounding the wheels of a tank
  • Metal lines that trains ride on
  • verb
  • To use marks to follow a wild animal
  • To move a certain way/follow a particular course
  • To record and examine the progress of something

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

shatter

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US / 'ʃætə(r) /

UK / ˈʃætɚ /

B1
  • verb
  • To break into small pieces

jump

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US / dʒʌmp /

UK / dʒʌmp /

A1
  • noun
  • Large sudden increase
  • An act of springing into the air
  • Bar or other thing that is jumped over
  • A sudden movement due to surprise
  • verb
  • To attack someone suddenly
  • To push your body into the air with your legs
  • To suddenly decide to do something
  • To make a sudden movement due to surprise

resistance

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US / rɪ'zɪstəns /

UK / rɪˈzɪstəns /

A2
  • noun
  • Force that stops or slows movement of something
  • Refusal to accept something new or different

right

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US / raɪt /

UK / raɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Correct or true
  • The south side of you looking at the rising sun
  • adverb
  • Exactly in a place or time
  • Being appropriate for a particular event
  • In a straight or direct manner
  • noun
  • Something you are legally or morally allowed to do
  • Ideal of what is just and good
  • Political view based on conservatism
  • verb
  • To fix something previously wrong or unjust
  • To make upright, as a boat that has turned over

she

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US / ʃɪ /

UK / ʃi /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Female person or animal mentioned before
  • (Refers to female person mentioned before)

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

different

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US / ˈdɪfrənt /

UK / ˈdɪfrənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not of the same kind; unlike other things

impact

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US / 'ɪmpækt /

UK / ˈɪmˌpækt /

A2
  • noun
  • A striking effect or result to hit with force
  • Very strong influence
  • Act or force of one thing hitting something else
  • verb
  • To hit or strike someone or something with force

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

people

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US / 'pi:pl /

UK / ˈpipəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Persons sharing culture, country, background, etc.
  • Men, Women, Children

remind

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US / rɪ'maɪnd /

UK / rɪˈmaɪnd /

A2
  • verb
  • To cause someone to remember what they forgot

site

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US / saɪt /

UK / saɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Place that is reserved for a particular activity
  • Location of building work
  • Location of something
  • Place where something of special interest happened
  • Website
  • verb
  • To place something in a particular position, area

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

week

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US / wi:k /

UK / wik /

A1
  • noun
  • Period of seven days from Sunday to Saturday

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

witness

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US / 'wɪtnəs /

UK / ˈwɪtnɪs /

B1
  • noun
  • Person who was present to see an event take place
  • Evidence or proof of something
  • verb
  • To see the signing of an official document
  • To see an event take place (usually a crime)
  • To serve as an example or evidence of something

cause

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US / kɔ:z /

UK / kɔz /

A2
  • noun
  • Belief, goal or organization that people support
  • Reason for
  • verb
  • To make something happen; create effect or result

preferable

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US / ˈprefrəbl /

UK / ˈprɛfərəbəl, ˈprɛfrə- /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • More desirable than another

depth

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US / depθ /

UK / dɛpθ /

A2
  • noun
  • Distance below a surface

florida

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US / 'flɒrɪdə /

UK / 'flɔ:rədə /

A1
  • noun
  • A state in southeastern United States between the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico; one of the Confed

mean

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US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular meaning or value

commercially

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US / kə'mɜ:ʃəlɪ /

UK / kəˈmə:ʃəlɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • In a business-like manner

include

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US / ɪnˈklu:d /

UK / ɪnˈklud /

A1
  • verb
  • To make someone, something part of a group

kelsey

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US / keɡ /

UK / kɛɡ /

A1

sea

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US / /

UK / /

A1
  • noun
  • Very large group of people, similar-looking things
  • Large body of salty water with land around it

then

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US / ðen /

UK / ðɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • A time that is not now
  • Following another thing in time or arrangement
  • Following on reasonably from what was just stated
  • At that time, not now

number

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US / ˈnʌmbə(r) /

UK / ˈnʌmbɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Symbols such as 1, 2, 56, 793
  • Particular song or dance performed during a show
  • Total quantity or amount of things
  • verb
  • To put numbers on things
  • To assign a sequence within a group, series, set
  • To claim to be part of a larger group, series, set

tell

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US / tel /

UK / tɛl /

A1
  • verb
  • To (strongly) advise a person to do something
  • To be able to guess
  • To say or communicate information to someone
  • To inform, but without speaking; indicate
  • To have a negative effect on someone
  • To order someone to do something; command
  • To recognize something based on certain signs
  • To report something to an authority
  • To explain something or teach someone something

specie

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US / 'spi:ʃi: /

UK / 'spi:ʃɪ /

B1
  • noun
  • Singular of species

tissue

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US / ˈtɪʃu: /

UK / ˈtɪʃu /

A2
  • noun
  • Substance formed by cells of living thing; flesh
  • Kind of thin, light paper used to pack objects
  • Thin soft paper for blowing the nose, etc.

