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Critical infrastructure is vulnerable to climate change—and it's not just coastal cities at risk

Video vocabulary

result

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US / rɪ'zʌlt /

UK / rɪˈzʌlt /

A2
  • noun
  • Something produced through tests or experiments
  • Final score of a competition, election or game
  • verb
  • To be the outcome of other causes and effects

severe

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US / sɪ'vɪə(r) /

UK / səˈvɪr /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very bad; harsh
  • Being very serious or extremely bad
  • (Of clothes, etc.) plain; simple; not decorated

project

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US / prəˈdʒekt /

UK / prəˈdʒɛkt /

A1
  • noun
  • A planned piece of work for specific purpose
  • Group of homes built by government for poor people
  • verb
  • To predict what will happen in the future
  • To show something on a screen using light
  • To stick out past the edge of something

take

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US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
  • verb
  • To accept something that is offered
  • To use a method of traveling, e.g. a bus or train
  • To use a camera to make (a photo)
  • To pick up something and go away with it
  • To study a subject in school
  • To attempt to pass (an exam)
  • To require a certain amount of time, money, space

account

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US / ə'kaʊnt /

UK / əˈkaʊnt /

A1
  • noun
  • An advantage
  • Arrangement with a bank to keep your money for you
  • An invoice for things bought
  • Arrangement whereby you can use online services
  • A description, often written, of events; report

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

climate

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US / ˈklaɪmət /

UK / ˈklaɪmɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Typical weather conditions in a particular place

critical

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US / ˈkrɪtɪkl /

UK / ˈkrɪtɪkəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Making a negative judgment of something
  • Being important or serious; vital; dangerous
  • Most important part

five

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US / faɪv /

UK / faɪv /

A1
  • number
  • 5

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

louisiana

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US / luːˌiːziːˈænə /

UK / luˌiziˈænə /

A1
  • other
  • A state in southern United States on the Gulf of Mexico; one of the Confederate states during the Am

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

across

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US / əˈkrɔs /

UK / əˈkrɔs,əˈkrɑs /

A1
  • adverb
  • Distance from one side to another
  • (Go) from one side to the other of something

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

alone

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US / ə'ləʊn /

UK / əˈlon /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Apart from others
  • Without equal
  • adverb
  • Without anyone or anything else

big

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US / bɪɡ /

UK / bɪɡ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Popular
  • Serious
  • Large

let

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US / let /

UK / lɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To allow someone to do something
  • Introducing a suggestion to do something together
  • To rent a house, etc. to others

mention

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US / 'menʃn /

UK / ˈmɛnʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of referring to or talking about something
  • verb
  • To refer to or talk or write about something

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

manner

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US / ˈmænə(r) /

UK / ˈmænɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • The way a person acts, talks, or behaves
  • Polite and respectful behavior to others
  • The way that something happens or is done

map

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US / mæp /

UK / mæp /

A1
  • noun
  • Diagram showing the geography of an area
  • verb
  • To draw a diagram to show the geography of an area
  • To find points of similarity between things

adjust

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US / əˈdʒʌst /

UK / əˈdʒʌst /

A2
  • verb
  • To change; to attain a desired state or function
  • To change so as to fit in with new conditions

able

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US / 'eɪbl /

UK / ˈebəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Skilled; good at something
  • Having the ability to do something

executive

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US / ɪɡ'zekjətɪv /

UK / ɪɡˈzɛkjətɪv /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of a high ranking job in a company
  • noun
  • A senior manager in a business or organization

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

pull

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US / pʊl /

UK / pʊl /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of breathing in smoke, as from a pipe
  • Force something has that draws other things to it
  • Using your hands to move something to you
  • verb
  • To breathe in smoke, as from a pipe
  • To hold something and move it toward you
  • To remove something by force

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

panel

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US / 'pænl /

UK / ˈpænəl /

A2
  • noun
  • Group who answer questions or give opinions
  • Flat surface with controls and switches
  • Flat, thin piece of material, often made of wood
  • verb
  • To cover a wall with thin pieces of wood

commercial

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US / kəˈmə:ʃəl /

UK / kəˈmɚʃəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • noun
  • Radio or television advertisement

police

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US / pəˈli:s /

UK / pəˈlis /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the police and its business
  • noun
  • People, often in uniforms, who solve crimes
  • verb
  • To control an area, or group with a police force

mapping

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US / ˈmæpɪŋ /

UK / ˈmæpɪŋ /

A2
  • verb
  • To draw a diagram to show the geography of an area
  • To find points of similarity between things

