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Why Teeth Make The Best Fossils

Video vocabulary

inspire

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US / ɪn'spaɪə(r) /

UK / ɪnˈspaɪr /

B1
  • verb
  • To give someone an idea to do or make something
  • To make someone feel a certain emotion

informative

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US / ɪnˈfɔ:mətɪv /

UK / ɪnˈfɔ:rmətɪv /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Giving a lot of information

growth

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US / grəʊθ /

UK / groʊθ /

A2
  • noun
  • Improvement, development in a skill over time
  • A mass on the skin or body part related to illness
  • Act of growing

least

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US / li:st /

UK / list /

A1
  • adverb
  • In the smallest or lowest way
  • noun
  • Something that is of the lowest or smallest degree

preservation

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US / ˌprezəˈveɪʃn /

UK / ˈprɛzɚ'veʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Keeping something in a good, undamaged state

sink

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US / sɪŋk /

UK / sɪŋk /

A2
  • noun
  • Large bowl in a kitchen or washroom for washing
  • verb
  • To push something down into the ground
  • To dig (a well)
  • To move down toward a lower point
  • To decrease in value or amount

value

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US / 'vælju: /

UK / ˈvælju /

A1
  • noun
  • Importance you attach to something
  • Some information expressed as a number
  • Stated price of something; worth
  • verb
  • To place a high importance on something
  • To say how much money something is worth

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

different

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US / ˈdɪfrənt /

UK / ˈdɪfrənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not of the same kind; unlike other things

health

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US / helθ /

UK / hɛlθ /

A1
  • noun
  • (Person, company) being in a good condition; well

even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

eventually

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US / ɪˈventʃuəli /

UK / ɪˈvɛntʃuəli /

A2
  • adverb
  • After a long time; after many attempts; in the end

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

week

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US / wi:k /

UK / wik /

A1
  • noun
  • Period of seven days from Sunday to Saturday

amazing

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US / ə'meɪzɪŋ /

UK / ə'meɪzɪŋ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Surprising in a pleasing way
  • verb
  • To cause wonder; to surprise completely

consequence

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US / ˈkɔnsikwəns /

UK / ˈkɑnsɪˌkwɛns,-kwəns /

A2
  • noun
  • Importance of a person or thing
  • Outcome of an event; result

broadly

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US / ˈbrɔ:dli /

UK / ˈbrɔdlɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • In a general (not detailed) manner

fact

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US / fækt /

UK / fækt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that is known or proved to be true

evolve

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US / ɪ'vɒlv /

UK / ɪˈvɑlv /

B1
  • verb
  • To develop certain features
  • To develop or change slowly over time
  • To slowly change or develop into something better

much

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US / mʌtʃ /

UK / mʌtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very; to a high level or degree
  • adverb
  • A lot; large amount; a high degree of
  • Nearly; basically
  • On many occasions; often
  • noun
  • A large amount; a great quantity

ask

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US / ɑ:sk /

UK / æsk /

A1
  • verb
  • To say to someone that you want something

die

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US / daɪ /

UK / daɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Cube with dots numbering 1-6 on it used in games
  • verb
  • To cease to function or work
  • (Of a thing) to stop being used or done
  • (Of a person) to stop living

grow

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US / ɡrəʊ /

UK / ɡro /

A1
  • verb
  • To get bigger and more mature; make plants do this
  • To improve; to develop better skills over time
  • To develop and become bigger or taller over time

start

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US / stɑ:t /

UK / stɑrt /

A1
  • noun
  • First time or place that a thing exists; beginning
  • First opportunity to achieve something, e.g. a job
  • Sudden action or movement because you are scared
  • other
  • Beginning of something in place or time
  • verb
  • To do, be or happen for the first time; begin
  • To turn something on

source

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US / sɔ:s /

UK / sɔrs, sors /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Produces or provides what is wanted or needed
  • noun
  • Piece of information; a person giving information
  • Place from which something necessary comes
  • verb
  • To get, e.g. a raw material, from somewhere

since

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US / sɪns /

UK / sɪns /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a point before the present time
  • conjunction
  • For this reason; because
  • preposition
  • From the time in the past that

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

compact

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US / 'kɒmpækt /

UK / kəmˈpækt /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Packed closely together
  • noun
  • Small case with face powder and a mirror
  • verb
  • To pack something closely or tightly

difference

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US / 'dɪfrəns /

UK / ˈdɪfərəns, ˈdɪfrəns /

A1
  • noun
  • A thing or issue that people do not agree about
  • Not of the same kind; unlike other things

pregnancy

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US / ˈpregnənsi /

UK / ˈprɛɡnənsi /

B1
  • noun
  • When a woman carries her unborn baby inside her

hour

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • noun
  • 60 minutes
  • Particular time of the day
  • Fixed, regularly occurring time

example

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US / ɪgˈzɑ:mpl /

UK / ɪɡˈzæmpəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Thing, person which represents a category

happen

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US / 'hæpən /

UK / ˈhæpən /

A1
  • verb
  • To take place or occur

each

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US / i:tʃ /

UK / itʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Every one of two or more things
  • pronoun
  • Per one person or thing

drag

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US / dræɡ /

UK / dræɡ /

A2
  • noun
  • Force of air pushing back against a plane car etc.
  • Boring or annoying thing/activity
  • verb
  • To reluctantly move or go somewhere
  • To feel that progress or time is moving slowly
  • To pull something heavy or difficult along the ground

closely

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US / 'kləʊslɪ /

UK / ˈkloslɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a careful manner
  • Nearby; just next to

cell

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US / sel /

UK / sɛl /

A2
  • noun
  • Smallest unit of living things in biology
  • Group of people - often from a secret organization
  • Prisoner's room in a jail
  • Shortened form of 'cellphone'

bias

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US / 'baɪəs /

UK / ˈbaɪəs /

B1
  • noun
  • Preference to believe things even if incorrect
  • verb
  • To unfairly favor one view over another

lesson

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US / 'lesn /

UK / ˈlɛsən /

A1
  • noun
  • Something done to learn or teach something; class
  • Wisdom or knowledge received from an experience

find

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US / faɪnd /

UK / faɪnd /

A1
  • noun
  • Object discovered by chance
  • Things that have been discovered from searching
  • verb
  • To become aware of something that is happening
  • To discover or meet by chance
  • To decide if someone is guilty of a crime, or not
  • To learn through study, research, or effort
  • To discover something by looking for it

great

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US / ɡreɪt /

UK / ɡret /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very large in size
  • Very important
  • Very good; fantastic; wonderful
  • adverb
  • Very good; better than before
  • noun
  • Successful and well-admired person

conclusion

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US / kənˈklu:ʒn /

UK / kənˈkluʒən /

A2
  • noun
  • End of something; finish
  • Judgment or opinion after thinking for a while
  • Opinion or final judgment at end of book, essay

case

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US / keɪs /

UK / kes /

A1
  • noun
  • Container used to carry things, e.g. clothes
  • Set of facts about a crime
  • Set of facts about an event
  • Example or instance of something
  • verb
  • To find out about a place, as in planning to steal

annual

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US / ˈænjuəl /

UK / ˈænjuəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Happening once a year, or every year
  • noun
  • Book (in a series) released each year

tooth

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US / tu:θ /

UK / tuθ /

A1
  • noun
  • A sharp points on the edge of a machine or tool
  • Hard white things in the mouth, used to bite

tissue

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US / ˈtɪʃu: /

UK / ˈtɪʃu /

A2
  • noun
  • Substance formed by cells of living thing; flesh
  • Kind of thin, light paper used to pack objects
  • Thin soft paper for blowing the nose, etc.

