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Is MDMA the Solution to PTSD?

Video vocabulary

alone

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US / ə'ləʊn /

UK / əˈlon /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Apart from others
  • Without equal
  • adverb
  • Without anyone or anything else

big

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US / bɪɡ /

UK / bɪɡ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Popular
  • Serious
  • Large

might

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US / maɪt /

UK / maɪt /

A1
  • other
  • Used to politely request an action
  • Used to express that something could happen
  • Power, strength, force or influence

person

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US / 'pɜ:sn /

UK / 'pɜ:rsn /

A1
  • noun
  • Man, woman or child

researcher

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US / rɪ'sɜ:tʃə(r) /

UK / rɪˈsətʃɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Someone who works to find new facts and ideas

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

vary

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US / ˈveəri /

UK / ˈveri /

A2
  • verb
  • To change something and make it different
  • To be changeable, both up and down

bad

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US / bæd /

UK / bæd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not good; wrong
  • Lacking in good morals; evil
  • No longer fresh; spoiled

able

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US / 'eɪbl /

UK / ˈebəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Skilled; good at something
  • Having the ability to do something

multiple

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US / ˈmʌltɪpl /

UK / ˈmʌltəpəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Having or involving more than one of something
  • noun
  • Number produced by multiplying a smaller number
  • Shop with many branches

three

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US / θri: /

UK / θri /

A1
  • number
  • Number 3

critical

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US / ˈkrɪtɪkl /

UK / ˈkrɪtɪkəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Making a negative judgment of something
  • Being important or serious; vital; dangerous
  • Most important part

kind

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US / kaɪnd /

UK / kaɪnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In a caring and helpful manner
  • friendly and considerate
  • noun
  • One type of thing

live

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US / lɪv /

UK / liv /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being broadcast as events happen, not recorded
  • Carrying electric current; able to give a shock
  • Glowing because burning; hot
  • Not yet killed (for food)
  • adverb
  • (Music, drama) as it is performed
  • verb
  • To be alive
  • To experience a particular type of life
  • To make your home in a house or town

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

chicken

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US / ˈtʃɪkɪn /

UK / ˈtʃɪkən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Acting like a coward
  • noun
  • A bird raised for its eggs and meat
  • Someone who is too afraid to do something

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

body

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US / ˈbɒd.i /

UK / ˈbɑdi /

A1
  • noun
  • An object distinct from other objects
  • A group of people involved in an activity together
  • Main part of something
  • A person's physical self

aspect

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US / 'æspekt /

UK / ˈæspɛkt /

A2
  • noun
  • Way something looks or seems to be
  • An element, feature, or quality of something

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

outside

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US / ˌaʊtˈsaɪd /

UK / aʊtˈsaɪd, ˈaʊtˌsaɪd /

A2
  • adverb
  • Beyond the limits or edges of some place, thing
  • noun
  • Area around or near something, such as a building
  • preposition
  • Beyond the limits or edges of some place, thing

run

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US / rʌn /

UK / rʌn /

A1
  • noun
  • Journey between two places made by ship or car
  • Series of similar things or successes and failures
  • Act of running; exercise of running
  • verb
  • To depart or travel according to a schedule
  • To cause an animal to move in a certain direction
  • (Of an engine) to be operating
  • To start or use a computer program
  • To flow in a certain direction, like a liquid
  • To manage or operate a business
  • To operate or drive something
  • (Of a road) to go from one place to another
  • To move your legs faster than walking

suggest

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US / səˈdʒest /

UK / səɡˈdʒɛst, səˈdʒɛst /

A1
  • verb
  • To mention something that could be done; propose

treat

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US / tri:t /

UK / trit /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you buy for others as a surprise present
  • something that tastes good and that is not eaten often
  • verb
  • To pay for the food or enjoyment of someone else
  • To use medical methods to try to cure an illness
  • To act in a certain way toward someone

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

patreon

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US / 'peɪʃənts /

UK / 'peɪʃənts /

A1

psychological

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US / ˌsaɪkəˈlɒdʒɪkl /

UK / ˌsaɪkəˈlɑdʒɪkəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the study of the mind
  • Concerning psychology

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

than

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US / ðən /

UK / ðən /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to compare two things that are not equal

stress

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US / stres /

UK / strɛs /

A2
  • noun
  • Emphasis on part of a word or sentence
  • Pressure on something or someone
  • A state of mental tension, worry due to problems
  • verb
  • To emphasize one or more parts of a word, sentence
  • To put pressure on something or someone
  • To say your opinion strongly
  • To be in a state of mental tension due to problems

chemical

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US / ˈkemɪkl /

UK / ˈkɛmɪkəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Made of various elements
  • noun
  • Basic substance produced by mixing elements

effective

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US / ɪˈfektɪv /

UK / ɪˈfɛktɪv /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Working efficiently to produce a desired result

half

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US / hɑ:f /

UK / hæf, hɑf /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not complete
  • adverb
  • Partly; somewhat
  • noun
  • One of two equal periods of game time in a sport
  • The part you get when one is divided into two;

level

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US / 'levl /

UK / ˈlɛvəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • (Sports) equal to another
  • Being steady and determined (e.g. a voice)
  • noun
  • Specific height of something
  • Amount of ability you have compared to others
  • Floor or deck within a building
  • Tool used to determine if something is lying flat
  • verb
  • To aim a gun at someone
  • To destroy a building; flatten an area completely
  • To make things flat or even
  • To make a score equal to another, in sports

sensitivity

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US / ˌsensə'tɪvətɪ /

UK / ˌsɛnsɪˈtɪvɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • Quality of being easily hurt emotionally