extraordinary

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US / ɪkˈstrɔ:dnri /

UK / ɪkˈstrɔ:rdəneri /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Beyond what is ordinary; very unusual; remarkable

break

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US / breɪk /

UK / brek /

A1
  • noun
  • Time you stop an activity before continuing
  • End of a relationship
  • An escape from a place such as a jail
  • (Lucky) advantage or benefit from something
  • Find a solution or answer to a problem or crime
  • Change in the weather
  • verb
  • To create a new record e.g. running the 100m dash
  • To form a crack in something
  • To burst or become damaged
  • To end a relationship
  • To escape from a place such as a jail
  • To train a wild animal e.g. a horse
  • To separate into pieces by force, or by dropping
  • To act against a law, rule, or promise
  • To become known suddenly, as in the news
  • To not do what you promised e.g. not keep promises
  • To solve a crime, or answer a problem
  • To stop functioning properly
  • To suddenly start, open or commence
  • To change in pitch suddenly, as in a voice
  • To fall on the shore, as in waves
  • To begin or change suddenly; the dawn or weather
  • To defeat by causing the person to lose their will

fahrenheit

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US / ˈfærənhaɪt /

UK / ˈfærənˌhaɪt /

B1
  • noun
  • Measurement of temperature

increase

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US / ɪn'kri:s /

UK / ɪnˈkris /

A1
  • noun
  • Fact of increasing; amount something grows by
  • verb
  • To make or become larger in size or amount

stark

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US / stɑ:k /

UK / stɑ:rk /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Very clear and often unpleasant

widespread

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US / ˈwaɪdspred /

UK / ˈwaɪdˈsprɛd /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or existing in many places

could

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US / kəd /

UK / kʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Past form of 'can' to mean have ability
  • Used to ask for something politely, or to offer

enjoy

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US / ɪnˈdʒɔɪ /

UK / ɛnˈdʒɔɪ /

A1
  • verb
  • To take pleasure in something

know

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US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

turtle

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US / ˈtɜ:tl /

UK / ˈtɜ:rtl /

B1
  • noun
  • Animal that lives in water and has a hard shell

economic

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US / ˌi:kəˈnɒmɪk /

UK / ˌɛkəˈnɑmɪk, ˌikə- /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning trade, industry, and money

reef

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US / ri:f /

UK / rif /

B2
  • noun
  • Line of rocks or sand at the surface of the ocean
  • Rolling up sail to make it smaller in strong winds
  • verb
  • To roll up sail to make it smaller in strong winds

percent

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US / pə'sent /

UK / pɚˈsɛnt /

A2
  • adverb
  • One one-hundredth of a whole; the symbol %

recently

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US / ˈri:sntli /

UK / 'risṇtlɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just a while ago; not long ago

spending

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US / ˈspendɪŋ /

UK / ˈspɛndɪŋ /

A2
  • verb
  • To use money to pay for something
  • To use time in order to do something
  • To use up something completely

southern

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US / ˈsʌðən /

UK / ˈsʌðərn /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a region in the south
  • Being in or toward the south

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

hundred

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US / 'hʌndrəd /

UK / ˈhʌndrɪd /

A1
  • number
  • 100

world

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US / wɜ:ld /

UK / wɜrld /

A1
  • noun
  • All the humans, events, activities on the earth
  • Political division due to some kind of similarity

almost

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US / 'ɔ:lməʊst /

UK / ˈɔlˌmost, ɔlˈmost /

A1
  • adverb
  • Only a little less than, nearly, not quite

coast

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US / kəʊst /

UK / kost /

A2
  • noun
  • Land near the sea or ocean
  • verb
  • To progress in something without trying hard
  • (Of a vehicle) to move forward without power

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

last

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US / lɑ:st /

UK / læst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Most recent; the latest
  • The one before
  • adverb
  • Final; with nothing following; after all others
  • Most recent; the latest
  • determiner
  • The one at the end
  • verb
  • To remain or continue for a certain period of time

part

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US / pɑ:t /

UK / pɑ:rt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To some degree; half; not fully
  • noun
  • Division of a book
  • Ratio of something, e.g. 3 of gin, 1 of tonic
  • A line in a person's hair, made with a comb
  • Character an actor plays on stage, movie, or TV
  • Some, but not all of a specific thing
  • Role in causing something to happen
  • verb
  • To make a line in a person's hair, by using a comb
  • To move two things apart creating a space
  • To leave someone, or to break off a relationship

low

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US / ləʊ /

UK / lo /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having a small quantity, supply, or amount
  • Being unhappy or unpleasant in attitude
  • Not high; being near the ground, or bottom
  • (Of a voice, sound) being soft; quiet
  • noun
  • Situation of not having a lot of something

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

serve

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US / sɜ:v /

UK / sɚv /

A2
  • verb
  • To act in a particular position or office
  • To hit the first ball to an opponent in tennis etc.
  • To be used for a particular purpose
  • To give someone food or drinks
  • To give a person or group a service that is needed
  • To spend a particular amount of time in prison
  • To help customers find products and making sales
  • To give an official paper to appear in court

timely

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US / ˈtaɪmli /

UK / ˈtaɪmli /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • At the right time; when required

tub

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US / tʌb /

UK / tʌb /

B1
  • noun
  • Another word for a bath

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

alone

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US / ə'ləʊn /

UK / əˈlon /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Apart from others
  • Without equal
  • adverb
  • Without anyone or anything else

might

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US / maɪt /

UK / maɪt /

A1
  • other
  • Used to politely request an action
  • Used to express that something could happen
  • Power, strength, force or influence

little

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US / 'lɪtl /

UK / ˈlɪtl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being short in length of time
  • Not great in size, amount, or degree; small
  • Being very young or younger than others
  • adverb
  • By an amount or degree that is not very much
  • Not often; rarely
  • noun
  • A person's name

rampant

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US / ˈræmpənt /

UK / ˈræmpənt /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Growing rapidly and uncontrollably