hold

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US / həʊld /

UK / hold /

A1
  • noun
  • Section of a ship or plane used for storing things
  • Influence or power held over someone
  • Place of support for hands or feet when climbing
  • verb
  • To agree to keep something for someone
  • To have the capacity to support/contain something
  • To control an area and protect it from attack
  • To not allow someone to leave a place
  • To cause an event to happen at a place or time
  • To use hands or arms to carry or keep something
  • To have a specific quality or property
  • To keep an image, belief or feeling in your mind
  • To have or own something
  • To wait before being able to talk on the phone
  • To limit the movement of someone in a sport

crosshairs

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US / 'krɒsheəz /

UK / 'krɒsherz /

A1
  • other
  • Center of interest

change

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US / tʃeɪndʒ /

UK / tʃendʒ /

A1
  • noun
  • Exchange of one set of clothes for another
  • Money in the form of coins instead of paper
  • Money returned after giving too much
  • Act of making or becoming something else
  • verb
  • To exchange one set of clothes for another
  • To exchange one kind of money for another
  • To replace something with another thing
  • To make or become something else
  • To go from one train, bus, etc. and go to another

thank

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US / θæŋk /

UK / θæŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To tell someone you are grateful to them

nonprofit

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US / ˌnɒn'prɒfɪt /

UK / nɑnˈprɑfɪt /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Not commercially motivated; charitable

look

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US / lʊk /

UK / lʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's beauty or physical attractiveness
  • Particular style of dress, clothes, or appearance
  • The way someone, something appears to be
  • Act of searching for or examining something
  • verb
  • To appear to be; seem

country

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US / ˈkʌntri /

UK / ˈkʌntri /

A1
  • noun
  • An area of land that is controlled by a government
  • Open land that is away from towns and cities

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

risk

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US / rɪsk /

UK / rɪsk /

A1
  • noun
  • Actions that cause potential problems
  • verb
  • To do something potentially dangerous or foolish

dollar

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US / ˈdɒlə(r) /

UK / ˈdɑ:lə(r) /

A1
  • noun
  • A basic unit of money equal to 100 cent

billion

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US / ˈbɪljən /

UK / ˈbɪljən /

A2
  • noun
  • Number 1,000,000,000

america

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US / ə'merɪkə /

UK / əˈmɛrɪkə /

A1
  • noun
  • The United States of America; North America and/or South America

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

work

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US / wɜ:k /

UK / wɚk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Activity completed in order to make money
  • noun
  • The product of some artistic or literary endeavor
  • Everything created by an author, artist, musician
  • Activity you do in order to make money
  • Place of employment
  • Final product or result of a some labor or effort
  • verb
  • To bring into a specific state of success
  • To be functioning properly, e.g. a car
  • To do your job in your company or workplace
  • To make an effort to do something
  • To operate a machine or device

utility

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US / ju:ˈtɪləti /

UK / juˈtɪləti /

B1
  • noun
  • Public services such as gas, water, or electricity
  • Regarding public service such as gas, water etc.
  • Fact of being useful; usefulness
  • The usefulness of something

hospital

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US / ˈhɒspɪtl /

UK / ˈhɑ:spɪtl /

A1
  • noun
  • Building for sick people, with doctors and nurses

building

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US / ˈbɪldɪŋ /

UK / ˈbɪldɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • A structure with a roof and walls, e.g. a house
  • verb
  • To establish e.g. a reputation, over time
  • To construct a house, office, factory

way

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US / weɪ /

UK / we /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to emphasize the amount of something
  • noun
  • Particular aspect of something being thought about
  • One of various choices that could be made
  • Particular existing condition or state
  • (Often long) distance or length of time
  • How something is done
  • Route to go to a place
  • Small street
  • Usual behavior, emotions or habits of someone

move

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US / mu:v /

UK / muv /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of moving a playing piece in chess, etc.
  • An action; doing something
  • Step taken to achieve a goal
  • verb
  • To cause someone to have certain emotions
  • To cause something to change to a different place
  • To change where people live or a business operates
  • To take action to do or achieve something

due

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US / dju: /

UK / du, dju /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • When something is required or expected
  • Owed to a person as a right
  • noun
  • Something you deserve; something you can expect

tell

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US / tel /

UK / tɛl /

A1
  • verb
  • To (strongly) advise a person to do something
  • To be able to guess
  • To say or communicate information to someone
  • To inform, but without speaking; indicate
  • To have a negative effect on someone
  • To order someone to do something; command
  • To recognize something based on certain signs
  • To report something to an authority
  • To explain something or teach someone something

lastly

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US / ˈlɑ:stli /

UK / ˈlæstli /

A2
  • adverb
  • In conclusion; at the final part of something

interesting

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US / ˈɪntrəstɪŋ /

UK / ˈɪntrɪstɪŋ, -tərɪstɪŋ, -təˌrɛstɪŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Taking your attention; making you want to know
  • verb
  • To make someone want to know about something
  • To persuade to do, become involved with something