specie

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US / 'spi:ʃi: /

UK / 'spi:ʃɪ /

B1
  • noun
  • Singular of species

tell

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US / tel /

UK / tɛl /

A1
  • verb
  • To (strongly) advise a person to do something
  • To be able to guess
  • To say or communicate information to someone
  • To inform, but without speaking; indicate
  • To have a negative effect on someone
  • To order someone to do something; command
  • To recognize something based on certain signs
  • To report something to an authority
  • To explain something or teach someone something

square

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US / skweə(r) /

UK / skwɛr /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being fair or honest
  • Multiply a number by itself e.g. 2x2 or 6x6
  • noun
  • Shape with 4 equal length sides and 4 equal angles
  • The result of multiplying Length by the width
  • Open public area in the middle of the town
  • verb
  • To make something balance or be equal
  • To multiply a number by itself, e.g. 2x2 or 6x8
  • To straighten the edge to form a four-sided shape

onwards

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US / ˈɒnwədz /

UK / ˈɑ:nwərdz /

B1
  • adverb
  • Moving toward a future (often better) time/place

gnaw

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US / nɔ: /

UK / nɔ /

C1
  • verb
  • To keep biting on something, like a bone

homo

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US / 'hɒməʊ /

UK / 'hoʊmoʊ /

A1
  • noun
  • Slightly offensive term for a homosexual

cranny

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US / ˈkræni /

UK / ˈkræni /

C1
  • noun
  • Small opening or crevice (e.g. in a rock face)

silica

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US / ˈsɪlɪkə /

UK / ˈsɪlɪkə /

A1
  • noun
  • Chemical containing silicon used to make glass

sick

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US / sɪk /

UK / sɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having a physical or mental illness
  • Morally wrong; perverted

preserve

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US / prɪˈzɜ:v /

UK / prɪˈzɜ:rv /

B1
  • noun
  • Protected area of land with plants and animals
  • verb
  • To cook food so it can be kept for long periods
  • To protect something from harm, loss or damage
  • To keep or maintain unchanged or perfect

fire

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US / 'faɪə(r) /

UK / faɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Heat and the flame produced when burning
  • Intense energy for or about something
  • verb
  • To apply heat to something to make it hard
  • To make a person leave their job; dismiss
  • To shoot a gun or weapon
  • To launch something into the sky, e.g. a rocket
  • To start working on something e.g. a project

family

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US / 'fæməlɪ /

UK / ˈfæmli /

A1
  • noun
  • Close group of people or organizations
  • A group of people who are related through blood
  • Group of related plants or animals

during

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US / ˈdjʊərɪŋ /

UK / ˈdʊrɪŋ, ˈdjʊr- /

A1
  • preposition
  • At some point in the course of an event or thing

down

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US / daʊn /

UK / daʊn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being sad, sick, or unhappy
  • Not operating, working, or functioning as expected
  • adverb
  • In a sitting or lying position
  • Towards or on the ground, floor, or bottom
  • Written or copied onto a piece of paper or book
  • noun
  • A period of play in American Football
  • The soft, smooth hairs that cover a bird's body
  • preposition
  • Along something's path, course, or direction
  • Going from a higher position to a lower position
  • verb
  • To eat or drink very quickly and without stopping

anatomical

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US / ˌænə'tɒmɪkl /

UK / ˌænəˈtɑmɪkəl /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the structure of human body, etc.

place

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US / pleɪs /

UK / ples /

A1
  • noun
  • Particular location, area or region
  • verb
  • To put someone in a particular type of situation
  • To put something in a certain location or position

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

hard

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US / hɑ:d /

UK / hɑː(r)d /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Difficult to do; difficult to understand
  • (Of facts) not able to be misunderstood; clear
  • (Of alcohol) strong
  • Involving or requiring lots of work, effort, care
  • Being full of pain, trouble, and problems
  • Strong
  • (Of edge) clear; sharp
  • Difficult to bend, break or cut; solid
  • adverb
  • With lots of force, power, or impact

directly

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US / dəˈrektli /

UK / dɪˈrɛktli, daɪ- /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a frank and honest way
  • Right away; immediately

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

error

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US / ˈerə(r) /

UK / ˈɛrɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Something that is not correct; a mistake

between

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US / bɪˈtwi:n /

UK / bɪˈtwin /

A1
  • preposition
  • From one person, thing, or place, to another
  • In the space that separates two objects
  • Among two or more people who share something

whereas

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US / ˌweərˈæz /

UK / hwɛrˈæz, wɛr- /

A2
  • conjunction
  • Taking into consideration the fact that

show

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US / ʃəʊ /

UK / ʃo /

A1
  • noun
  • False display of love, emotion or action
  • An event for displaying or promoting goods
  • Play, opera or theater production
  • Presentation that is broadcast on TV or radio
  • verb
  • To be easily seen or displayed
  • To display your emotions or feelings
  • To let someone see something; display
  • To explain or teach how something is done
  • To lead someone somewhere; point them to something
  • To prove something to be true, correct
  • To reveal or allow something to be seen

change

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US / tʃeɪndʒ /

UK / tʃendʒ /

A1
  • noun
  • Exchange of one set of clothes for another
  • Money in the form of coins instead of paper
  • Money returned after giving too much
  • Act of making or becoming something else
  • verb
  • To exchange one set of clothes for another
  • To exchange one kind of money for another
  • To replace something with another thing
  • To make or become something else
  • To go from one train, bus, etc. and go to another

both

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US / bəuθ /

UK / boθ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time
  • pronoun
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time

take

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US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
  • verb
  • To accept something that is offered
  • To use a method of traveling, e.g. a bus or train
  • To use a camera to make (a photo)
  • To pick up something and go away with it
  • To study a subject in school
  • To attempt to pass (an exam)
  • To require a certain amount of time, money, space

nook

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US / nʊk /

UK / nʊk /

C1
  • noun
  • Small corner or sheltered space

link

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US / lɪŋk /

UK / lɪŋk /

A2
  • noun
  • Any one of the rings that are part of a chain
  • Connection between two or more things or people
  • Webpage item you click to go to another webpage
  • verb
  • To join or connect together

bring

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US / brɪŋ /

UK / brɪŋ /

A1
  • verb
  • To take or go with someone to a place

viewer

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US / ˈvju:ə(r) /

UK / ˈvjuɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Special machine to look at pictures
  • Someone who watches, e.g. television

thank

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US / θæŋk /

UK / θæŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To tell someone you are grateful to them

scishow

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US / /

UK / /

A1

rings

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US / rɪŋz /

UK / rɪŋz /

A1
  • other
  • Roped areas in which people fight or box
  • Circular objects with a hole in it
  • Circular shapes or marks around some things
  • People doing illegal businesses or criminal activities
  • Round pieces of metal that goes on your finger
  • Acts of calling someone using a phone
  • verb
  • To draw a circular shape or mark around something
  • To make a loud, noisy constant sound
  • To produce a sound from a bell, alarm or telephone
  • To call someone using a phone