physical

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US / ˈfɪzɪkl /

UK / ˈfɪzɪkəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the body of a person
  • Concerning things that can be seen or touched
  • noun
  • Health check at the doctors' or hospital

state

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US / steɪt /

UK / stet /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning region within a country
  • noun
  • Region within a country, with its own government
  • Situation or condition something is in
  • verb
  • To say; declare as fact

whose

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US / hu:z /

UK / huz /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Refers to the person who owns something

although

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US / ɔ:lˈðəu /

UK / ɔlˈðo /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Despite the fact that; however

broad

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US / brɔ:d /

UK / brɔd /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • General; not detailed
  • Wide; from the shorter two sides to the other

answer

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US / 'ɑ:nsə(r) /

UK / ˈænsɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Reply to a question someone asks
  • Solution to a problem or test question
  • verb
  • To reply to a question someone asks
  • To solve a test question or a problem

follow

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US / ˈfɔləu /

UK / ˈfɑlo /

A1
  • verb
  • To come after someone; be guided by someone
  • To support someone, e.g. singer or comedian
  • To be the logical result of something
  • To happen after something else happens
  • To believe a set of values or a moral teacher
  • To understand something happening or being said

inhibitor

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US / ɪnˈhɪbɪtə(r) /

UK / ɪnˈhɪbɪtɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Substance that retards or stops an activity

less

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US / les /

UK / lɛs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Smaller in amount or degree
  • adverb
  • To a smaller degree
  • noun
  • A smaller amount
  • preposition
  • With the subtraction of

patient

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US / 'peɪʃnt /

UK / ˈpeʃənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Not getting annoyed when things take a long time
  • noun
  • Person who receives medical treatment or care

regard

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US / rɪ'ɡɑ:d /

UK / rɪˈɡɑrd /

A2
  • noun
  • Admiration or respect for a person or thing
  • verb
  • To think about a person, thing in a particular way
  • To look at a person or thing in a particular way

solution

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US / səˈlu:ʃn /

UK / səˈluʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Mix of a liquid and a solid or a gas
  • Way to solve or deal with a problem

first

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US / fɜ:st /

UK / fɚst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 1st; Coming before all others in time or place
  • noun
  • Something that has not happened before
  • Position of the winner of a competition

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

hard

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US / hɑ:d /

UK / hɑː(r)d /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Difficult to do; difficult to understand
  • (Of facts) not able to be misunderstood; clear
  • (Of alcohol) strong
  • Involving or requiring lots of work, effort, care
  • Being full of pain, trouble, and problems
  • Strong
  • (Of edge) clear; sharp
  • Difficult to bend, break or cut; solid
  • adverb
  • With lots of force, power, or impact

enough

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US / ɪˈnʌf /

UK / ɪˈnʌf /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Sufficient to answer the need
  • adverb
  • To a satisfactory degree
  • pronoun
  • Equal to what is needed; as much as required
  • Adequate number or amount

find

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US / faɪnd /

UK / faɪnd /

A1
  • noun
  • Object discovered by chance
  • Things that have been discovered from searching
  • verb
  • To become aware of something that is happening
  • To discover or meet by chance
  • To decide if someone is guilty of a crime, or not
  • To learn through study, research, or effort
  • To discover something by looking for it

great

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US / ɡreɪt /

UK / ɡret /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very large in size
  • Very important
  • Very good; fantastic; wonderful
  • adverb
  • Very good; better than before
  • noun
  • Successful and well-admired person

kick

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US / kɪk /

UK / kɪk /

A2
  • noun
  • Feeling of enjoyment or excitement
  • verb
  • To hit or move something with the foot

mean

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US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular meaning or value

watch

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US / wɒtʃ /

UK / wɑtʃ /

A1
  • noun
  • Period of time someone is responsible for guarding
  • Device you wear on your wrist that shows the time
  • Official warning statement, e.g. of bad weather
  • verb
  • To keep in check, manage, or control something
  • To look at something for entertainment, e.g. TV
  • To guard a place or people; protect child, etc.
  • To look at carefully to work out what is happening
  • To protect and care for someone or something

advise

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US / ədˈvaɪz /

UK / ædˈvaɪz /

A2
  • verb
  • To suggest what would be helpful

blooper

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US / ˈblu:pə(r) /

UK / ˈblupɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Embarrassing mistake

cause

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US / kɔ:z /

UK / kɔz /

A2
  • noun
  • Belief, goal or organization that people support
  • Reason for
  • verb
  • To make something happen; create effect or result

mainly

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US / ˈmeɪnli /

UK / ˈmenli /

A2
  • adverb
  • Mostly; usually; being the largest part

own

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US / əʊn /

UK / on /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Belong to oneself
  • determiner
  • Yours, his, hers, etc.; not belonging to another
  • pronoun
  • (Something) belong to myself
  • verb
  • To have something as your property

phase

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US / feɪz /

UK / fez /

A2
  • noun
  • Different stages of the moon from new to full
  • Distinct part or step in a process
  • One stage of a process or series of stages
  • verb
  • To make happen in a gradual ordered way

place

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US / pleɪs /

UK / ples /

A1
  • noun
  • Particular location, area or region
  • verb
  • To put someone in a particular type of situation
  • To put something in a certain location or position

pill

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US / pɪl /

UK / pɪl /

A2
  • noun
  • Person who is difficult to deal with
  • Small, round piece of medicine that is swallowed

similar

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US / ˈsɪmələ(r) /

UK / ˈsɪməlɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Nearly the same; alike