each

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US / i:tʃ /

UK / itʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Every one of two or more things
  • pronoun
  • Per one person or thing

city

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US / 'sɪtɪ /

UK / ˈsɪti /

A1
  • noun
  • Area with many buildings, roads and people

right

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US / raɪt /

UK / raɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Correct or true
  • The south side of you looking at the rising sun
  • adverb
  • Exactly in a place or time
  • Being appropriate for a particular event
  • In a straight or direct manner
  • noun
  • Something you are legally or morally allowed to do
  • Ideal of what is just and good
  • Political view based on conservatism
  • verb
  • To fix something previously wrong or unjust
  • To make upright, as a boat that has turned over

type

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US / taɪp /

UK / taɪp /

A1
  • noun
  • Printed letters or blocks used for printing them
  • Group of things or people sharing common features
  • verb
  • To identify something belonging to a group
  • To write by touching keys on a keyboard

mean

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US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular meaning or value

flood

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US / flʌd /

UK / flʌd /

B1
  • noun
  • Large number of people or things arriving at once
  • Destruction when a river breaks its banks
  • verb
  • To quickly appear unexpectedly and in volume
  • (Of liquid) to fill or cover something completely

find

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US / faɪnd /

UK / faɪnd /

A1
  • noun
  • Object discovered by chance
  • Things that have been discovered from searching
  • verb
  • To become aware of something that is happening
  • To discover or meet by chance
  • To decide if someone is guilty of a crime, or not
  • To learn through study, research, or effort
  • To discover something by looking for it

wildfire

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US / ˈwaɪldfaɪə(r) /

UK / ˈwaɪldˌfaɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Raging and rapidly spreading large fire

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

storey

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US / 'stɔ:rɪ /

UK / ˈstɔri, ˈstori /

B1
  • noun
  • One of many floors or levels in a building

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

impact

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US / 'ɪmpækt /

UK / ˈɪmˌpækt /

A2
  • noun
  • A striking effect or result to hit with force
  • Very strong influence
  • Act or force of one thing hitting something else
  • verb
  • To hit or strike someone or something with force

different

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US / ˈdɪfrənt /

UK / ˈdɪfrənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not of the same kind; unlike other things

current

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US / 'kʌrənt /

UK / ˈkɚrənt, ˈkʌr- /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or being in the present time
  • noun
  • Electricity flowing through wires
  • Movement of water in a river, or air in the sky

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

scotland

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US / 'skɒtlənd /

UK / 'skɑ:tlənd /

A1
  • proper noun
  • A country in northern Great Britain and the United Kingdom; population 5,169,000 (est. 2008); capita

hard

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US / hɑ:d /

UK / hɑː(r)d /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Difficult to do; difficult to understand
  • (Of facts) not able to be misunderstood; clear
  • (Of alcohol) strong
  • Involving or requiring lots of work, effort, care
  • Being full of pain, trouble, and problems
  • Strong
  • (Of edge) clear; sharp
  • Difficult to bend, break or cut; solid
  • adverb
  • With lots of force, power, or impact

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

first

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US / fɜ:st /

UK / fɚst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 1st; Coming before all others in time or place
  • noun
  • Something that has not happened before
  • Position of the winner of a competition

sea

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US / /

UK / /

A1
  • noun
  • Very large group of people, similar-looking things
  • Large body of salty water with land around it

understanding

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US / ˌʌndəˈstændɪŋ /

UK / ˌʌndərˈstændɪŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being sympathetic
  • noun
  • When you get the meaning correctly; comprehension
  • Knowledge about something or someone
  • verb
  • To know the meaning of language, what someone says

place

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US / pleɪs /

UK / ples /

A1
  • noun
  • Particular location, area or region
  • verb
  • To put someone in a particular type of situation
  • To put something in a certain location or position

biden

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US / baɪd /

UK / baɪd /

A1

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

community

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US / kə'mju:nətɪ /

UK / kəˈmjunɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • Group of people who share a common idea or area

blank

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US / blæŋk /

UK / blæŋk /

A2
  • verb
  • To make empty
  • To cause a memory to be erased
  • adjecitve
  • Showing no emotion or understanding
  • Being empty; not filled out; with no writing on it
  • noun
  • Empty space on a form which you fill in

ida

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US / ˈaɪdə /

UK / ˈaɪdə /

A1
  • abbreviation
  • International Development Association.
  • proper noun
  • A mountain in central Crete, associated in classical times with the god Zeus. Rising to 8,058 ft. (2
  • An asteroid discovered in 1884. It is 32 miles (52 km) long and has a tiny moon (Dactyl), which is a