prey

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US / preɪ /

UK / pre /

B1
  • noun
  • The victim of another person's aggression
  • other
  • The victim of another person's aggression
  • verb
  • To hunt (other animals) in order to eat them
  • To cause another to be a victim

look

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US / lʊk /

UK / lʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's beauty or physical attractiveness
  • Particular style of dress, clothes, or appearance
  • The way someone, something appears to be
  • Act of searching for or examining something
  • verb
  • To appear to be; seem

human

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US / 'hju:mən /

UK / ˈhjumən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning or characteristic of people
  • noun
  • A person; a man, woman or child

bit

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US / bɪt /

UK / bɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • Device put in a horse's mouth to control it
  • Small piece of something
  • verb
  • (E.g. of fish) to take bait and be caught

speed

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US / spi:d /

UK / spid /

A2
  • noun
  • How fast or slow something is or is done
  • verb
  • To move quickly when completing an action
  • To drive a vehicle faster than laws allow

pretty

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US / 'prɪtɪ /

UK / ˈprɪti /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being attractive to the eye in a simple way
  • adverb
  • Very; to a great degree

work

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US / wɜ:k /

UK / wɚk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Activity completed in order to make money
  • noun
  • The product of some artistic or literary endeavor
  • Everything created by an author, artist, musician
  • Activity you do in order to make money
  • Place of employment
  • Final product or result of a some labor or effort
  • verb
  • To bring into a specific state of success
  • To be functioning properly, e.g. a car
  • To do your job in your company or workplace
  • To make an effort to do something
  • To operate a machine or device

womb

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US / wu:m /

UK / wum /

B2
  • noun
  • Place in a woman's body where a baby grows
  • Place where something begins and develops

old

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US / əʊld /

UK / old /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having existed for a long time, not young or new
  • Age of a person since birth

feature

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US / 'fi:tʃə(r) /

UK / ˈfitʃɚ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Main; important
  • noun
  • Special report in a magazine or paper
  • Distinctive or important point of something
  • verb
  • To highlight or give special importance to

building

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US / ˈbɪldɪŋ /

UK / ˈbɪldɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • A structure with a roof and walls, e.g. a house
  • verb
  • To establish e.g. a reputation, over time
  • To construct a house, office, factory

way

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US / weɪ /

UK / we /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to emphasize the amount of something
  • noun
  • Particular aspect of something being thought about
  • One of various choices that could be made
  • Particular existing condition or state
  • (Often long) distance or length of time
  • How something is done
  • Route to go to a place
  • Small street
  • Usual behavior, emotions or habits of someone

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

reflect

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US / rɪ'flekt /

UK / rɪˈflɛkt /

A2
  • verb
  • To indicate or be a sign of something
  • To bounce back light, heat, sound from a surface
  • To show an image in glass, water, a mirror etc.
  • To think of something seriously and carefully

rex

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US / reks /

UK / reks /

A1
  • noun

leaf

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US / li:f /

UK / lif /

A2
  • noun
  • Page in a book
  • Green part of a tree or plant
  • verb
  • To look through pages in a book

lived

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US / 'lɪvd /

UK / 'lɪvd /

A1
  • verb
  • To be alive
  • To experience a particular type of life
  • To make your home in a house or town

figure

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US / ˈfiɡə /

UK / ˈfɪɡjɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Your body shape
  • Numbers in a calculation
  • Doll-like thing meant to represent a person
  • Picture or diagram giving information in a text
  • Person who is very important or famous
  • Shape of a person seen indistinctly or in outline
  • Amount that is expressed in numbers
  • verb
  • To appear in a game, play or event
  • To calculate how much something will cost
  • To understand after thinking; work out

dietary

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US / 'daɪətərɪ /

UK / ˈdaɪɪˌtɛri /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the food one consumes

death

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US / deθ /

UK / dɛθ /

A2
  • noun
  • When someone dies; the end of life

suspicion

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US / sə'spɪʃn /

UK / səˈspɪʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Feeling that something or something is doubtful
  • Feeling that someone could be guilty of something
  • A tiny amount of something

who

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US / hu: /

UK / hu /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Which person
  • Used to introduce information about people

its

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US / ɪts /

UK / ɪts /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to or belonging to ‘it’
  • determiner
  • Of something; belonging or related to something
  • other
  • Possessive form of “it”

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

tiny

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US / 'taɪnɪ /

UK / ˈtaɪni /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very, very small

smooth

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US / smu:ð /

UK / smuð /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Moving without stops and starts
  • Pleasant and flat to touch, not rough
  • Being free from problems or difficulties
  • verb
  • To make something rough feel flat, e.g. by ironing
  • To spread a substance over a surface

feeling

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US / ˈfi:lɪŋ /

UK / ˈfilɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • Sensation or emotion you experience
  • verb
  • To be aware of or experience an emotion, sensation
  • To sense through direct contact; touch

creature

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US / ˈkri:tʃə(r) /

UK / ˈkritʃɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Animal of any type

fossil

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US / 'fɒsl /

UK / ˈfɑsəl /

B1
  • noun
  • Plant or animal that became rock after many years

become

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US / bɪ'kʌm /

UK / bɪˈkʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To begin to be; grow to be; develop into
  • To be suitable for a particular job or role

skeleton

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US / ˈskelɪtn /

UK / ˈskɛlɪtn /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Outline of the basic of main part of something
  • noun
  • Structure of bones that supports the body
  • Frame that provides support for e.g. a building
  • Extremely bony or thin person or animal

record

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US / 'rekɔ:d /

UK / ˈrekərd /

A1
  • noun
  • Highest or most extreme level achieved
  • Round plastic disc on which music has been stored
  • History of a person's past actions or achievements
  • verb
  • To indicate a temperature, speed, etc.; register
  • To write down or say what happened
  • To put music, sounds onto a device to store it

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

life

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US / laɪf /

UK / laɪf /

A1
  • noun
  • All the living things e.g. animals, plants, humans
  • Period of time things live, from birth to death

good

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US / ɡʊd /

UK / ɡʊd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper, appropriate or right
  • (Of an amount) enough; plenty
  • Excellent; high quality
  • Acting well or properly; of moral character
  • In a positive or happy emotional state
  • noun
  • Advantage or benefit

give

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US / ɡɪv /

UK / ɡɪv /

A1
  • noun
  • Degree of flexibility in something, a material
  • verb
  • To hand over or present something to someone
  • To cause someone to have or experience something

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

cut

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US / kʌt /

UK / kʌt /

A1
  • noun
  • Act/instance of reducing the size or amount of
  • Small opening made using a sharp object, knife
  • A wound on someone's skin caused by a sharp object
  • verb
  • To reduce the size or amount of something
  • To use knife or scissors to divide, open surfaces

would

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate something imagined
  • Used to ask or request something politely
  • Verb used to indicate possibility, request etc.
  • Used to indicate a preference
  • Used to indicate a reaction
  • Indicates something that occurred repeatedly
  • Used to indicate willingness or ability to do

study

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US / 'stʌdɪ /

UK / ˈstʌdi /

A1
  • noun
  • Room that a person studies or reads in
  • Piece of research
  • Topic or subject you research or learn about
  • verb
  • To focus on learning something usually at school

juvenile

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US / ˈdʒu:vənaɪl /

UK / ˈdʒuvəˌnaɪl, -nəl /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning young people or children
  • Childish; immature; not behaving like an adult
  • noun
  • Someone who is young; a child

brilliant

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US / 'brɪlɪənt /

UK / ˈbrɪljənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Having a great amount of intelligence or talent
  • Being very bright, like a diamond; shining

video

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US / 'vɪdɪəʊ /

UK / ˈvɪdiˌo /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of a moving film, with sound
  • noun
  • Recording capturing action with sound
  • verb
  • To make a moving film of, with sound

outro

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US / 'u:trəʊ /

UK / 'u:troʊ /

A1
  • noun
  • The concluding section of a piece of music or a radio or television program.