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

unfortunately

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US / ʌnˈfɔ:tʃənətli /

UK / ʌnˈfɔːrtʃənətli /

B1
  • adverb
  • In a way that is to be regretted; unluckily

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

lead

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US / li:d /

UK / lid /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being the main part in movies or plays
  • noun
  • Wire for electricity, computer, etc.; cable
  • Information that could help to solve a crime
  • Main part in a play or movie
  • Heavy, gray metal element
  • Rope used to tie something to stop it escaping
  • Act of being at the front in a race or game
  • verb
  • To show the way or guide others
  • To be at the front of a race or game
  • To travel in front of; go in advance of others

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

love

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US / lʌv /

UK / lʌv /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • A very strong feeling of affection
  • The person you care very deeply about
  • Strong, deep emotional and sexual attraction
  • verb
  • To care for and like someone very strongly, deeply
  • To like doing very much; enjoy greatly
  • To feel a strong emotional and romantic attraction

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

settle

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US / 'setl /

UK / ˈsɛtl /

A2
  • noun
  • Type of wooden seat
  • verb
  • To make (a child, etc.) feel calm/ready for sleep
  • To complete or finalize e.g. a contract or debt
  • To end some troubles by reaching an agreement
  • To become accustomed to a new environment
  • (Of liquids) to move to the bottom of a container

solution

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US / səˈlu:ʃn /

UK / səˈluʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Mix of a liquid and a solid or a gas
  • Way to solve or deal with a problem

valuable

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US / ˈvæljuəbl /

UK / ˈvæljuəbəl, ˈvæljə- /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being useful or important
  • Being worth a lot of money

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

colleague

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US / 'kɒli:ɡ /

UK / ˈkɑlˌiɡ /

A2
  • noun
  • Person you work or cooperate with

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

ecosystem

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US / ˈi:kəʊsɪstəm /

UK / ˈɛkoˌsɪstəm, ˈiko- /

B1
  • noun
  • Types of plants and animals in an specific area

season

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US / ˈsi:zn /

UK / ˈsizən /

A1
  • noun
  • One of Spring, Summer, Autumn (Fall) and Winter
  • Time of year when something usually happens
  • verb
  • To add pepper and salt to something
  • To prepare wood for use by allowing it to dry

surface

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US / 'sɜ:fɪs /

UK / ˈsɚfəs /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of the top layer; not deep or meaningful
  • noun
  • Top layer of the ground or of water
  • Nature or emotions that show, but may not be true
  • Outside or upper layer of something
  • verb
  • To give (road) a top layer
  • To appear after being hidden, unseen, or unknown
  • To come to the top of something; emerge
  • To come to the top level of water, mud, etc.

across

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US / əˈkrɔs /

UK / əˈkrɔs,əˈkrɑs /

A1
  • adverb
  • Distance from one side to another
  • (Go) from one side to the other of something

may

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US / meɪ /

UK / me /

A1
  • noun
  • 5th month of the year
  • other
  • Used to express a desire
  • Expresses permission, possibility or probability
  • Used to show that a thing could be true

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

weekend

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US / ˌwi:kˈend /

UK / ˈwi:kend /

A2
  • noun
  • Saturday and Sunday, after the normal working week

deep

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US / di:p /

UK / dip /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Complex and important
  • Extreme or intense
  • Going far down from the surface
  • Low in pitch, as a sound
  • adverb
  • At a certain distance beneath the surface

genetic

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US / dʒəˈnetɪk /

UK / dʒəˈnɛtɪk /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Of, relating to, or controlled by genes

state

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US / steɪt /

UK / stet /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning region within a country
  • noun
  • Region within a country, with its own government
  • Situation or condition something is in
  • verb
  • To say; declare as fact

heat

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US / hi:t /

UK / hit /

A2
  • noun
  • State of anger, excitement, or arguing
  • Particular temperature at which to cook something
  • High temperature
  • One of series of races to find the finalists
  • Hot temperature, conditions, or weather
  • verb
  • To make hot or hotter

imagine

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US / ɪ'mædʒɪn /

UK / ɪˈmædʒɪn /

A1
  • verb
  • To think creatively about; form mental picture of

once

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US / wʌns /

UK / wʌns /

A1
  • adverb
  • One time; one instance
  • At a time in the past
  • conjunction
  • When; as soon as

area

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US / 'eərɪə /

UK / ˈɛriə /

A1
  • noun
  • Amount of measured space
  • A specific section or space; part of a region
  • A subject or field of study

feel

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US / fi:l /

UK / fil /

A1
  • verb
  • To be aware of or experience an emotion, sensation
  • To sense through direct contact; touch

healthy

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US / ˈhelθi /

UK / ˈhɛlθi /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In good condition physically, or financially; well

marine

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US / mə'ri:n /

UK / məˈrin /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Of the ocean or ocean plants and animals
  • Concerning sailing or doing business by sea
  • noun
  • Soldier trained to serve on land and sea