access

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US / 'ækses /

UK / ˈæksɛs /

A2
  • noun
  • Way to enter a place, e.g. a station or stadium
  • verb
  • To be able to use or have permission to use

block

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US / blɒk /

UK / blɑk /

A2
  • noun
  • Solid piece of material used for building
  • A piece of wood, chocolate etc.
  • Hard piece of wood, stone etc. with straight edges
  • Building made up of offices or apartments
  • Area of a city divided by four streets
  • verb
  • To stop from going forward or making progress

anymore

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US / 'enɪmɔ: /

UK / ˌɛniˈmɔr, -ˈmor /

A2
  • adverb
  • No longer; no more

confront

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US / kən'frʌnt /

UK / kənˈfrʌnt /

B1
  • verb
  • To make someone, e.g. who has lied, face the truth
  • (Of problem) to face someone who must deal with it

egg

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US / eg /

UK / ɛɡ /

A2
  • noun
  • Hard-shelled thing from which a young bird is born

during

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US / ˈdjʊərɪŋ /

UK / ˈdʊrɪŋ, ˈdjʊr- /

A1
  • preposition
  • At some point in the course of an event or thing

down

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US / daʊn /

UK / daʊn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being sad, sick, or unhappy
  • Not operating, working, or functioning as expected
  • adverb
  • In a sitting or lying position
  • Towards or on the ground, floor, or bottom
  • Written or copied onto a piece of paper or book
  • noun
  • A period of play in American Football
  • The soft, smooth hairs that cover a bird's body
  • preposition
  • Along something's path, course, or direction
  • Going from a higher position to a lower position
  • verb
  • To eat or drink very quickly and without stopping

then

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US / ðen /

UK / ðɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • A time that is not now
  • Following another thing in time or arrangement
  • Following on reasonably from what was just stated
  • At that time, not now

cell

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US / sel /

UK / sɛl /

A2
  • noun
  • Smallest unit of living things in biology
  • Group of people - often from a secret organization
  • Prisoner's room in a jail
  • Shortened form of 'cellphone'

decrease

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US / dɪˈkri:s /

UK / dɪˈkris /

B1
  • noun
  • Amount by which something has been reduced
  • verb
  • To reduce the size, amount or number of something

happen

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US / 'hæpən /

UK / ˈhæpən /

A1
  • verb
  • To take place or occur

portion

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US / 'pɔ:ʃn /

UK / ˈpɔrʃən, ˈpor- /

B1
  • noun
  • Serving of food that is intended for one person
  • Part of something shared that belongs to a whole
  • verb
  • To separate something to divide among people

unlucky

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US / ʌn'lʌkɪ /

UK / ʌnˈlʌki /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Unfortunate; having bad things happen by chance

essentially

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US / ɪˈsenʃəli /

UK / ɪˈsenʃəli /

A2
  • adverb
  • Basically; (said when stating the basic facts)

despite

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US / dɪˈspaɪt /

UK / dɪˈspaɪt /

A2
  • preposition
  • Without being affected by something; in spite of

right

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US / raɪt /

UK / raɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Correct or true
  • The south side of you looking at the rising sun
  • adverb
  • Exactly in a place or time
  • Being appropriate for a particular event
  • In a straight or direct manner
  • noun
  • Something you are legally or morally allowed to do
  • Ideal of what is just and good
  • Political view based on conservatism
  • verb
  • To fix something previously wrong or unjust
  • To make upright, as a boat that has turned over

again

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US / ə'ɡen /

UK / əˈɡɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • One more time, once more

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

different

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US / ˈdɪfrənt /

UK / ˈdɪfrənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not of the same kind; unlike other things

current

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US / 'kʌrənt /

UK / ˈkɚrənt, ˈkʌr- /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or being in the present time
  • noun
  • Electricity flowing through wires
  • Movement of water in a river, or air in the sky

even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

impact

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US / 'ɪmpækt /

UK / ˈɪmˌpækt /

A2
  • noun
  • A striking effect or result to hit with force
  • Very strong influence
  • Act or force of one thing hitting something else
  • verb
  • To hit or strike someone or something with force

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

people

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US / 'pi:pl /

UK / ˈpipəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Persons sharing culture, country, background, etc.
  • Men, Women, Children

site

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US / saɪt /

UK / saɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Place that is reserved for a particular activity
  • Location of building work
  • Location of something
  • Place where something of special interest happened
  • Website
  • verb
  • To place something in a particular position, area

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

witness

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US / 'wɪtnəs /

UK / ˈwɪtnɪs /

B1
  • noun
  • Person who was present to see an event take place
  • Evidence or proof of something
  • verb
  • To see the signing of an official document
  • To see an event take place (usually a crime)
  • To serve as an example or evidence of something

acknowledge

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US / ək'nɒlɪdʒ /

UK / ækˈnɑlɪdʒ /

A2
  • verb
  • To say you have received a letter, gift, etc.
  • To say you accept the truth or value of something
  • to publicly express appreciation