internet

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US / ˈɪn.tə.net /

UK / ˋɪntɚ͵nɛt /

A1
  • noun
  • Worldwide computer network system

grass

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US / grɑ:s /

UK / græs /

A2
  • noun
  • Slang name for marijuana
  • Plants with narrow green leaves, grown on lawns
  • verb
  • To betray someone
  • To cover an area of ground to make a lawn or field

size

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US / saɪz /

UK / saɪz /

A1
  • noun
  • How big or small a thing is
  • Standard measurements for clothing, shoes
  • verb
  • To make something to fit a particular measurement
  • To organize or group from small to large

scrape

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US / skreɪp /

UK / skrep /

B1
  • noun
  • Bad or unpleasant incident
  • other
  • To move roughly across the surface of something
  • verb
  • To take something off a surface with a sharp tool
  • To damage the surface by moving something roughly
  • To remove something by roughly brushing it off

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

our

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to us

incredibly

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US / ɪnˈkredəbli /

UK / ɪnˈkrɛdəblɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • To a great degree; very; amazingly

food

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US / fu:d /

UK / fud /

A1
  • noun
  • What people and animals eat to live
  • Things taken in by plants to maintain life
  • A particular style or type of cooking, e.g. Asian

trial

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US / ˈtraɪəl /

UK / ˈtraɪəl, traɪl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being made or done as a test or experiment
  • noun
  • Hearing and judgment of a case in court
  • Act or process of testing or experimenting
  • verb
  • To be made or done as a test or experiment

now

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US / naʊ /

UK / naʊ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At the present time or moment
  • Right away or in the next possible moment
  • Used to refer to something that just happened
  • Time between the present and a moment in the past
  • conjunction
  • Resulting from or because of something

museum

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US / mjuˈzi:əm /

UK / mjuˈziəm /

A2
  • noun
  • Building to display art/science/history objects

friend

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US / frend /

UK / frɛnd /

A1
  • noun
  • Person who you like and enjoy being with

support

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US / səˈpɔ:t /

UK / səˈpɔrt, -ˈport /

A1
  • noun
  • Assistance or advice given to someone
  • Evidence that helps prove something is true
  • A thing to hold up or prevent from falling down
  • verb
  • To give assistance or advice to someone
  • To help prove or show that something is true
  • To hold up or prevent from falling down

sense

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US / sens /

UK / sɛns /

A1
  • noun
  • Certain mental feeling or emotion
  • Normal or clear state of mind
  • Meaning of a particular word, phrase or text
  • verb
  • To perceive using sight, sound, taste touch etc.
  • To recognize the presence of something

shrunk

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US / ʃrʌŋk /

UK / ʃrʌŋk /

B1
  • verb
  • To become smaller
  • To make or become smaller than it was before

pattern

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US / 'pætn /

UK / ˈpætən /

A2
  • noun
  • Model to follow in making or doing something
  • Colors or shapes which are repeated on objects
  • Regular repeated behavior
  • verb
  • To copy the way something else is made

neanderthal

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US / niˈændətɑːl /

UK / niˈændərtɑːl /

C1
  • noun
  • An early form of humans long since extinct

description

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US / dɪˈskrɪpʃn /

UK / dɪˈskrɪpʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Explanation of what something is like, looks like

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

large

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US / lɑ:dʒ /

UK / lɑ:rdʒ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Big; of great size; broad, tall, wide, or fat

early

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US / ˈɜ:li /

UK / ˈɜ:rli /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or appearing before
  • adverb
  • Coming/happening before others in a time sequence
  • Happening sooner than expected

accurate

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US / ˈækjərət /

UK / ˈækjərɪt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • With no mistake or error; Correct

only

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US / ˈəunli /

UK / ˈonli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just one; just that amount or thing; not more than
  • Not very important or serious
  • Just that type of thing, person
  • Short time ago; not before a certain time
  • conjunction
  • Except; but

amelogenesis

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US / əˌmiːləʊˈdʒenɪsɪs /

UK / /

A1
  • other
  • Developmental process of forming tooth enamel

affect

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US / ə'fekt /

UK / əˈfɛkt /

A2
  • verb
  • To cause a change in something else

mineralize

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US / ˈmɪnərəˌlaɪz /

UK / ˈmɪnərəlˌaɪz /

A1
  • other
  • Convert into a mineral substance
  • Transform (a metal) into an ore

lie

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US / laɪ /

UK / lai /

A2
  • noun
  • An untrue statement, when you know it is not true
  • verb
  • To be in a horizontal or flat position
  • To say something that you know is not true

keep

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US / ki:p /

UK / kip /

A1
  • noun
  • Large, strong tower in the middle of a castle
  • Money spent on you so you can live in a place
  • verb
  • To continue doing something; not to stop
  • To stop balls going in a goal in sports
  • To not give back or return something
  • (Of food) to not spoil or not rot
  • To take possession of something to own, e.g. a pet
  • To have and continue to hold something
  • To do something that you have promised or agreed
  • To stay in a certain place or condition
  • To maintain the rules

decipher

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US / dɪˈsaɪfə(r) /

UK / dɪˈsaɪfɚ /

B2
  • verb
  • To uncover the meaning of something hard to read

tree

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US / tri: /

UK / tri /

A1
  • noun
  • Tall green plants in a forest

reduce

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US / rɪ'dju:s /

UK / rɪˈdus, -ˈdjus /

A2
  • verb
  • To try to decrease, e.g. your weight if overweight
  • To boil a liquid until it has decreased in amount
  • To make something smaller in size, amount, level

leave

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US / li:v /

UK / liv /

A1
  • noun
  • Permission to do something
  • Vacation time; time off work
  • verb
  • To go away from; depart
  • To gift property to someone after you die
  • To allow something to continue happening
  • To let something remain unused or available
  • To let something or someone remain somewhere

estimation

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US / ˌestɪˈmeɪʃn /

UK / ˌɛstəˈmeʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Judgment; opinion; guess at the value of

hide

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US / haɪd /

UK / haɪd /

A1
  • noun
  • The skin of an animal used for making leather
  • verb
  • To go to, or put a thing where it can't be found

call

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US / kɔ:l /

UK / kɔl /

A1
  • noun
  • A order or request for action
  • The sound an animal makes, often when in danger
  • A correct prediction, e.g. a decision in a game
  • A short visit to a place or person
  • A decision by a referee or umpire in a game
  • verb
  • To make a request or order for action
  • (Animal) to make sounds to warn of danger
  • To announce the date of an election
  • To make a judgment about something
  • To give someone or something a name
  • To guess in advance the result or outcome
  • To visit a place or person for a short time
  • To phone someone
  • To speak, announce or shout in a loud voice

sometimes

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US / ˈsʌmtaɪmz /

UK / ˈsʌmˌtaɪmz /

A1
  • adverb
  • Only at certain times; occasionally

environment

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US / ɪn'vaɪrənmənt /

UK / ɛnˈvaɪrənmənt, -ˈvaɪən- /

A1
  • noun
  • Natural world in which plants and animals live
  • The entire surrounding conditions of something

ancient

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US / 'eɪnʃənt /

UK / ˈenʃənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very old; having lived a very long time ago

munch

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US / mʌntʃ /

UK / mʌntʃ /

B2
  • noun
  • Sound made when eating something quickly or loudly
  • verb
  • To eat something quickly or loudly

lot

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US / lɒt /

UK / lɑt /

A1
  • noun
  • What happens to a person in life from chance; fate
  • A group of people seen together
  • Item for sale at an auction
  • Small area of land used for a purpose e.g. parking

biological

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US / ˌbaɪəˈlɒdʒɪkl /

UK / ˌbaɪəˈlɑdʒɪkəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being related to life and living things