lobster

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US / ˈlɒbstə(r) /

UK / ˈlɑ:bstə(r) /

B2
  • noun
  • Large hard-shelled sea crustacean, prized as food

fortunately

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US / ˈfɔ:tʃənətli /

UK / ˈfɔ:rtʃənətli /

A2
  • adverb
  • Through good luck; luckily

someone

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US / ˈsʌmwʌn /

UK / ˈsʌmˌwʌn, -wən /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person who is not known or named

ecological

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US / ˌi:kəˈlɒdʒɪkl /

UK / ˌi:kəˈlɑ:dʒɪkl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the environment, plants, or animals

exactly

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US / ɪgˈzæktli /

UK / ɪɡˈzæktli /

A1
  • adverb
  • No more and no less than; precisely

massive

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US / ˈmæsɪv /

UK / ˈmæsɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Very big; large; too big

shallow

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US / 'ʃæləʊ /

UK / ˈʃælo /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Not deep; short from top to bottom
  • Lacking interest in serious things; superficial

white

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US / waɪt /

UK / hwaɪt, waɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Belonging to a race of people with light skin
  • Of the color of fresh snow and milk
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • Lightest color; The color of fresh snow.

associate

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US / ə'səʊʃɪeɪt /

UK / əˈsoʊʃiˌeɪt /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Part of a job title indicating a junior position
  • noun
  • Partner in professional work, e.g. in law
  • verb
  • To spend time with other people; mix with
  • To form a connection in your mind between things

day

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US / deɪ /

UK / de /

A1
  • noun
  • A period of 24 hours beginning at midnight
  • The period of time when it is light outside
  • Person's name

point

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US / pɔɪnt /

UK / pɔɪnt /

A1
  • noun
  • An item to be discussed
  • Small spot or dot
  • Fact or detail
  • Feature of something
  • The size of the text on a page or screen
  • A certain time or stage in a process
  • Certain position in time or space
  • Idea or fact you try to convince people about
  • Measurement of scores in a game, sport
  • Sharp end of something, e.g. a pen or pin
  • verb
  • To face a certain direction, e.g. north
  • To indicate something with your finger to others

actually

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US / ˈæktʃuəli /

UK / ˈæktʃuəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to add new (often different) information

immediately

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US / ɪˈmi:diətli /

UK / ɪˈmidiɪtli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Without any delay; straight away

sudden

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US / ˈsʌdn /

UK / ˈsʌdn /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or done quickly or unexpectedly

here

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • adverb
  • In this place; at this location, position or time

already

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US / ɔ:lˈredi /

UK / ɔlˈrɛdi /

A1
  • adverb
  • Having happened or been done before this time

indeed

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US / ɪnˈdi:d /

UK / ɪnˈdid /

A2
  • adverb
  • Actually; in fact; in reality

many

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US / 'menɪ /

UK / ˈmɛni /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer a large number of things

sanctuary

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US / 'sæŋktʃʊərɪ /

UK / ˈsæŋktʃuˌɛri /

B1
  • noun
  • Place to find rest and relaxation
  • Area used for protecting wildlife

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

good

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US / ɡʊd /

UK / ɡʊd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper, appropriate or right
  • (Of an amount) enough; plenty
  • Excellent; high quality
  • Acting well or properly; of moral character
  • In a positive or happy emotional state
  • noun
  • Advantage or benefit

give

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US / ɡɪv /

UK / ɡɪv /

A1
  • noun
  • Degree of flexibility in something, a material
  • verb
  • To hand over or present something to someone
  • To cause someone to have or experience something

life

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US / laɪf /

UK / laɪf /

A1
  • noun
  • All the living things e.g. animals, plants, humans
  • Period of time things live, from birth to death

diving

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US / ˈdaɪvɪŋ /

UK / ˈdaɪvɪŋ /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of swimming underwater
  • verb
  • To swim deep under water with an air supply
  • To rapid fall through air
  • To jump into water head-first
  • (Of prices) to rapidly fall

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

prediction

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US / prɪˈdɪkʃn /

UK / prɪˈdɪkʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • A statement of what will happen next

wide

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US / waɪd /

UK / waɪd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having a great distance from one side to the other
  • adverb
  • Fully; completely

category

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US / ˈkætəgəri /

UK / ˈkætɪˌɡɔri, -ˌɡori /

B1
  • noun
  • Groups of things that are similar in some way

record

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US / 'rekɔ:d /

UK / ˈrekərd /

A1
  • noun
  • Highest or most extreme level achieved
  • Round plastic disc on which music has been stored
  • History of a person's past actions or achievements
  • verb
  • To indicate a temperature, speed, etc.; register
  • To write down or say what happened
  • To put music, sounds onto a device to store it

potentially

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US / pə'tenʃəlɪ /

UK / pəˈtɛnʃəlɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • That could happen or become reality

skeleton

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US / ˈskelɪtn /

UK / ˈskɛlɪtn /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Outline of the basic of main part of something
  • noun
  • Structure of bones that supports the body
  • Frame that provides support for e.g. a building
  • Extremely bony or thin person or animal

experience

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US / ɪk'spɪərɪəns /

UK / ɪkˈspɪriəns /

A1
  • noun
  • Thing a person has done or that happened to them
  • An event at which you learned something
  • Knowledge gained by living life, doing new things
  • verb
  • To gain knowledge by doing things

now

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US / naʊ /

UK / naʊ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At the present time or moment
  • Right away or in the next possible moment
  • Used to refer to something that just happened
  • Time between the present and a moment in the past
  • conjunction
  • Resulting from or because of something