town

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US / taʊn /

UK / taʊn /

A1
  • noun
  • Small city
  • Part of city with shops and entertainments

station

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US / 'steɪʃn /

UK / ˈsteʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Building, area, place used for a specific reason
  • A person's place in society
  • Place where you can catch a train or a bus
  • Company that broadcasts radio or TV programs
  • verb
  • (Army) to be posted to a place to perform duties
  • To put a person in a certain place or position

know

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US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

could

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US / kəd /

UK / kʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Past form of 'can' to mean have ability
  • Used to ask for something politely, or to offer

ari

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US / /

UK / /

A1
  • noun
  • The constellation Aries. Chiefly as postpositive, designating a star of this constellation.

model

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US / ˈmɒdl /

UK / ˈmɑ:dl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being an excellent example of
  • noun
  • Person who wears fashion to show it to the public
  • A small scale copy of a full original
  • verb
  • To wear and display clothes at a fashion show
  • To make a small scale copy of a full original

group

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US / ɡru:p /

UK / ɡrup /

A1
  • noun
  • Two or more musicians who play music together
  • Number of people or things gathered together
  • verb
  • To combine or collect objects or people together

away

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US / ə'weɪ /

UK / əˈwe /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not present
  • adverb
  • Disappear completely
  • Doing something with a lot of energy
  • Not here; far from here; in a different direction
  • To a different area, location

scientist

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US / ˈsaɪəntɪst /

UK / ˈsaɪəntɪst /

A2
  • noun
  • Person who is trained in a science

problem

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US / ˈprɒbləm /

UK / ˈprɑbləm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Causing trouble
  • noun
  • Something difficult to deal with or causes trouble
  • Question to show understanding of a math concept

next

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US / nekst /

UK / nɛkst /

A1
  • adverb
  • The one that follows another in time or order
  • At a time or place directly after the present one
  • noun
  • The one that follows after
  • adjecitve
  • Immediately after the previous one
  • First occurrence after the present one

increase

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US / ɪn'kri:s /

UK / ɪnˈkris /

A1
  • noun
  • Fact of increasing; amount something grows by
  • verb
  • To make or become larger in size or amount

plan

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US / plæn /

UK / plæn /

A1
  • noun
  • Drawing of how something should be done or made

part

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US / pɑ:t /

UK / pɑ:rt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To some degree; half; not fully
  • noun
  • Division of a book
  • Ratio of something, e.g. 3 of gin, 1 of tonic
  • A line in a person's hair, made with a comb
  • Character an actor plays on stage, movie, or TV
  • Some, but not all of a specific thing
  • Role in causing something to happen
  • verb
  • To make a line in a person's hair, by using a comb
  • To move two things apart creating a space
  • To leave someone, or to break off a relationship

information

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US / ˌɪnfəˈmeɪʃn /

UK / ˌɪnfɚˈmeʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Collection of facts and details about something

last

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US / lɑ:st /

UK / læst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Most recent; the latest
  • The one before
  • adverb
  • Final; with nothing following; after all others
  • Most recent; the latest
  • determiner
  • The one at the end
  • verb
  • To remain or continue for a certain period of time

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

coast

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US / kəʊst /

UK / kost /

A2
  • noun
  • Land near the sea or ocean
  • verb
  • To progress in something without trying hard
  • (Of a vehicle) to move forward without power

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

social

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US / ˈsəuʃəl /

UK / ˈsoʃəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Involving activity with people, e.g. in free time
  • Liking being with other people; friendly
  • Living together and depending on each other

recently

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US / ˈri:sntli /

UK / 'risṇtlɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just a while ago; not long ago

spending

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US / ˈspendɪŋ /

UK / ˈspɛndɪŋ /

A2
  • verb
  • To use money to pay for something
  • To use time in order to do something
  • To use up something completely

mitigate

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US / 'mɪtɪɡeɪt /

UK / ˈmɪtˌɪɡet /

B2
  • verb
  • To make less severe or serious

datum

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US / ˈdeɪtəm /

UK / ˈdetəm, ˈdætəm, ˈdɑtəm /

B1
  • noun
  • Item of factual information

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

weather

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US / 'weðə(r) /

UK / ˈwɛðɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Whether it is raining, sunny, cold etc. outside
  • verb
  • To successfully deal with a difficult situation
  • To erode or become damaged due to the environment

texas

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US / ˈtɛksəs /

UK / ˈtɛksəs /

A1
  • other
  • The second largest state; located in southwestern United States on the Gulf of Mexico