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

think

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US / θɪŋk /

UK / θɪŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To have an idea about something without certainty
  • To have an idea, opinion or belief about something

particular

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US / pəˈtɪkjələ(r) /

UK / pɚˈtɪkjəlɚ, pəˈtɪk- /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • One specific (one)
  • Having firm ideas about what is desirable
  • Being special or more than is typical

reconstruct

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US / ˌri:kənˈstrʌkt /

UK / ˌrikənˈstrʌkt /

B1
  • verb
  • To rebuild something after it has been destroyed
  • To determine exactly how something happened

proportion

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US / prəˈpɔ:ʃn /

UK / prəˈpɔrʃən, -ˈpor- /

A2
  • noun
  • A part of a whole thing
  • State of balance between two or more things
  • Size of one thing compared to the size of another
  • verb
  • To balance the size of something with another

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

layer

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US / ˈleiə /

UK / ˈleɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • One of several sheets of a material or object
  • verb
  • To put things one on top of another

any

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US / 'enɪ /

UK / ˈɛni /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One, or some, no matter which
  • pronoun
  • One (thing) of many; some

scientist

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US / ˈsaɪəntɪst /

UK / ˈsaɪəntɪst /

A2
  • noun
  • Person who is trained in a science

problem

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US / ˈprɒbləm /

UK / ˈprɑbləm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Causing trouble
  • noun
  • Something difficult to deal with or causes trouble
  • Question to show understanding of a math concept

hand

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US / hænd /

UK / hænd /

A1
  • noun
  • Cards given to a player in a card game
  • Piece of a clock that points to the time
  • Someone who performs physical tasks or work
  • Body part at the end of a person's arm
  • Help for someone performing a particular action
  • Condition of having power or influence
  • Member of the crew of a ship
  • verb
  • To give something to someone personally

wear

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US / weə(r) /

UK / wer /

A1
  • noun
  • Clothing designed for a purpose e.g. skiing
  • Damage from continual use over a long period
  • verb
  • To have clothes, glasses, shoes etc. on your body
  • To display an expression or emotion on the face
  • To become weaker or damaged from continued use

mature

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US / məˈtʃʊə(r) /

UK / məˈtʃʊr /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Behaving like an adult
  • Being fully developed physically
  • verb
  • (Wine, cheese) To age to improve its taste

know

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US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

could

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US / kəd /

UK / kʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Past form of 'can' to mean have ability
  • Used to ask for something politely, or to offer

behind

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US / bɪˈhaɪnd /

UK / bɪˈhaɪnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a later or slower time than expected
  • Being in a losing position in a sporting event
  • Being in the past; old fashioned
  • adverb
  • Remaining
  • noun
  • The part of the body that one sits on
  • preposition
  • At or toward the back of someone or something
  • Supporting or helping someone

sample

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US / ˈsɑ:mpl /

UK / ˈsæmpl /

A2
  • noun
  • A small quantity of something used as a taster
  • verb
  • To try (e.g. food, drink), to see if you like it

similarity

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US / ˌsɪmə'lærətɪ /

UK / ˌsɪməˈlærɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • Degree to which people or things are the same

subtle

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US / 'sʌtl /

UK / ˈsʌtl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Delicate or slight so it is difficult to perceive
  • Clever or indirect but hides the true purpose

end

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US / end /

UK / ɛnd /

A1
  • noun
  • The point where a process or activity stops
  • A point that marks the limit of something; finish
  • Goal or desired result
  • The tip, edge or limit of something
  • verb
  • To be the last part of something

count

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US / kaʊnt /

UK / kaʊnt /

A2
  • noun
  • Number of things added together, e.g. votes
  • With the number of crimes, knockouts, as stated
  • verb
  • To add things together to find the total number
  • To matter or be important
  • To include someone or something in a final number

world

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US / wɜ:ld /

UK / wɜrld /

A1
  • noun
  • All the humans, events, activities on the earth
  • Political division due to some kind of similarity

wood

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Living or existing in the woods
  • Made from the material from trees
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • Land covered with trees, smaller than a forest
  • Cut tree used for making fires or building things
  • verb
  • To plant an area of land with trees

whom

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US / hu:m /

UK / hum /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Used in formal writing or speech

mouth

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US / maʊθ /

UK / maʊθ /

A1
  • noun
  • Hole in the face used for eating and talking
  • Opening of a container such as a bottle
  • Area where a river enters a large body of water
  • verb
  • To say words without speaking

model

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US / ˈmɒdl /

UK / ˈmɑ:dl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being an excellent example of
  • noun
  • Person who wears fashion to show it to the public
  • A small scale copy of a full original
  • verb
  • To wear and display clothes at a fashion show
  • To make a small scale copy of a full original

soften

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US / 'sɒfn /

UK / ˈsɔfən, ˈsɑfən /

A2
  • other
  • To make something less hard or firm
  • verb
  • To make more sympathetic or less strict
  • To make something less hard or firm

relatively

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US / ˈrelətɪvli /

UK / ˈrɛlətɪvlɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a manner comparing something to something else

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

scratch

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US / skrætʃ /

UK / skrætʃ /

B1
  • noun
  • Action of rubbing your skin when itchy
  • A small cut or mark on a surface
  • verb
  • To rub your skin with your nails to stop an itch
  • To make a small cut or mark on a surface

premium

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US / ˈpri:miəm /

UK / ˈprimiəm /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Having a higher than normal quality
  • noun
  • Money paid as a fee for insurance

onto

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US / ˈɒntə /

UK / ˈɑnˌtu, -tə, ˈɔn- /

A1
  • preposition
  • Towards a certain direction/into a certain area

substance

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US / 'sʌbstəns /

UK / ˈsʌbstəns /

A2
  • noun
  • Essence of; most basic or central qualities
  • Particular type of material
  • Having material form; existing
  • Quality of truth, importance, or meaningfulness

part

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US / pɑ:t /

UK / pɑ:rt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To some degree; half; not fully
  • noun
  • Division of a book
  • Ratio of something, e.g. 3 of gin, 1 of tonic
  • A line in a person's hair, made with a comb
  • Character an actor plays on stage, movie, or TV
  • Some, but not all of a specific thing
  • Role in causing something to happen
  • verb
  • To make a line in a person's hair, by using a comb
  • To move two things apart creating a space
  • To leave someone, or to break off a relationship