structure

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US / ˈstrʌk.tʃə /

UK / ˈstrʌk.tʃɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • The way in which the parts of a system or object are arranged or organized, or a system arranged in
  • verb
  • To plan, organize, or arrange the parts of something

really

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US / ˈri:əli /

UK / ˈriəˌli, ˈrili /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to stress something that is said; definitely
  • In a true or accurate manner
  • Very

study

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US / 'stʌdɪ /

UK / ˈstʌdi /

A1
  • noun
  • Room that a person studies or reads in
  • Piece of research
  • Topic or subject you research or learn about
  • verb
  • To focus on learning something usually at school

understand

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US / ˌʌndə'stænd /

UK / ˌʌndɚˈstænd /

A1
  • verb
  • To know the meaning of language, what someone says

historical

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US / /

UK / /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Connected with the past

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

our

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to us

quite

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US / kwaɪt /

UK / kwaɪt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Not very; fairly
  • Very; In a complete or total manner

shark

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US / ʃɑ:k /

UK / ʃɑ:rk /

B2
  • noun
  • Person who lends money at unfair rates of interest
  • Large and dangerous fish with sharp teeth

expect

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US / ɪk'spekt /

UK / ɪkˈspɛkt /

A1
  • verb
  • To believe something is probably going to happen

intertwine

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US / ˌɪntə'twaɪn /

UK / ˌɪntɚˈtwaɪn /

A1
  • verb
  • To wind together; to cause to be wound together

photograph

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US / ˈfəʊtəgrɑ:f /

UK / ˈfoʊtəgræf /

A1
  • noun
  • Picture taken with a camera
  • verb
  • To take a picture with a camera

video

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US / 'vɪdɪəʊ /

UK / ˈvɪdiˌo /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of a moving film, with sound
  • noun
  • Recording capturing action with sound
  • verb
  • To make a moving film of, with sound

bring

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US / brɪŋ /

UK / brɪŋ /

A1
  • verb
  • To take or go with someone to a place

take

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US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
  • verb
  • To accept something that is offered
  • To use a method of traveling, e.g. a bus or train
  • To use a camera to make (a photo)
  • To pick up something and go away with it
  • To study a subject in school
  • To attempt to pass (an exam)
  • To require a certain amount of time, money, space

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

prolong

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US / prə'lɒŋ /

UK / prəˈlɔŋ, -ˈlɑŋ /

B2
  • verb
  • To make continue for a longer amount of time

pocket

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US / 'pɒkɪt /

UK / ˈpɑkɪt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • (As if) small enough to fit in your pocket
  • noun
  • Small cloth bag sewn into clothing to hold things
  • Area of space
  • verb
  • To put something into your pocket
  • To take or hide something illegally

refuge

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US / 'refju:dʒ /

UK / ˈrɛfjudʒ /

B2
  • noun
  • Somewhere you can find safety or hide

return

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US / rɪ'tɜ:n /

UK / rɪ'tɜ:rn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Do again; repeated
  • noun
  • Faulty or unwanted product sent back to a company
  • Enter key; the main key on the computer keyboard
  • Profit made as a result of a business activity
  • Process of going back to a previous way or state
  • verb
  • To hit something back to the other player or team
  • To come back after being away from somewhere
  • To repay someone's actions, kindness etc.
  • To put, bring, take, give, or send something back
  • To occur again

top

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US / tɒp /

UK / tɑp /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good or great; excellent
  • Being the most in degree or quality
  • noun
  • Item of clothing covering shoulders to waist, hips
  • A cover or lid
  • Part (e.g. road) that is the furthest away
  • Highest or upper part or point of something
  • Best or highest status or position
  • Flat upper surface or edge of an object
  • Child's toy that spins on its point
  • Upper section or leaves of fruits and vegetables
  • Winning in a sport or contest
  • verb
  • To be higher or larger than a specific value
  • To arrive at the highest point of something
  • To put a cover or layer or over something
  • To kill; murder
  • To hold the highest position on a list
  • To be more important, successful or better than
  • To beat someone or win at a game

who

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US / hu: /

UK / hu /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Which person
  • Used to introduce information about people

atlantic

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US / æt'læntɪk /

UK / ætˈlæntɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Of the ocean between Africa and the Americas

change

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US / tʃeɪndʒ /

UK / tʃendʒ /

A1
  • noun
  • Exchange of one set of clothes for another
  • Money in the form of coins instead of paper
  • Money returned after giving too much
  • Act of making or becoming something else
  • verb
  • To exchange one set of clothes for another
  • To exchange one kind of money for another
  • To replace something with another thing
  • To make or become something else
  • To go from one train, bus, etc. and go to another

heating

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US / ˈhiːtɪŋ /

UK / ˈhiːtɪŋ /

A2
  • noun
  • System that provides warmth to a house or building
  • verb
  • To make hot or hotter

hold

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US / həʊld /

UK / hold /

A1
  • noun
  • Section of a ship or plane used for storing things
  • Influence or power held over someone
  • Place of support for hands or feet when climbing
  • verb
  • To agree to keep something for someone
  • To have the capacity to support/contain something
  • To control an area and protect it from attack
  • To not allow someone to leave a place
  • To cause an event to happen at a place or time
  • To use hands or arms to carry or keep something
  • To have a specific quality or property
  • To keep an image, belief or feeling in your mind
  • To have or own something
  • To wait before being able to talk on the phone
  • To limit the movement of someone in a sport