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

diagnosable

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US / ˌdaɪəɡˈnəʊzəb(ə)l /

UK / ˌdaɪəɡˈnoʊsəb(ə)l /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Capable of being diagnosed

its

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US / ɪts /

UK / ɪts /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to or belonging to ‘it’
  • determiner
  • Of something; belonging or related to something
  • other
  • Possessive form of “it”

return

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US / rɪ'tɜ:n /

UK / rɪ'tɜ:rn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Do again; repeated
  • noun
  • Faulty or unwanted product sent back to a company
  • Enter key; the main key on the computer keyboard
  • Profit made as a result of a business activity
  • Process of going back to a previous way or state
  • verb
  • To hit something back to the other player or team
  • To come back after being away from somewhere
  • To repay someone's actions, kindness etc.
  • To put, bring, take, give, or send something back
  • To occur again

who

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US / hu: /

UK / hu /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Which person
  • Used to introduce information about people

human

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US / 'hju:mən /

UK / ˈhjumən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning or characteristic of people
  • noun
  • A person; a man, woman or child

scishow

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US / /

UK / /

A1

thank

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US / θæŋk /

UK / θæŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To tell someone you are grateful to them

adaptable

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US / əˈdæptəbl /

UK / əˈdæptəbəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Having the ability to change to new conditions

diagnose

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US / ˈdaɪəgnəʊz /

UK / ˌdaɪəgˈnoʊs /

B1
  • verb
  • To determine the cause of an illness or problem

death

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US / deθ /

UK / dɛθ /

A2
  • noun
  • When someone dies; the end of life

due

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US / dju: /

UK / du, dju /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • When something is required or expected
  • Owed to a person as a right
  • noun
  • Something you deserve; something you can expect

huge

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US / hju:dʒ /

UK / hjudʒ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very very large

symptom

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US / 'sɪmptəm /

UK / ˈsɪmtəm, ˈsɪmp- /

B1
  • noun
  • Sign that suggests that there is a problem

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

build

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US / bɪld /

UK / bɪld /

A1
  • noun
  • Your physical shape; physique
  • verb
  • To establish e.g. a reputation, over time
  • To construct a house, office, factory

option

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US / 'ɒpʃn /

UK / ˈɑpʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • A choice
  • Right to buy or sell at a certain price and time

work

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US / wɜ:k /

UK / wɚk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Activity completed in order to make money
  • noun
  • The product of some artistic or literary endeavor
  • Everything created by an author, artist, musician
  • Activity you do in order to make money
  • Place of employment
  • Final product or result of a some labor or effort
  • verb
  • To bring into a specific state of success
  • To be functioning properly, e.g. a car
  • To do your job in your company or workplace
  • To make an effort to do something
  • To operate a machine or device

add

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US / æd /

UK / æd /

A1
  • verb
  • To include as well
  • To put two things or numbers together, e.g. 2+2

link

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US / lɪŋk /

UK / lɪŋk /

A2
  • noun
  • Any one of the rings that are part of a chain
  • Connection between two or more things or people
  • Webpage item you click to go to another webpage
  • verb
  • To join or connect together

take

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US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
  • verb
  • To accept something that is offered
  • To use a method of traveling, e.g. a bus or train
  • To use a camera to make (a photo)
  • To pick up something and go away with it
  • To study a subject in school
  • To attempt to pass (an exam)
  • To require a certain amount of time, money, space

both

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US / bəuθ /

UK / boθ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time
  • pronoun
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time

change

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US / tʃeɪndʒ /

UK / tʃendʒ /

A1
  • noun
  • Exchange of one set of clothes for another
  • Money in the form of coins instead of paper
  • Money returned after giving too much
  • Act of making or becoming something else
  • verb
  • To exchange one set of clothes for another
  • To exchange one kind of money for another
  • To replace something with another thing
  • To make or become something else
  • To go from one train, bus, etc. and go to another

medicine

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US / ˈmedsn /

UK / ˈmɛdɪsɪn /

A2
  • noun
  • Something used in treating illness or pain
  • Science of preventing, treating, or curing disease

result

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US / rɪ'zʌlt /

UK / rɪˈzʌlt /

A2
  • noun
  • Something produced through tests or experiments
  • Final score of a competition, election or game
  • verb
  • To be the outcome of other causes and effects

show

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US / ʃəʊ /

UK / ʃo /

A1
  • noun
  • False display of love, emotion or action
  • An event for displaying or promoting goods
  • Play, opera or theater production
  • Presentation that is broadcast on TV or radio
  • verb
  • To be easily seen or displayed
  • To display your emotions or feelings
  • To let someone see something; display
  • To explain or teach how something is done
  • To lead someone somewhere; point them to something
  • To prove something to be true, correct
  • To reveal or allow something to be seen

several

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US / ˈsevrəl /

UK / ˈsɛvərəl,ˈsɛvrəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Many of
  • pronoun
  • More than two but not a large amount

stimulate

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US / 'stɪmjʊleɪt /

UK / ˈstɪmjəˌlet /

B1
  • verb
  • To arouse or excite emotionally

applicable

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US / əˈplɪkəbl /

UK / ˈæplɪkəbəl, əˈplɪkə- /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being appropriate to or suitable for something

bump

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US / bʌmp /

UK / bʌmp /

B1
  • noun
  • Act or sound of one solid object hitting another
  • Raised area on any smooth surface
  • verb
  • To bounce along over a rough surface
  • To knock against with force or violence
  • To move someone to a different group, time or area

between

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US / bɪˈtwi:n /

UK / bɪˈtwin /

A1
  • preposition
  • From one person, thing, or place, to another
  • In the space that separates two objects
  • Among two or more people who share something

damage

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US / ˈdæmɪdʒ /

UK / ˈdæmɪdʒ /

A2
  • noun
  • Physical harm that is done to something
  • verb
  • To harm physically; to hurt or break something

fear

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US / fɪə(r) /

UK / fɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unpleasant feeling caused by being aware of danger
  • verb
  • To be afraid of or nervous about something

original

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US / ə'rɪdʒənl /

UK / əˈrɪdʒənəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being first made, thought or performed; fresh
  • Being unique or thinking differently from others

neither

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US / ˈnaɪðə(r) /

UK / ˈniðɚ, ˈnaɪ- /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Not one or the other not either none of two things
  • adverb
  • Similarly not, also not
  • conjunction
  • Not in either case
  • determiner
  • Not one or the other
  • pronoun
  • Not either one

risk

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US / rɪsk /

UK / rɪsk /

A1
  • noun
  • Actions that cause potential problems
  • verb
  • To do something potentially dangerous or foolish

sleep

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US / sli:p /

UK / slip /

A1
  • noun
  • Substance in a person's eyes after waking up
  • Period of time during which a person is asleep
  • verb
  • To have enough beds for
  • To rest your body in bed, as at night time