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

fossilize

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US / ˈfɒsəlaɪz /

UK / ˈfɑ:səlaɪz /

B1
  • verb
  • To change into a state from which it won't change

extra

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US / 'ekstrə /

UK / 'ekstrə /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • More than necessary; additional
  • noun
  • Items more than you need; additional items
  • Person who has a small part in a movie
  • Special version of a newspaper

almost

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US / 'ɔ:lməʊst /

UK / ˈɔlˌmost, ɔlˈmost /

A1
  • adverb
  • Only a little less than, nearly, not quite

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

process

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US / prə'ses /

UK / ˈprɑsˌɛs, ˈproˌsɛs /

A2
  • noun
  • Dealing with official forms in the way required
  • Set of changes that occur slowly and naturally
  • verb
  • To organize and use data in a computer
  • To deal with official forms in the way required
  • To prepare by treating something in a certain way
  • To adopt a set of actions that produce a result
  • To convert by putting something through a machine

awe

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US / ɔ: /

UK / ɔ /

B2
  • verb
  • To feel admiration, respect, or fear

weaving

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US / 'wi:vɪŋ /

UK / 'wi:vɪŋ /

B1
  • verb
  • To make a cloth or baskets by crossing threads
  • To combine and connect ideas, stories, or themes
  • To move through but changing direction frequently

history

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US / 'hɪstrɪ /

UK / ˈhɪstəri /

A2
  • noun
  • Established pattern or record
  • Study of past events as an academic subject

draw

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US / drɔ: /

UK / drɔ /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that attracts people to visit a place
  • A lottery or prize
  • Result of a game, contest where the score is equal
  • verb
  • To attract attention to someone or something
  • To get closer to or approach something or someone
  • To influence a person's involvement in something
  • To move an object by pulling
  • To create an image using pen or pencil and paper
  • To take one thing out of a container, etc.
  • (Of 2 teams) to finish a game with the same score

break

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US / breɪk /

UK / brek /

A1
  • noun
  • Time you stop an activity before continuing
  • End of a relationship
  • An escape from a place such as a jail
  • (Lucky) advantage or benefit from something
  • Find a solution or answer to a problem or crime
  • Change in the weather
  • verb
  • To create a new record e.g. running the 100m dash
  • To form a crack in something
  • To burst or become damaged
  • To end a relationship
  • To escape from a place such as a jail
  • To train a wild animal e.g. a horse
  • To separate into pieces by force, or by dropping
  • To act against a law, rule, or promise
  • To become known suddenly, as in the news
  • To not do what you promised e.g. not keep promises
  • To solve a crime, or answer a problem
  • To stop functioning properly
  • To suddenly start, open or commence
  • To change in pitch suddenly, as in a voice
  • To fall on the shore, as in waves
  • To begin or change suddenly; the dawn or weather
  • To defeat by causing the person to lose their will

continue

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US / kən'tɪnju: /

UK / kənˈtɪnju /

A1
  • verb
  • To do something without stopping, or after pausing
  • To start doing again after a break, pause, or stop

age

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US / eɪdʒ /

UK / edʒ /

A1
  • verb
  • To keep food, wine for a long time to improve it
  • To get older
  • noun
  • Period of time in history
  • Number of years a person or thing has lived

population

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US / ˌpɒpjuˈleɪʃn /

UK / ˌpɑpjəˈleʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Number of people who live in a country, area etc.

prehistoric

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US / ˌpri:hɪˈstɒrɪk /

UK / ˌpri:hɪˈstɔ:rɪk /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Relating to the period before written history
  • Out-dated; very old-fashioned

chew

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US / tʃu: /

UK / tʃu: /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of biting something many times
  • verb
  • To bite something many times without swallowing it

while

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US / waɪl /

UK / hwaɪl, waɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • In spite of the fact that; although
  • During the time that; at the same time
  • noun
  • Short amount of time

stem

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US / stem /

UK / stɛm /

B1
  • noun
  • Long thin central part of a plant, bearing leaves
  • Long thin part supporting something e.g. a light
  • Main part of a word, e.g. 'use' in 'useful'
  • verb
  • To remove the stem of a flower or fruit
  • To start from or be the origin of
  • To stop something bad from spreading or developing

million

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US / ˈmɪljən /

UK / ˈmɪljən /

A1
  • number
  • 1,000,000

heat

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US / hi:t /

UK / hit /

A2
  • noun
  • State of anger, excitement, or arguing
  • Particular temperature at which to cook something
  • High temperature
  • One of series of races to find the finalists
  • Hot temperature, conditions, or weather
  • verb
  • To make hot or hotter

fang

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US / fæŋ /

UK / fæŋ /

B2
  • noun
  • Sharp, pointed tooth of a wild animal

eat

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US / i:t /

UK / it /

A1
  • verb
  • To put food in your mouth

use

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US / ju:s /

UK / ju:s /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to employ something
  • Need to enable it to work
  • Permission to do something with something
  • Act of spending money
  • Operation of a machine for its function
  • verb
  • To have; to eat, drink, consume etc.
  • To need to operate or work
  • To operate a machine, e.g. a computer
  • To treat a person badly
  • To do something with, for a task or purpose

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

relate

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US / rɪ'leɪt /

UK / rɪˈlet /

A2
  • verb
  • To demonstrate a logical relationship between
  • To understand or sympathize with, e.g. a problem
  • To tell a story, or tell about a particular event

lay

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US / leɪ /

UK / le /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Amateur; not being a trained priest
  • verb
  • To place a bet on a game outcome
  • (Of a bird, etc.) to produce eggs from its body
  • To put or set something down in a flat position
  • To set out things on (table) to prepare for a meal

guess

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US / ɡes /

UK / ɡɛs /

A1
  • noun
  • Answer given when you don't know if it is correct
  • verb
  • To give an answer without knowing if it is correct

diet

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US / 'daɪət /

UK / ˈdaɪɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Plan of eating to reduce weight or improve health
  • other
  • The usual food and drink consumed by an organism (person or animal)
  • verb
  • To eat special or less food, as to lose weight

cook

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US / kʊk /

UK / kʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • A person who prepares food
  • Person's name
  • verb
  • To heat food until it is ready to eat

already

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US / ɔ:lˈredi /

UK / ɔlˈrɛdi /

A1
  • adverb
  • Having happened or been done before this time

tool

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US / tu:l /

UK / tul /

A2
  • noun
  • Device used to make things, e.g. a hammer
  • verb
  • To provide a workshop with the right equipment

small

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US / smɔ:l /

UK / smɔl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Little in size; not big
  • (Of letters) not written in capital letters
  • Being insignificant or minor
  • (Of a business) with few people or things; local
  • (Of voice) being soft and quiet
  • (Of a child) being young

stuck

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US / stʌk /

UK / stʌk /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Not able to move
  • verb
  • To push a sharp or pointed object into something
  • To join together using glue or paste
  • To remain in one place or position for a long time

new

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US / nju: /

UK / nu, nju /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not old, recently born, built or made
  • Being or doing something for the first time
  • Not felt, seen or known previously
  • Having been recently bought or obtained

meaning

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US / ˈmi:nɪŋ /

UK / ˈminɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • Idea or thing represented by words or sentences
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular intention or value

here

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • adverb
  • In this place; at this location, position or time