ongoing

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US / ˈɒngəʊɪŋ /

UK / ˈɑ:ngoʊɪŋ /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Continuing to exist or be in progress

personally

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US / ˈpɜ:sənəli /

UK / ˈpəsənəli /

A2
  • adverb
  • By a specific person, and not by anyone else
  • Knowing someone as a friend, or closely

show

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US / ʃəʊ /

UK / ʃo /

A1
  • noun
  • False display of love, emotion or action
  • An event for displaying or promoting goods
  • Play, opera or theater production
  • Presentation that is broadcast on TV or radio
  • verb
  • To be easily seen or displayed
  • To display your emotions or feelings
  • To let someone see something; display
  • To explain or teach how something is done
  • To lead someone somewhere; point them to something
  • To prove something to be true, correct
  • To reveal or allow something to be seen

space

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US / speɪs /

UK / spes /

A1
  • noun
  • Empty area kept for a specific reason, like a car
  • Empty area with nothing in it
  • Area in the sky where the stars are
  • Area between written words on a page
  • verb
  • To make a certain distance or time between

billion

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US / ˈbɪljən /

UK / ˈbɪljən /

A2
  • noun
  • Number 1,000,000,000

between

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US / bɪˈtwi:n /

UK / bɪˈtwin /

A1
  • preposition
  • From one person, thing, or place, to another
  • In the space that separates two objects
  • Among two or more people who share something

everything

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US / 'evrɪθɪŋ /

UK / ˈɛvriˌθɪŋ /

A1
  • pronoun
  • All of the things mentioned

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

very

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US / 'verɪ /

UK / ˈvɛri /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a large degree or amount
  • adverb
  • A lot; much; many
  • Used to stress or emphasize a noun

death

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US / deθ /

UK / dɛθ /

A2
  • noun
  • When someone dies; the end of life

shocking

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US / ˈʃɒkɪŋ /

UK / ˈʃɑkɪŋ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very upsetting due to some unexpected event
  • verb
  • To affect someone with an electrical current
  • To cause great surprise, horror, or anger

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

way

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US / weɪ /

UK / we /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to emphasize the amount of something
  • noun
  • Particular aspect of something being thought about
  • One of various choices that could be made
  • Particular existing condition or state
  • (Often long) distance or length of time
  • How something is done
  • Route to go to a place
  • Small street
  • Usual behavior, emotions or habits of someone

yes

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US / jes /

UK / jɛs /

A1
  • adverb
  • Way to say you agree or will do something

bit

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US / bɪt /

UK / bɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • Device put in a horse's mouth to control it
  • Small piece of something
  • verb
  • (E.g. of fish) to take bait and be caught

ecology

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US / ɪ'kɒlədʒɪ /

UK / ɪˈkɑlədʒi /

B1
  • noun
  • Study of plants, animals and their environments

look

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US / lʊk /

UK / lʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's beauty or physical attractiveness
  • Particular style of dress, clothes, or appearance
  • The way someone, something appears to be
  • Act of searching for or examining something
  • verb
  • To appear to be; seem

standpoint

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US / ˈstændpɔɪnt /

UK / ˈstændˌpɔɪnt /

C2
  • noun
  • Mental position from which things are viewed

swimming

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US / ˈswɪmɪŋ /

UK / ˈswɪmɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • The act of moving through water
  • verb
  • To move through water by moving parts of the body

thank

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US / θæŋk /

UK / θæŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To tell someone you are grateful to them

work

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US / wɜ:k /

UK / wɚk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Activity completed in order to make money
  • noun
  • The product of some artistic or literary endeavor
  • Everything created by an author, artist, musician
  • Activity you do in order to make money
  • Place of employment
  • Final product or result of a some labor or effort
  • verb
  • To bring into a specific state of success
  • To be functioning properly, e.g. a car
  • To do your job in your company or workplace
  • To make an effort to do something
  • To operate a machine or device

pretty

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US / 'prɪtɪ /

UK / ˈprɪti /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being attractive to the eye in a simple way
  • adverb
  • Very; to a great degree

several

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US / ˈsevrəl /

UK / ˈsɛvərəl,ˈsɛvrəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Many of
  • pronoun
  • More than two but not a large amount

occur

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US / əˈkɜ:(r) /

UK / əˈkɚ /

A2
  • verb
  • To come to pass or to happen

those

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US / ðəʊz /

UK / ðoz /

A1
  • determiner
  • The people or things we are talking about
  • pronoun
  • The objects far from the speaker

amazing

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US / ə'meɪzɪŋ /

UK / ə'meɪzɪŋ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Surprising in a pleasing way
  • verb
  • To cause wonder; to surprise completely

atmospheric

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US / ˌætməsˈferɪk /

UK / ˌætməˈsfɛrɪk, -ˈsfɪr- /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning or located in the air around us

cool

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US / ku:l /

UK / kul /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Steady and calm when facing difficulties
  • Almost cold; not warm or hot
  • Smart or stylish in a way (young) people admire
  • Unfriendly in an indirect way; distant
  • verb
  • To make something decrease in temperature
  • (Of an emotion, etc.) to become less strongly felt