warn

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US / wɔ:n /

UK / wɔrn /

A2
  • verb
  • To tell someone about possible danger

scenario

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US / sɪˈnɑː.ri.əʊ /

UK / səˈner.i.oʊ /

B1
  • noun
  • An imagined sequence of events in a plan/project

itself

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US / ɪtˈself /

UK / ɪtˈsɛlf /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Referring to it

director

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US / də'rektə(r) /

UK / dɪˈrɛktɚ, daɪ- /

A2
  • noun
  • Senior person who manages part of an organization
  • Person who controls the acting in a movie or play

dimension

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US / daɪˈmenʃn /

UK / dɪˈmɛnʃən, daɪ- /

B1
  • noun
  • Number of planes (X, Y, Z axes) an object has
  • Measurement in space, e.g. length or diameter
  • Scope, extent or size of something abstract

heat

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US / hi:t /

UK / hit /

A2
  • noun
  • State of anger, excitement, or arguing
  • Particular temperature at which to cook something
  • High temperature
  • One of series of races to find the finalists
  • Hot temperature, conditions, or weather
  • verb
  • To make hot or hotter

story

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US / 'stɔ:rɪ /

UK / ˈstɔri, ˈstori /

A1
  • noun
  • One of many floors or levels in a building
  • Account or description of how something happened

write

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US / raɪt /

UK / raɪt /

A1
  • verb
  • To compose letters and words on paper or a screen
  • To invent or create a computer program
  • To create a song or piece of music

speak

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US / spi:k /

UK / spik /

A1
  • verb
  • To be able to use a certain language
  • To use words to tell information, express thoughts

actually

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US / ˈæktʃuəli /

UK / ˈæktʃuəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to add new (often different) information

sort

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US / sɔ:t /

UK / sɔrt /

A1
  • noun
  • Group or class of similar things or people
  • verb
  • To organize things by putting them into groups
  • To deal with things in an organized way

staple

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US / ˈsteɪpl /

UK / ˈstepəl /

B2
  • noun
  • Main food of a particular community
  • A basic food that is eaten all the time
  • Primary product of a place or company
  • verb
  • To pin together using a machine and bent wire

plus

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US / plʌs /

UK / plʌs /

A2
  • noun
  • A benefit or advantage
  • preposition
  • In addition; add
  • In addition to; Indicates a number above
  • Having a value greater than zero

area

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US / 'eərɪə /

UK / ˈɛriə /

A1
  • noun
  • Amount of measured space
  • A specific section or space; part of a region
  • A subject or field of study

try

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US / traɪ /

UK / traɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of putting the ball over the rugby goal line
  • verb
  • To make an effort, to attempt to do something
  • To examine someone or something in a court of law
  • To test to see if it is good or you like it
  • To make a person go through hardship; test
  • To examine something to see if it works

new

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US / nju: /

UK / nu, nju /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not old, recently born, built or made
  • Being or doing something for the first time
  • Not felt, seen or known previously
  • Having been recently bought or obtained

extreme

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US / ɪk'stri:m /

UK / ɪkˈstrim /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Very great in degree
  • Farthest from a center
  • Very severe; very strong
  • noun
  • Effort that is thought more than is necessary

summit

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US / 'sʌmɪt /

UK / ˈsʌmɪt /

B1
  • noun
  • Official meeting(s) of the leaders of countries
  • Highest part or top point of a mountain

day

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US / deɪ /

UK / de /

A1
  • noun
  • A period of 24 hours beginning at midnight
  • The period of time when it is light outside
  • Person's name

level

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US / 'levl /

UK / ˈlɛvəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • (Sports) equal to another
  • Being steady and determined (e.g. a voice)
  • noun
  • Specific height of something
  • Amount of ability you have compared to others
  • Floor or deck within a building
  • Tool used to determine if something is lying flat
  • verb
  • To aim a gun at someone
  • To destroy a building; flatten an area completely
  • To make things flat or even
  • To make a score equal to another, in sports

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

base

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US / beɪs /

UK / bes /

A2
  • noun
  • Place military personnel live, train, and operate
  • Bottom part of an object that touches a surface
  • Unit of counting, e.g. 10 for counting
  • Most important idea or ingredient to add others
  • Origin or start from which something came
  • Main place where an organization or a person works
  • verb
  • To use as the starting point or origin for
  • To have as the main location for (company, etc.)