skill

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US / skɪl /

UK / skɪl /

A2
  • noun
  • Ability to do something well

ever

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US / 'evə(r) /

UK / ˈɛvɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At any time; at all times in the future

develop

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US / dɪ'veləp /

UK / dɪˈvɛləp /

A1
  • verb
  • To explain something in steps and in detail
  • To create or think of something
  • To grow bigger, more complex, or more advanced
  • To make a photograph from film

day

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US / deɪ /

UK / de /

A1
  • noun
  • A period of 24 hours beginning at midnight
  • The period of time when it is light outside
  • Person's name

plus

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US / plʌs /

UK / plʌs /

A2
  • noun
  • A benefit or advantage
  • preposition
  • In addition; add
  • In addition to; Indicates a number above
  • Having a value greater than zero

past

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US / pɑ:st /

UK / pæst /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • No longer current or new
  • adverb
  • So as to go beyond, or further than something
  • noun
  • Time that existed before now, e.g. long ago
  • preposition
  • After a particular time
  • At a later point in distance; beyond

clue

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US / klu: /

UK / klu /

B1
  • noun
  • Information that helps explain something; hint

valuable

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US / ˈvæljuəbl /

UK / ˈvæljuəbəl, ˈvæljə- /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being useful or important
  • Being worth a lot of money

pit

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US / pɪt /

UK / pɪt /

B1
  • noun
  • Hole in the ground
  • Garage area for racing cars on a circuit
  • Large, hard seed in the center of a fruit
  • verb
  • To use your strength, skill or wit to beat another
  • To make holes or marks on a surface
  • (Racing car) to come into a garage to change tires
  • To take the seed out of a fruit

predict

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US / prɪ'dɪkt /

UK / prɪˈdɪkt /

A2
  • verb
  • To guess or estimate what will or might happen

map

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US / mæp /

UK / mæp /

A1
  • noun
  • Diagram showing the geography of an area
  • verb
  • To draw a diagram to show the geography of an area
  • To find points of similarity between things

less

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US / les /

UK / lɛs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Smaller in amount or degree
  • adverb
  • To a smaller degree
  • noun
  • A smaller amount
  • preposition
  • With the subtraction of

click

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US / klɪk /

UK / klɪk /

A1
  • noun
  • The sound a computer mouse makes when you press it
  • A short, slight, and sharp sound
  • verb
  • To work well with someone or something
  • To press a computer mouse
  • To make a short, slight, and sharp sound

band

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US / bænd /

UK / bænd /

A1
  • noun
  • Group of people who work together e.g. play music
  • Thin piece of material that wraps around something
  • verb
  • To come together to work on a project
  • To tie things together using string or rope

than

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US / ðən /

UK / ðən /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to compare two things that are not equal

stress

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US / stres /

UK / strɛs /

A2
  • noun
  • Emphasis on part of a word or sentence
  • Pressure on something or someone
  • A state of mental tension, worry due to problems
  • verb
  • To emphasize one or more parts of a word, sentence
  • To put pressure on something or someone
  • To say your opinion strongly
  • To be in a state of mental tension due to problems

perfect

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US / 'pɜ:fɪkt /

UK / ˈpɚfɪkt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • So good it cannot be improved
  • verb
  • To do something so well, it cannot be done better

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

outside

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US / ˌaʊtˈsaɪd /

UK / aʊtˈsaɪd, ˈaʊtˌsaɪd /

A2
  • adverb
  • Beyond the limits or edges of some place, thing
  • noun
  • Area around or near something, such as a building
  • preposition
  • Beyond the limits or edges of some place, thing

info

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US / ˈɪnfəʊ /

UK / ˈɪnfoʊ /

B2
  • noun
  • Shortened form of the word 'information'

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

body

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US / ˈbɒd.i /

UK / ˈbɑdi /

A1
  • noun
  • An object distinct from other objects
  • A group of people involved in an activity together
  • Main part of something
  • A person's physical self

below

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US / bɪ'ləʊ /

UK / bɪˈlo /

A1
  • preposition
  • In a lower position, place, or level

surface

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US / 'sɜ:fɪs /

UK / ˈsɚfəs /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of the top layer; not deep or meaningful
  • noun
  • Top layer of the ground or of water
  • Nature or emotions that show, but may not be true
  • Outside or upper layer of something
  • verb
  • To give (road) a top layer
  • To appear after being hidden, unseen, or unknown
  • To come to the top of something; emerge
  • To come to the top level of water, mud, etc.

banana

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US / bə'nɑ:nə /

UK / bəˈnænə /

A2
  • noun
  • Long curved yellow fruit with a white center

truly

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US / 'tru:lɪ /

UK / ˈtruli /

A2
  • adverb
  • In accordance with truth, fact or reality; really

teach

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US / ti:tʃ /

UK / titʃ /

A1
  • verb
  • To help someone learn or do something

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

subscription

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US / səbˈskrɪpʃn /

UK / səbˈskrɪpʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Regular payment for a service, magazine etc.

free

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US / fri: /

UK / fri /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Living, happening without being controlled
  • Costing no money
  • Not working; not busy
  • verb
  • To release (e.g. bird) from a cage or prison

across

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US / əˈkrɔs /

UK / əˈkrɔs,əˈkrɑs /

A1
  • adverb
  • Distance from one side to another
  • (Go) from one side to the other of something

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

live

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US / lɪv /

UK / liv /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being broadcast as events happen, not recorded
  • Carrying electric current; able to give a shock
  • Glowing because burning; hot
  • Not yet killed (for food)
  • adverb
  • (Music, drama) as it is performed
  • verb
  • To be alive
  • To experience a particular type of life
  • To make your home in a house or town

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

kind

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US / kaɪnd /

UK / kaɪnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In a caring and helpful manner
  • friendly and considerate
  • noun
  • One type of thing

enamel

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US / ɪˈnæml /

UK / ɪˈnæməl /

B2
  • noun
  • A glass-like substance, glossy covering of an object; The covering of a tooth.
  • verb
  • To cover something with enamel.

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

researcher

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US / rɪ'sɜ:tʃə(r) /

UK / rɪˈsətʃɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Someone who works to find new facts and ideas

person

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US / 'pɜ:sn /

UK / 'pɜ:rsn /

A1
  • noun
  • Man, woman or child

might

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US / maɪt /

UK / maɪt /

A1
  • other
  • Used to politely request an action
  • Used to express that something could happen
  • Power, strength, force or influence

lead

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US / li:d /

UK / lid /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being the main part in movies or plays
  • noun
  • Wire for electricity, computer, etc.; cable
  • Information that could help to solve a crime
  • Main part in a play or movie
  • Heavy, gray metal element
  • Rope used to tie something to stop it escaping
  • Act of being at the front in a race or game
  • verb
  • To show the way or guide others
  • To be at the front of a race or game
  • To travel in front of; go in advance of others