job

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US / dʒɒb /

UK / dʒɑ:b /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that must be done
  • Regular work at which you earn money

warm

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US / wɔ:m /

UK / wɔrm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Friendly, sincere and kind to others
  • Being friendly or sincere
  • Slightly hot; not very hot
  • verb
  • To become more friendly or to like something
  • To make something hotter

water

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US / 'wɔ:tə(r) /

UK / ˈwɔtɚ, ˈwɑtɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Clear liquid that forms the seas, rivers and rain
  • Large area such as an ocean or sea
  • verb
  • (Of the eyes) to produce tears
  • (Mouth) to become wet at the thought of nice food
  • To pour liquids onto a plant to keep it alive

career

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US / kə'rɪə(r) /

UK / kəˈrɪr /

A2
  • noun
  • Particular occupation in professional life
  • verb
  • To move forward very fast and without control

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

recover

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US / rɪ'kʌvə(r) /

UK / rɪ'kʌvər /

A2
  • verb
  • To return to a prior normal condition
  • To get back something that was lost

somewhere

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US / 'sʌmweə(r) /

UK / ˈsʌmˌhwɛr, -ˌwɛr /

A1
  • adverb
  • At or to an unknown or unnamed place

talk

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US / tɔ:k /

UK / tɔk /

A1
  • noun
  • Style of speaking
  • Discussion between two countries
  • Giving information in front of people; lecture
  • Saying things or ideas to someone with words
  • verb
  • To make a formal speech about something
  • To say things or ideas to someone with words

conch

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US / kɒntʃ /

UK / kɑ:ntʃ /

C2
  • noun
  • Distinctive spiral shell of a type of shellfish

immediate

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US / ɪˈmi:diət /

UK / ɪˈmidiɪt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being the very next to or just after
  • Done without delay; straight away

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

undergo

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US / ˌʌndəˈgəʊ /

UK / ˌʌndərˈgoʊ /

B1
  • verb
  • To experience or endure something (bad)

why

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US / waɪ /

UK / hwaɪ, waɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Question word to ask for a reason
  • exclamation
  • (Used to express surprise or approval)

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

individual

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US / ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒuəl /

UK / ˌɪndəˈvɪdʒuəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Made for use by one single person
  • Having a distinct manner different from others
  • noun
  • Single person, looked at separately from others

much

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US / mʌtʃ /

UK / mʌtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very; to a high level or degree
  • adverb
  • A lot; large amount; a high degree of
  • Nearly; basically
  • On many occasions; often
  • noun
  • A large amount; a great quantity

ocean

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US / 'əʊʃn /

UK / ˈoʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Large body of salt water; a large sea

amount

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US / ə'maʊnt /

UK / əˈmaʊnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Quantity of something
  • verb
  • To add up to a certain figure

benefit

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US / 'benɪfɪt /

UK / ˈbɛnəfɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Good result or effect, something advantageous
  • verb
  • To have a good effect or be helpful

period

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US / ˈpɪəriəd /

UK / ˈpɪriəd /

A1
  • noun
  • Set amount of time during which events take place
  • A way to emphasize what you will say
  • A full stop (.), marking the end of a sentence
  • A menstrual cycle
  • A set time for a class to be held

ask

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US / ɑ:sk /

UK / æsk /

A1
  • verb
  • To say to someone that you want something

die

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US / daɪ /

UK / daɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Cube with dots numbering 1-6 on it used in games
  • verb
  • To cease to function or work
  • (Of a thing) to stop being used or done
  • (Of a person) to stop living

grow

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US / ɡrəʊ /

UK / ɡro /

A1
  • verb
  • To get bigger and more mature; make plants do this
  • To improve; to develop better skills over time
  • To develop and become bigger or taller over time

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

within

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US / wɪˈðɪn /

UK / wɪðˈɪn, wɪθ- /

A1
  • adverb
  • Inside the limits of an area, time or range
  • preposition
  • From the inside of something

unique

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US / jʊ'ni:k /

UK / juˈnik /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Unlike other things; being the only one like it

depend

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US / dɪˈpend /

UK / dɪˈpend /

B1
  • verb
  • Be controlled or determined by (someone/something)

difficult

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US / 'dɪfɪkəlt /

UK / ˈdɪfɪˌkʌlt, -kəlt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Hard; not easy; you need to work hard to do it