lot

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US / lɒt /

UK / lɑt /

A1
  • noun
  • What happens to a person in life from chance; fate
  • A group of people seen together
  • Item for sale at an auction
  • Small area of land used for a purpose e.g. parking

underway

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US / ˌʌndəˈweɪ /

UK / ˌʌndɚˈwe /

B2
  • adverb
  • Happening now

render

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US / ˈrendə(r) /

UK / ˈrɛndɚ /

B1
  • verb
  • To cause to be in a certain state or condition
  • To digitally make an image ready for use
  • To remove the fat from meat while it is cooking
  • To give or offer something to someone
  • To show or present something

come

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US / kʌm /

UK / kʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To arrive at a place
  • (Of mail) to be delivered
  • To move toward someone; go with someone
  • To reach a certain point or state

company

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US / 'kʌmpənɪ /

UK / ˈkʌmpəni /

A1
  • noun
  • Good feeling from being with someone else
  • A business that sells things or provides services
  • Guests, especially in your home
  • Being with another person rather than alone

floodwater

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US / ˈflʌdwɔ:tə(r) /

UK / ˈflʌdˌwɔtɚ, -ˌwɑtɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • The water of a flood.

think

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US / θɪŋk /

UK / θɪŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To have an idea about something without certainty
  • To have an idea, opinion or belief about something

flooding

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US / flʌdɪŋ /

UK / flʌdɪŋ /

B1
  • verb
  • To quickly appear unexpectedly and in volume
  • (Of liquid) to fill or cover something completely

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

inoperable

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US / ɪnˈɒpərəbl /

UK / ɪnˈɑpərəbəl, -ˈɑprə- /

C1
  • adjecitve
  • Not able to function properly
  • Not suitable for surgery

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

over

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US / 'əʊvə(r) /

UK / ˈovɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Finished; no longer happening
  • Towards the ground/away from a standing position
  • noun
  • A set of six consecutive balls bowled in cricket
  • other
  • Finished
  • preposition
  • Showing the relation when a thing is above another
  • On or covering something
  • Above or across something
  • More than you need
  • From one side to the other
  • In the direction of; toward

peril

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US / ˈperəl /

UK / ˈpɛrəl /

B2
  • noun
  • Extreme danger or risk

join

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US / dʒɔɪn /

UK / dʒɔɪn /

A1
  • verb
  • To bring something close to another, to become one
  • To become a member of
  • To participate in an activity with others

normally

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US / ˈnɔ:məli /

UK / ˈnɔːrməli /

B1
  • adverb
  • In the manner that is usual or ordinary

pluvial

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US / ˈpluːviəl /

UK / ˈpluːviəl /

A1
  • adjecitve

two

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • number
  • 2

knock

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US / nɒk /

UK / nɑk /

A2
  • noun
  • Bad experience that reduces a person's confidence
  • Action of something solid hitting something hard
  • verb
  • To criticize someone in an unreasonable way
  • To hit something to get people's attention
  • To strike something hard, causing damage

where

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US / hwɛə /

UK / hwɛr, wɛr /

A1
  • conjunction
  • At or in the place which
  • In whatever place
  • pronoun
  • Word you use to ask the location of something

operate

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US / ˈɒpəreɪt /

UK / ˈɑ:pəreɪt /

A1
  • verb
  • To control or handle something, such as a machine
  • To control or manage something such as a business
  • To be working or being used
  • To perform surgery on someone

now

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US / naʊ /

UK / naʊ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At the present time or moment
  • Right away or in the next possible moment
  • Used to refer to something that just happened
  • Time between the present and a moment in the past
  • conjunction
  • Resulting from or because of something

fix

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US / fɪks /

UK / fɪks /

A2
  • noun
  • Answer to a problem
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something
  • To attach something so it will not move or change
  • To dishonestly arrange the result of a game
  • To make an animal unable to produce young
  • To make something whole or able to work again

our

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to us

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

surprising

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US / səˈpraɪzɪŋ /

UK / sərˈpraɪzɪŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Making you feel a bit shocked because unexpected
  • verb
  • To do something that another person didn't expect

really

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US / ˈri:əli /

UK / ˈriəˌli, ˈrili /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to stress something that is said; definitely
  • In a true or accurate manner
  • Very

understand

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US / ˌʌndə'stænd /

UK / ˌʌndɚˈstænd /

A1
  • verb
  • To know the meaning of language, what someone says

would

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate something imagined
  • Used to ask or request something politely
  • Verb used to indicate possibility, request etc.
  • Used to indicate a preference
  • Used to indicate a reaction
  • Indicates something that occurred repeatedly
  • Used to indicate willingness or ability to do

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

segment

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US / ˈsegmənt /

UK / ˈsɛɡmənt /

B1
  • noun
  • Part divided from the other parts of something
  • verb
  • To separate something into different parts

recent

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US / 'ri:snt /

UK / ˈrisənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or beginning not long ago