little

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palaeontologist

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  • Introduction to Video Content
  • Why Teeth Make The Best FossilsHave you ever admired the teeth of a mounted T. rex in a museum and felt a sense of relief that it no longer exists, considering each tooth is the size of a banana? Fossilized teeth are not only awe-inspiring but also hold immense value for paleontologists due to the information they provide about the evolutionary past. From an animal's diet to the development of tools in early humans, teeth offer a wealth of knowledge. So, what makes teeth a paleontologist's best friend?Teeth possess a unique combination of characteristics that make them ideal for preservation in the fossil record. They are hard, compact, and already covered with a layer of mineralized tissue called enamel. Enamel is one of the toughest biological substances known, providing excellent protection to the tooth during an animal's life and preserving its history for millions of years.A significant part of a tooth's history lies in its shape and size, including the intricate details of its surface. Teeth have visible differences, such as the square and smooth molars of herbivores, enabling them to munch on grass all day, or the sharp fangs of predators, facilitating the capture of prey. However, there are also subtler similarities and variations in tooth anatomy among closely related species.These anatomical features are inherited or evolve through generations, allowing paleontologists to study tooth surfaces as if they were exploring a landscape and use this information to construct family trees. By analyzing the shape and structure of teeth, scientists can gain insight into the evolutionary relationships between different species and how they have adapted to their environments over time.The study of teeth goes beyond just examining the visible features. Through the analysis of microscopic wear patterns, scientists can deduce the diet and feeding behavior of extinct animals. By studying the isotopic composition of dental enamel, researchers can even determine the environment in which an animal lived. Teeth are like time capsules, holding clues about ancient ecosystems and the interactions between organisms.While other fossilized remains can provide valuable information, teeth offer a unique advantage as they are more likely to be preserved due to their durability and mineralized nature. This abundance of dental fossils allows for a more comprehensive understanding of extinct species and their place in the evolutionary history.In conclusion, teeth are invaluable assets for paleontologists in unraveling the mysteries of the past. Their hard, compact nature, as well as the information preserved within their enamel and surface features, provide vital insights into the evolutionary history of species. Whether it's understanding dietary preferences, identifying evolutionary relationships, or reconstructing ancient environments, the study of teeth continues to be a fascinating and indispensable field in paleontology.
  • Subtitles section
  • Thanks to Brilliant for  supporting this SciShow video!
  • As a SciShow viewer, you can  keep building your STEM skills with a 30 day free trial and 20% off an annual premium subscription  at Brilliant.org/SciShow.
  • Have you ever been in a museum,  staring down a mounted T. rex, and feeling incredibly grateful  that it's not around any more because each of those teeth  are the size of a banana?
  • I'm asking for a friend.
  • Fossilized teeth have way more  value than just inspiring awe, and sometimes terror, in museum visitors.
  • They can tell paleontologists  a lot more than you'd think about the evolutionary  past, from a creature's diet to when humans started to develop tools.
  • So, here's what makes teeth a  paleontologist's best friend.
  • Teeth are hard, compact, and  already have a layer of mineralized tissue called enamel on the outside.
  • This makes them an almost perfect specimen for preservation in the fossil record.
  • In fact, tooth enamel is one of the  hardest biological substances around.
  • And enamel isn't just protecting  a tooth during an animal's life, it's preserving its history for millions of years.
  • Part of that history lies in the  shape and size of all the little nooks and crannies that make up a tooth's shape.
  • There are the big differences  between teeth, like how square, smooth molars help some  animals munch all day on grass while sharp fangs help others bring down prey.
  • But there are also more subtle similarities and differences in tooth anatomy  between closely related species.
  • These anatomical features are passed down or evolve through generations,  meaning paleontologists can map tooth surfaces like a landscape  to start building family trees.
  • In some cases, teeth might be the  only fossils researchers have to work with in figuring out who's related  to whom, since teeth keep so well.
  • And if they look even closer,  scientists can see more signs of how an ancient creature lived.
  • Because, if you think about  it, teeth are the only parts of our skeleton that interact  directly with the environment!
  • Every time an animal munches on, say, a leaf, tiny bits of silica from the  plant's cells are dragged across the tooth's surface leaving a  trail of microscopic scratches behind.
  • Or, if it's gnawing on a  nut, the hard chunks pound microscopic pits into the tooth.
  • Paleontologists call this a foodprint,  and it tells them what an animal ate, at least in the weeks leading up to its death.
  • But that's still a really  valuable source of dietary info.
  • Sometimes, researchers might  find tiny micro-fossils or bits of preserved food that got stuck on the teeth, which helps them confirm their suspicions.
  • And teeth can tell paleontologists more than just what was going on in the  mouths of ancient animals.
  • They can give us clues about other  parts of their bodies, as well.
  • Take ancient humans for example.  Like the rings of a tree, scientists can count the  growth lines in their enamel to get a sense of a person's age or health.
  • See, as teeth mature and develop,  new layers of enamel are laid down through a process called amelogenesis.
  • As that process speeds up or slows  down, it leaves bands in the enamel.
  • And because this happens in a 24 hour cycle, those growth lines can show  how old a prehistoric human was when they died. Kind of like tree  rings, but for days instead of years.
  • Since your teeth stop growing eventually, it tells us the most about an  individual's juvenile years.
  • /Defects/ in that growth can  also show that a person was sick, stressed or malnourished during  a particular time of their lives, since those things affect how well  teeth can lay down new enamel layers.
  • In 2022, scientists used teeth  from primates in the fossil record to model how early humans grew during pregnancy.
  • The big brains of anatomically  modern humans take some time to grow.
  • The researchers showed that the  proportions of a species' teeth are related to both its brain  size, and how long it takes to develop in the womb.
  • So by studying the proportions of  teeth from different primate species, researchers could predict when early human brains started to evolve to be bigger.
  • And that's not the only way our  teeth changed as we evolved.
  • As early humans started to  develop tools and cook with fire, that was reflected in their teeth.
  • For example, teeth evolved to become smaller as we started cooking with fire, since the heat was doing a lot of the food breaking down for us, not our chompers.
  • Teeth from early humans like  Australopithecus are relatively large teeth, whereas those from Homo erectus  onwards were much smaller.
  • Which lets you guess who's cooking.
  • Plus, you can see the evolution of tool use in the wear patterns on ancient humans' teeth.
  • Neanderthals, for example,  used their teeth basically like an extra hand to hold  onto hides as they cut them.
  • Or they softened wood by chewing on it, or used their teeth to hold  onto leaves while weaving.
  • And all that grasping and biting  left different patterns of scratches and scrapes on their teeth, which  paleontologists can now decipher to get a glimpse of prehistoric life.
  • Early humans continued to use their teeth as a kind of extra tool for a while, but as their hand-held tools became more advanced, they used teeth less and less, and the teeth even shrunk as a consequence.
  • So ancient teeth are pretty darn  amazing for reconstructing not just what happened in the  mouths of prehistoric animals, but what their lives and interactions were like.
  • And that makes them the perfect fossils for researchers to sink their teeth into.
  • Now, if researchers had only  found teeth from animals that cooked their food, they wouldn't  know about all of this tooth evolution.
  • And that would have just come  down to a sampling problem.
  • But, luckily for us, there are resources  on the internet, like Brilliant, that teach us more about sampling bias.
  • Their course on Sampling is a  great place to start drawing more accurate conclusions about a population.
  • This course starts with an intro  to sampling and estimation, and by the end, you're learning  about the nuances of error and bias.
  • In just 9 lessons, you'll know what  makes a truly representative sample that reduces bias and helps draw more broadly informative conclusions  about the world around you.
  • To get started today, head  to Brilliant.org/SciShow or click the link in the description down below.
  • That link will give you a free 30 day trial and 20% off an annual premium Brilliant subscription!
  • And thanks for thinking critically  with Brilliant and SciShow.
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