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

very

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US / 'verɪ /

UK / ˈvɛri /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a large degree or amount
  • adverb
  • A lot; much; many
  • Used to stress or emphasize a noun

break

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US / breɪk /

UK / brek /

A1
  • noun
  • Time you stop an activity before continuing
  • End of a relationship
  • An escape from a place such as a jail
  • (Lucky) advantage or benefit from something
  • Find a solution or answer to a problem or crime
  • Change in the weather
  • verb
  • To create a new record e.g. running the 100m dash
  • To form a crack in something
  • To burst or become damaged
  • To end a relationship
  • To escape from a place such as a jail
  • To train a wild animal e.g. a horse
  • To separate into pieces by force, or by dropping
  • To act against a law, rule, or promise
  • To become known suddenly, as in the news
  • To not do what you promised e.g. not keep promises
  • To solve a crime, or answer a problem
  • To stop functioning properly
  • To suddenly start, open or commence
  • To change in pitch suddenly, as in a voice
  • To fall on the shore, as in waves
  • To begin or change suddenly; the dawn or weather
  • To defeat by causing the person to lose their will

increase

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US / ɪn'kri:s /

UK / ɪnˈkris /

A1
  • noun
  • Fact of increasing; amount something grows by
  • verb
  • To make or become larger in size or amount

recycle

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US / ˌri:'saɪkl /

UK / riˈsaɪkəl /

A2
  • verb
  • To use old ideas or concepts again
  • To send used things to be turned into new things

away

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US / ə'weɪ /

UK / əˈwe /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not present
  • adverb
  • Disappear completely
  • Doing something with a lot of energy
  • Not here; far from here; in a different direction
  • To a different area, location

group

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US / ɡru:p /

UK / ɡrup /

A1
  • noun
  • Two or more musicians who play music together
  • Number of people or things gathered together
  • verb
  • To combine or collect objects or people together

young

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US / jʌŋ /

UK / jʌŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • At an early stage of existence; not mature
  • Being recently created or started
  • noun
  • Babies in a group or family of animals

dopamine

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US / 'dəʊpəmi:n /

UK / 'doʊpəmi:n /

A1
  • noun
  • Drug used to treat shock and hypotension

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

extra

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US / 'ekstrə /

UK / 'ekstrə /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • More than necessary; additional
  • noun
  • Items more than you need; additional items
  • Person who has a small part in a movie
  • Special version of a newspaper

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

information

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US / ˌɪnfəˈmeɪʃn /

UK / ˌɪnfɚˈmeʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Collection of facts and details about something

part

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US / pɑ:t /

UK / pɑ:rt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To some degree; half; not fully
  • noun
  • Division of a book
  • Ratio of something, e.g. 3 of gin, 1 of tonic
  • A line in a person's hair, made with a comb
  • Character an actor plays on stage, movie, or TV
  • Some, but not all of a specific thing
  • Role in causing something to happen
  • verb
  • To make a line in a person's hair, by using a comb
  • To move two things apart creating a space
  • To leave someone, or to break off a relationship

without

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US / wɪˈðaʊt /

UK / wɪðˈaʊt, wɪθ- /

A1
  • preposition
  • Not with; not having

center

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US / 'sentə /

UK / ˈsɛntɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Community place people go health or social reasons
  • Place in the middle of something
  • Person or thing that is attracting attention
  • verb
  • To direct focus toward something

buildup

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US / 'bɪldˌʌp /

UK / 'bɪldˌʌp /

C2
  • noun
  • Making people feel excited about some new event

gear

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US / ɡɪə(r) /

UK / ɡɪr /

B1
  • noun
  • A speed selector connected to an engine
  • Special clothes you use for a purpose
  • Toothed wheel shifting power from engine to wheels
  • verb
  • To aim at or prepare yourself for something

scene

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US / si:n /

UK / sin /

A2
  • noun
  • Incident where someone behaves angrily, badly
  • View that looks like a picture
  • Place where something particular happened
  • Part of an act in a play

prime

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US / praɪm /

UK / praɪm /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the highest in quality or value
  • Concerning the highest level of achievement
  • Most important, chief importance in value
  • verb
  • To get a person ready for; prepare someone
  • To coat with paint to prepare it for the main coat

behind

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US / bɪˈhaɪnd /

UK / bɪˈhaɪnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a later or slower time than expected
  • Being in a losing position in a sporting event
  • Being in the past; old fashioned
  • adverb
  • Remaining
  • noun
  • The part of the body that one sits on
  • preposition
  • At or toward the back of someone or something
  • Supporting or helping someone

could

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US / kəd /

UK / kʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Past form of 'can' to mean have ability
  • Used to ask for something politely, or to offer

often

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US / ˈɔfən /

UK / ˈɔfən,ˈɑfən,ˈɔftən,ˈɑf- /

A1
  • adverb
  • Many times; frequently; on many occasions

repeat

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US / rɪˈpi:t /

UK / rɪˈpit /

A2
  • noun
  • Action that is done again
  • Musical passage that is to be played again
  • Radio or television program that was shown before
  • verb
  • To do something over again
  • To say something you have learned and memorized
  • To relate something you have been told by another
  • To say something again

active

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US / ˈæktɪv /

UK / ˈæktɪv /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Moving around a lot or doing many things

nor

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US / nɔ:(r) /

UK / nɔr /

A2
  • conjunction
  • Not this or that; also not

low

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US / ləʊ /

UK / lo /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having a small quantity, supply, or amount
  • Being unhappy or unpleasant in attitude
  • Not high; being near the ground, or bottom
  • (Of a voice, sound) being soft; quiet
  • noun
  • Situation of not having a lot of something