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

river

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US / ˈrɪvə(r) /

UK / ˈrɪvɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Flowing water that runs from mountains to the sea

research

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US / rɪ'sɜ:tʃ /

UK / rɪˈsɚtʃ, ˈriˌsɚtʃ /

A2
  • noun
  • Study done to discover new ideas and facts
  • Work done to find or discover knowledge
  • verb
  • To study in order to discover new ideas and facts

significant

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US / sɪgˈnɪfɪkənt /

UK / sɪɡˈnɪfɪkənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Large enough to be noticed or have an effect
  • Having meaning; important; noticeable
  • (Statistics) being clearly different

usually

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US / ˈju:ʒuəli /

UK / ˈjuːʒuəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Normally; regularly

want

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US / wɔnt /

UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

evolve

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US / ɪ'vɒlv /

UK / ɪˈvɑlv /

B1
  • verb
  • To develop certain features
  • To develop or change slowly over time
  • To slowly change or develop into something better

emergency

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US / ɪ'mɜ:dʒənsɪ /

UK / ɪˈmɚdʒənsi /

A2
  • noun
  • Sudden event needing an immediate action

individual

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US / ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒuəl /

UK / ˌɪndəˈvɪdʒuəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Made for use by one single person
  • Having a distinct manner different from others
  • noun
  • Single person, looked at separately from others

much

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US / mʌtʃ /

UK / mʌtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very; to a high level or degree
  • adverb
  • A lot; large amount; a high degree of
  • Nearly; basically
  • On many occasions; often
  • noun
  • A large amount; a great quantity

start

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US / stɑ:t /

UK / stɑrt /

A1
  • noun
  • First time or place that a thing exists; beginning
  • First opportunity to achieve something, e.g. a job
  • Sudden action or movement because you are scared
  • other
  • Beginning of something in place or time
  • verb
  • To do, be or happen for the first time; begin
  • To turn something on

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

danger

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US / ˈdeɪndʒə(r) /

UK / ˈdendʒɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • The possibility of getting hurt, damaged, killed

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

individually

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US / ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒuəli /

UK / ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒuəli /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a way involving only that person

infrastructure

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US / 'ɪnfrəstrʌktʃə(r) /

UK / ˈɪnfrəˌstrʌktʃɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Basic necessary equipment for a country or region

necessarily

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US / ˌnesəˈserəli /

UK / ˌnɛsɪˈsɛrəli, -ˈsɛr- /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a way that is needed/required/is unavoidable

through

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US / θru: /

UK / θru /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • having finished using or doing something
  • adverb
  • From the beginning of something until the end
  • preposition
  • Over, in, across an entire thing or place
  • Allowing you to pass between, or to
  • By a particular way or process; by the use of

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

virginia

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US / və(:)ˈdʒinjə /

UK / vɚˈdʒɪnjə /

A1
  • other
  • A state in the eastern United States; one of the original colonies; one of the Confederate States in

amount

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US / ə'maʊnt /

UK / əˈmaʊnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Quantity of something
  • verb
  • To add up to a certain figure

crosshair

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US / 'krɔ:sheə /

UK / 'krɔ:sher /

A1
  • other
  • Either of two fine strands of wire crossed in the focus of the eyepiece of an optical instrument and

middle

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US / 'mɪdl /

UK / ˈmidl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Equal distance from extremes
  • noun
  • Place that is halfway between two things

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

matthew

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US / ˈmæθjuː /

UK / ˈmæθju /

A1

report

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US / rɪ'pɔ:t /

UK / rɪˈpɔrt, ˈport /

A1
  • noun
  • Account of the necessary facts and information
  • The telling of news in the media
  • Official statement about something
  • verb
  • To submit a report or bill to the government
  • To write in a newspaper or speak on a news program
  • To state something officially
  • To officially present yourself to an authority
  • To describe something by telling it to others

drought

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US / draʊt /

UK / draʊt /

B1
  • noun
  • Long period of dry weather

occur

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US / əˈkɜ:(r) /

UK / əˈkɚ /

A2
  • verb
  • To come to pass or to happen

those

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US / ðəʊz /

UK / ðoz /

A1
  • determiner
  • The people or things we are talking about
  • pronoun
  • The objects far from the speaker

check

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US / tʃek /

UK / tʃɛk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Decorated with squares made up of lines
  • noun
  • Paper showing how much you owe at a restaurant
  • Printed piece of paper you sign to pay for things
  • A mark on a form, equivalent to 'yes'; tick
  • Mark used to show that something is correct
  • Procedure to prevent errors or control something
  • verb
  • To confirm the details of something are correct
  • To leave your things with staff who look after it
  • To examine something to see if something is wrong
  • To examine in order to prevent errors/a problem

foundation

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US / faunˈdeiʃən /

UK / faʊnˈdeʃən /

C1
  • noun
  • Base or important starting point
  • Underground base on which building is constructed
  • Institution supported by a private fund
  • First cosmetic used when putting on makeup
  • Action of establishing an organization