oceanic

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US / ˌəʊʃiˈænɪk /

UK / ˌoʃiˈænɪk /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the ocean
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • Coral reefs off the coast of Florida are experiencing bleaching due to water temperatures exceeding 100 degrees Fahrenheit. The rise in ocean temperatures is a consequence of the current heatwaves affecting many parts of the world. Surface temperatures in various oceans are breaking historical records, particularly in the Atlantic, posing a significant threat to marine life and coral reefs. Southern Florida's coastal waters have reached a staggering 100 degrees Fahrenheit, resulting in a sudden and extensive bleaching event on some coral reefs. To shed light on this issue and explore potential solutions, we are joined by Katie Lesneski. Katie is a researcher studying coral reefs at the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, working with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). We are grateful to have Katie Lesneski here today to discuss this critical and timely issue. Katie has recently conducted dive explorations in the affected reefs, and we are eager to learn about her observations. The thought of swimming in such warm water is unimaginable, so we are interested to hear what Katie has witnessed. Welcome, Katie Lesneski, to the NewsHour. Please share with us your experiences in these reefs that you have encountered in your recent dives. Thank you, William, for having me today to discuss this important and urgent matter. We try to work on the reefs as frequently as possible, and I have been diving there for the past few days. As soon as you enter the water, it feels like being in a hot tub. Thankfully, the water temperature on the reefs is below 100 degrees, currently in the low 90s. The 100-degree reading was taken in a shallow landlocked area, but we are still witnessing unprecedented high temperatures. Consequently, this is directly affecting the diverse and magnificent life on the reefs, particularly the coral reefs. Presently, I am witnessing stark white corals that are undergoing bleaching. If corals are unable to recover from bleaching, it can lead to their rapid demise. In the event of die-off or bleaching, can corals regain their health?
  • Subtitles section
  • As heat waves roll across so much of the world, oceans are also heating up.
  • Surface temperatures in many oceans are right now breaking historical records, including in the Atlantic, where these warmer waters threaten ocean life and coral reefs.
  • For example, off the coast of Southern Florida, surface water temperatures have topped a shocking 100 degrees Fahrenheit, triggering a sudden, massive bleaching event on some coral reefs.
  • To help us understand more about what's happening and what can be done, we are joined by Katie Lesneski.
  • She studies the coral reefs at the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  • Katie Lesneski, so good to have you on the NewsHour.
  • I know you have been diving in some of those reefs recently.
  • I can't imagine what it's like swimming in water that is that warm.
  • Can you just tell us a little bit about what you have been seeing on those reefs?
  • Yes.
  • Thanks, William, for having me on today to talk about this important and timely issue.
  • I work on the reefs as many days as we can get out there.
  • I've been out over the last several days.
  • Immediately when you jump into the water, it feels like you are in a hot tub.
  • Fortunately, the waters on the reefs here are not at 100.
  • They're in the low 90s.
  • That 100 degree temperature was taken in a shallow landlocked area, but we are still seeing temperature records being shattered.
  • And that has direct impact on all of the amazing life on the reefs, including the coral reefs.
  • And what I'm seeing right now are stark white corals that are undergoing what we call bleaching, which, if corals can't recover, can lead to their pretty immediate death.
  • If corals experience that die-off or that bleaching, does that mean that the corals cannot recover?
  • So corals can indeed recover from periods of bleaching.
  • Bleaching can actually be caused by a number of different factors where environmental conditions aren't quite right for the corals.
  • Of course, the most well-known one at this point, the most well-studied perhaps, is increasing temperatures.
  • And if conditions don't return to a preferable state, so if the waters don't cool off, these corals can actually die from that bleached state in a number of days to a number of weeks.
  • WILLIAM BRANGHAM.
  • And, at that point, then, they're not coming back.
  • DR. KELSEY WHITE.
  • Exactly.
  • Once they die, there are other reef organisms that will actually settle on that skeleton, take up space, and the coral tissue can't grow back, unfortunately.
  • WILLIAM BRANGHAM.
  • I mean, for people who may have only seen coral reefs in videos or photographs, I mean, we know how extraordinary they are to look at.
  • But can you remind us why they're so valuable within the ocean ecosystem?
  • DR. KELSEY WHITE.
  • So, corals and coral reefs provide a really wide number of ecological and economic benefits.
  • We can basically bin those into two categories.
  • So, just from an ecological standpoint, over 25 percent of all of the world's marine species depend on coral reefs and the structure of corals at some point in their lifetime.
  • So, that's everything from sea turtles and sharks that people love to see to lobster and conch, other commercially fished species, game fish.
  • Florida alone depends on reefs for somewhere between $2 billion and $4 billion a year from tourism and all the other valuable parts of the reef.
  • So, the ecology and the economics are very closely intertwined.
  • WILLIAM BRANGHAM.
  • Is there anything that you have been seeing that gives you hope that there might be some solution, some way out of this?
  • DR. KELSEY WHITE.
  • So, I have been diving on some of the deeper reefs that still show signs of what we call resistance to bleaching, where corals are not undergoing any of those signs associated with bleaching, and so that these depth pockets can almost serve as a refuge.
  • There are other individuals at other sites, these very shallow reefs, that still look quite healthy.
  • So, that tells us something about potentially the genetic diversity and the unique genetics that could in these corals could contribute to their ongoing resistance to this bleaching.
  • So, we will be looking at those deeper reefs and tracking those unique individuals as much as we can into the future.
  • WILLIAM BRANGHAM.
  • Can I ask you what it is like for you personally, as someone who studies these, to see the temperatures go up like they are, and then to go in and to see these direct impacts?
  • I mean, that's got to be a difficult thing to witness.
  • DR. KELSEY WHITE.
  • Yes, it's been very difficult for me and many of our colleagues, who not only have the reefs as part of our day-to-day job, but it's something that many of us enjoy spending time on on the weekends and what we have really made our career out of to study.
  • We did not expect to see this amount of bleaching occurring this early in the season.
  • These predictions, they seem to be changing by the day, based on just how rampant this widespread heat wave is here, as well as the prolonged ocean temperatures.
  • And we're already seeing hundreds of corals dying all across the Florida Keys.
  • So, every day, we're holding our breath, and we will see what tomorrow brings.
  • WILLIAM BRANGHAM.
  • All right, Katie Lesneski at the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, thank you so much for being here.
  • KATIE LESNESKI.
  • Thank you, William.