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

clear

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US / klɪə(r) /

UK / klɪr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Empty; without anything in it or on it
  • Being certain and without doubt
  • Being without any streaks, spots, or cracks
  • Easy to understand; well-explained; obvious
  • adverb
  • Completely; entirely; through the whole of
  • Away from; free from
  • verb
  • To recover from or remove a problem
  • To get rid of the entire contents of
  • To give permission for something to happen
  • To make a place or surface empty by removing
  • To prove that someone is not guilty or to blame

problem

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US / ˈprɒbləm /

UK / ˈprɑbləm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Causing trouble
  • noun
  • Something difficult to deal with or causes trouble
  • Question to show understanding of a math concept

any

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US / 'enɪ /

UK / ˈɛni /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One, or some, no matter which
  • pronoun
  • One (thing) of many; some

channel

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US / 'tʃænl /

UK / ˈtʃænəl /

B1
  • noun
  • Long hole dug in the ground, e.g. to move water
  • TV or radio station or its programs
  • Method or way of sending or receiving information
  • Narrow passage through which water travels
  • Method or route used for sending or getting things
  • verb
  • To dig a long hole for carrying water
  • To send (e.g. money) to a certain place or person
  • To direct water or liquid through a passage
  • To direct energy or feelings into something

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

reopen

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US / ˌri:'əʊpən /

UK / riˈopən /

A2
  • verb
  • To open again or anew

think

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US / θɪŋk /

UK / θɪŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To have an idea about something without certainty
  • To have an idea, opinion or belief about something

environmental

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US / ɪnˌvaɪrənˈmentl /

UK / ɛnˌvaɪrənˈmɛntl:, -ˌvaɪən /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of the natural world of plants and animals

forge

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US / fɔ:dʒ /

UK / fɔ:rdʒ /

B1
  • noun
  • A furnace to melt and shape metals with heat
  • verb
  • To create something by hammering hot metal
  • To form something new, such a relationship
  • To make a false copy to deceive others

familiar

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US / fəˈmɪliə(r) /

UK / fəˈmɪljɚ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Well-known or easily recognized

keep

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US / ki:p /

UK / kip /

A1
  • noun
  • Large, strong tower in the middle of a castle
  • Money spent on you so you can live in a place
  • verb
  • To continue doing something; not to stop
  • To stop balls going in a goal in sports
  • To not give back or return something
  • (Of food) to not spoil or not rot
  • To take possession of something to own, e.g. a pet
  • To have and continue to hold something
  • To do something that you have promised or agreed
  • To stay in a certain place or condition
  • To maintain the rules

rather

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US / 'rɑ:ðə(r) /

UK / ˈræðɚ, ˈrɑðɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Somewhat; fairly; not that much

serotonin

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US / ˌserəˈtəʊnɪn /

UK / ˌserəˈtoʊnɪn /

A1
  • noun
  • Compound that is in blood

typically

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US / ˈtɪpɪkli /

UK / ˈtɪpɪklɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • In a normal or usual way

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

intro

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US / ˈɪntrəʊ /

UK / ˈɪntroʊ /

A1
  • noun
  • Opening part of a text or piece of music

lot

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US / lɒt /

UK / lɑt /

A1
  • noun
  • What happens to a person in life from chance; fate
  • A group of people seen together
  • Item for sale at an auction
  • Small area of land used for a purpose e.g. parking

significantly

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US / sɪgˈnɪfɪkəntli /

UK / sɪɡˈnɪfəkəntlɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a way that is important or noticeable
  • In a way that is meaningful

variety

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US / və'raɪətɪ /

UK / vəˈraɪɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • Particular type of thing or person

another

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US / əˈnʌðə(r) /

UK / əˈnʌðɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One more, but not this
  • determiner
  • One more added
  • pronoun
  • One more (thing)

environment

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US / ɪn'vaɪrənmənt /

UK / ɛnˈvaɪrənmənt, -ˈvaɪən- /

A1
  • noun
  • Natural world in which plants and animals live
  • The entire surrounding conditions of something

podcast

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US / 'pɒdkɑ:st /

UK / 'pɑ:dkæst /

A2
  • noun
  • A digital recording (e.g. radio show) for download

predisposition

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US / ˌpri:dɪspəˈzɪʃn /

UK / ˌpridɪspəˈzɪʃən /

C2
  • noun
  • Tendency to think, or be, a certain way

affect

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US / ə'fekt /

UK / əˈfɛkt /

A2
  • verb
  • To cause a change in something else

connection

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US / kəˈnekʃn /

UK / kəˈnɛkʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Something that joins things together; being joined
  • Person you know who can help you in some way
  • Changing vehicles when traveling

professional

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US / prə'feʃənl /

UK / prəˈfɛʃənəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of jobs such as doctor, lawyer, accountant, etc.
  • Acting/done properly as a qualified person would
  • Getting paid for playing a sport/doing an activity
  • noun
  • Highly qualified person, e.g. lawyer or doctor
  • One who plays a sport or similar activity as a job