intergovernmental

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US / ˌɪntəˌgʌvənˈmentl /

UK / ˌɪntərˌgʌvərnˈmentl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being between governments; between countries

news

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US / nju:z /

UK / nu:z /

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  • noun
  • Broadcast on radio or TV about recent events
  • Information about recent events

street

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US / stri:t /

UK / strit /

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  • noun
  • Road in a city with buildings and places to walk
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • As the climate summit begins in Scotland, the Biden administration's infrastructure spending plans are still pending. A recent report highlights the increasing risk to U.S. infrastructure from flooding caused by extreme weather events due to climate change. To assess the flood danger over the next 30 years, a nonprofit research group utilized data-driven mapping and took into account rising sea levels and heavy precipitation. Surprisingly, the study reveals that not just coastal cities, but also areas in the middle of America are at risk. States like Florida, Louisiana, and Texas, which are commonly associated with flooding, do indeed face significant risks to critical infrastructure. However, the research also uncovered areas like West Virginia, which are not typically considered flood-prone, but have substantial amounts of critical infrastructure at inoperable risk. This includes important community facilities such as police stations and hospitals. The findings highlight the vulnerability of various regions and infrastructure assets to climate change's impact on flooding.
  • Subtitles section
  • HARI SREENIVASAN As the climate summit gets underway in Scotland tomorrow, the Biden administration's infrastructure spending plans are still on hold.
  • Now, a recent report has new warnings about the risk to U.S. infrastructure from flooding as extreme weather events due to climate change increase.
  • Taking into account rising sea levels and severe precipitation events, a nonprofit research group created a data-driven mapping project to assess the flood danger in the U.S. over the next 30 years.
  • And some of the places in the crosshairs are surprising.
  • I recently spoke with Matthew Eby, executive director of the First Street Foundation.
  • Matthew, when we think about flooding, we usually think about towns and cities that are right next to big rivers or right on the coast.
  • When you looked across all the infrastructure that's at risk, what did you find?
  • MATTHEW EBY Well, it's a really interesting results that we found is that the places that you would normally think that have a lot of risk, as you're mentioning, you know, the Floridas, the Louisianas,
  • The Texas, those places actually still have a lot of risk.
  • There's a lot of critical infrastructure at risk.
  • But the surprising part that we found is there's a lot of pluvial flooding or precipitation flooding that sees the middle of America have a lot of risk.
  • So places like West Virginia, which you wouldn't think about as being a big flood area, has a significant amount of critical infrastructure that has inoperable risk, meaning that if the floodwaters make it to the building,
  • It would render things inoperable.
  • Police stations, hospitals, those things that are critical to the community, but also things that you wouldn't necessarily think about right away.
  • But you can see from news stories that they actually are impacted in a big way, like utilities.
  • So Ida went through and knocked out, didn't really flood a lot of areas in Louisiana.
  • There were impact areas, but the big story was that the utility was knocked off and that it wasn't able to operate for the area.
  • You are coming out with this report in a year where I want to say we've had, I think, 18 billion plus dollar sort of weather events.
  • What is the cost if we were able to write a blank check and mitigate this, fix this, move some of these places?
  • How much would that cost?
  • Ari, I think that's the problem is that we don't have the data to actually know.
  • This is the first time that a report like this has come out where it doesn't just look at what is the current risk, but how this risk will evolve over the next 30 years.
  • This is the first time we're actually getting a look of just one peril, flooding, let alone wildfire or heat and drought and the other things that impact communities as well.
  • One of the things that occurred to me was that I hadn't seen all of it pulled together in one place.
  • Where did you find all of this information and how hard was it to staple together into one map?
  • Our company is a non-profit that's been working at this for about five years now.
  • We started by building the flood model itself and understanding where is risk across the country.
  • We did that in a peer-reviewed, open-source manner so that all the scientists could contribute with us to actually get to that level of understanding.
  • We adjusted it into the future based on the climate change scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
  • Lastly, what we've been able to do now is take all of the different types of buildings across the country and look at them individually.
  • Those are residential properties, commercial properties, segments of roads.
  • When you think of flood risk, you don't necessarily think of roads, but when you think of trying to get out of an area when there's an emergency or where you're actually driving in and out of a community each year,
  • Each day, those are places that have a lot of risk as well.
  • The last two dimensions we looked at were social infrastructure and critical infrastructure.
  • Across those five dimensions, now we're able to pull all of this data together and tell a story for each individual community to understand what risk looks like today and how it will change across those dimensions.
  • Matthew Eby, Executive Director of the First Street Foundation, thanks so much for joining us.
  • Thanks so much for having me.