only

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US / ˈəunli /

UK / ˈonli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just one; just that amount or thing; not more than
  • Not very important or serious
  • Just that type of thing, person
  • Short time ago; not before a certain time
  • conjunction
  • Except; but

release

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US / rɪ'li:s /

UK / rɪ'li:s /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of freeing someone from a duty or burden
  • Introduction of a new product, film, book, etc.
  • Relief from sadness, suffering or trouble
  • Act of freeing from a jail, cage, prison, etc.
  • verb
  • To free someone from a responsibility or burden
  • To allow a film, music etc. to be sold/distributed
  • To allow to leave a jail, cage, etc.; let out
  • To let go of something you are holding

put

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US / pʊt /

UK / pʊt /

A1
  • phrasal verb
  • to make a light stop shining by pressing or moving a switch
  • verb
  • To move or place a thing in a particular position
  • To rate something in importance or value
  • To write or say something in a certain manner

two

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • number
  • 2

enzyme

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US / ˈenzaɪm /

UK / ˈɛnzaɪm /

B2
  • noun
  • A protein made by cells

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

selective

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US / sɪˈlektɪv /

UK / sɪˈlɛktɪv /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Choosing through thoughtful comparison

thorough

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US / ˈθʌrə /

UK / ˈθɚro, ˈθʌro /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Done completely; with great attention to detail

call

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US / kɔ:l /

UK / kɔl /

A1
  • noun
  • A order or request for action
  • The sound an animal makes, often when in danger
  • A correct prediction, e.g. a decision in a game
  • A short visit to a place or person
  • A decision by a referee or umpire in a game
  • verb
  • To make a request or order for action
  • (Animal) to make sounds to warn of danger
  • To announce the date of an election
  • To make a judgment about something
  • To give someone or something a name
  • To guess in advance the result or outcome
  • To visit a place or person for a short time
  • To phone someone
  • To speak, announce or shout in a loud voice

where

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US / hwɛə /

UK / hwɛr, wɛr /

A1
  • conjunction
  • At or in the place which
  • In whatever place
  • pronoun
  • Word you use to ask the location of something

anything

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US / ˈeniθɪŋ /

UK / ˈɛniˌθɪŋ /

A1
  • pronoun
  • A thing of any kind

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

over

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US / 'əʊvə(r) /

UK / ˈovɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Finished; no longer happening
  • Towards the ground/away from a standing position
  • noun
  • A set of six consecutive balls bowled in cricket
  • other
  • Finished
  • preposition
  • Showing the relation when a thing is above another
  • On or covering something
  • Above or across something
  • More than you need
  • From one side to the other
  • In the direction of; toward

basic

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US / 'beɪsɪk /

UK / ˈbesɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • At the most important or easiest (beginner) level

memory

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US / 'memərɪ /

UK / ˈmɛməri /

A2
  • noun
  • Ability of the mind to call back past things
  • Space for the storage of information on a computer
  • Something that has been remembered

randomize

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US / ˈrændəmaɪz /

UK / ˈrændəmaɪz /

B2
  • verb
  • To arrange in a random order

rid

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US / rɪd /

UK / rɪd /

A2
  • verb
  • To cause to no longer have (pest, problem)

previous

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US / ˈpri:viəs /

UK / ˈpriviəs /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Existing or happening before the present time

totally

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US / ˈtəʊtəli /

UK / ˈtotl:ɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In a complete way; completely; absolutely

assault

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US / əˈsɔ:lt /

UK / əˈsɔlt /

B1
  • noun
  • An attack on someone physically or emotionally
  • verb
  • To attack someone physically or emotionally

exclusive

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US / ɪk'sklu:sɪv /

UK / ɪkˈsklusɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being available only to people with a lot of money
  • Available to only a particular person, group

use

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US / ju:s /

UK / ju:s /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to employ something
  • Need to enable it to work
  • Permission to do something with something
  • Act of spending money
  • Operation of a machine for its function
  • verb
  • To have; to eat, drink, consume etc.
  • To need to operate or work
  • To operate a machine, e.g. a computer
  • To treat a person badly
  • To do something with, for a task or purpose

associate

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US / ə'səʊʃɪeɪt /

UK / əˈsoʊʃiˌeɪt /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Part of a job title indicating a junior position
  • noun
  • Partner in professional work, e.g. in law
  • verb
  • To spend time with other people; mix with
  • To form a connection in your mind between things

combine

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US / kəmˈbaɪn /

UK / kəmˈbaɪn /

A2
  • verb
  • To mix several things together to form one thing

gene

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US / dʒi:n /

UK / dʒin /

B1
  • noun
  • Part of cell controlling development of a thing

numb

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US / nʌm /

UK / nʌm /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Unable to feel a body part due to cold or illness
  • verb
  • To make a part of body unable to feel (pain, etc.)

sure

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US / ʃʊə(r) /

UK / ʃʊr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having no doubts about something
  • Have confidence in your own words or actions
  • Firmly established or held; being firm or stable
  • Being correct or true
  • adverb
  • What you say to agree willingly

discord

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US / 'dɪskɔ:d /

UK / ˈdɪsˌkɔrd /

C1
  • noun
  • Jarring sound from inharmonious notes

new

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US / nju: /

UK / nu, nju /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not old, recently born, built or made
  • Being or doing something for the first time
  • Not felt, seen or known previously
  • Having been recently bought or obtained

tool

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US / tu:l /

UK / tul /

A2
  • noun
  • Device used to make things, e.g. a hammer
  • verb
  • To provide a workshop with the right equipment

flexibility

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US / ˌfleksə'bɪləti /

UK / ˌfleksə'bɪləti /

B1
  • noun
  • The quality of being able to be bent or stretched

publish

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US / 'pʌblɪʃ /

UK / ˈpʌblɪʃ /

A2
  • verb
  • To prepare and make available a book magazine etc.
  • To release information to the general public

toxic

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US / ˈtɒksɪk /

UK / ˈtɑksɪk /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Poisonous; harmful
  • (Of relationships) harmful; causing conflict

while

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US / waɪl /

UK / hwaɪl, waɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • In spite of the fact that; although
  • During the time that; at the same time
  • noun
  • Short amount of time

population

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US / ˌpɒpjuˈleɪʃn /

UK / ˌpɑpjəˈleʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Number of people who live in a country, area etc.

someone

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US / ˈsʌmwʌn /

UK / ˈsʌmˌwʌn, -wən /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person who is not known or named

after

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US / 'ɑ:ftə(r) /

UK / ˈæftɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Later than another time, or behind something
  • conjunction
  • Following something before
  • preposition
  • When an event happened or time has passed

already

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US / ɔ:lˈredi /

UK / ɔlˈrɛdi /

A1
  • adverb
  • Having happened or been done before this time

episode

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US / 'epɪsəʊd /

UK / ˈɛpɪˌsod /

B1
  • noun
  • One separate event in a series of events
  • Show which is part of a larger story

drug

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US / drʌɡ /

UK / drʌɡ /

A2
  • noun
  • Illegal substance taken for effect on the mind
  • Chemical used as a medicine
  • verb
  • To give drugs to someone to make them sleep

many

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US / 'menɪ /

UK / ˈmɛni /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer a large number of things

age

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US / eɪdʒ /

UK / edʒ /

A1
  • verb
  • To keep food, wine for a long time to improve it
  • To get older
  • noun
  • Period of time in history
  • Number of years a person or thing has lived

continue

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US / kən'tɪnju: /

UK / kənˈtɪnju /

A1
  • verb
  • To do something without stopping, or after pausing
  • To start doing again after a break, pause, or stop

medical

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US / ˈmedɪkl /

UK / ˈmɛdɪkəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of or relating to physical health or medicine
  • noun
  • A health check or test

should

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US / ʃʊd /

UK / ʃʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate what is proper or reasonable

danger

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US / ˈdeɪndʒə(r) /

UK / ˈdendʒɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • The possibility of getting hurt, damaged, killed

incredible

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US / ɪnˈkredəbl /

UK / ɪnˈkrɛdəbəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very good; amazing
  • Really good; amazing; great
  • Very hard to believe

trauma

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US / 'trɔ:mə /

UK / ˈtraʊmə /

B2
  • noun
  • A very severe or upsetting experience
  • Serious injury to part of the body

such

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US / sʌtʃ /

UK / sʌtʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Being similar to
  • (Thing) as previously stated or referred to
  • adverb
  • (Used to emphasize the quality of an adjective)

head

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US / hed /

UK / hɛd /

A1
  • noun
  • Counter for the number of cattle
  • Natural mental ability or intelligence
  • Leader or person with the greatest authority
  • Mind; mental ability; mental state
  • Side of a coin with a head on it
  • Top part of your body with eyes and a mouth
  • Starting point of something, e.g. a river
  • verb
  • To hit a ball with your head in a game
  • To be first or at the front or top (e.g. a list)
  • To travel or move toward a particular place; To go in a particular direction
  • To become the leader of something
  • To lead or be responsible for something

period

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US / ˈpɪəriəd /

UK / ˈpɪriəd /

A1
  • noun
  • Set amount of time during which events take place
  • A way to emphasize what you will say
  • A full stop (.), marking the end of a sentence
  • A menstrual cycle
  • A set time for a class to be held

traditional

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US / trəˈdɪʃənl /

UK / trəˈdɪʃənəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Involved in a custom or event common to a people

combination

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US / ˌkɒmbɪ'neɪʃn /

UK / ˌkɑmbəˈneʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Series of letters or numbers needed to open a lock
  • Act or result of mixing things together

much

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US / mʌtʃ /

UK / mʌtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very; to a high level or degree
  • adverb
  • A lot; large amount; a high degree of
  • Nearly; basically
  • On many occasions; often
  • noun
  • A large amount; a great quantity

unconventional

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US / ˌʌnkənˈvenʃənl /

UK / ˌʌnkənˈvɛnʃənəl /

C2
  • adjecitve
  • Not acting according to normal accepted rules

source

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US / sɔ:s /

UK / sɔrs, sors /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Produces or provides what is wanted or needed
  • noun
  • Piece of information; a person giving information
  • Place from which something necessary comes
  • verb
  • To get, e.g. a raw material, from somewhere

set

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US / set /

UK / sɛt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Prepared for something; ready
  • noun
  • Complete group of something
  • Place where a television show or movie is filmed
  • Group of games in a tennis match
  • Device that receives radio or television signals
  • verb
  • To make a clock state or ring at a particular time
  • To decide upon or choose something
  • To make something ready for use (e.g. table)
  • To decide on a price for something
  • To become hard (of glue, concrete etc.)
  • To be located in a specific place or time
  • To put (e.g. a vase) down carefully in a place
  • To put someone in a certain condition or state
  • (Of the sun) to go lower than the horizon

start

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US / stɑ:t /

UK / stɑrt /

A1
  • noun
  • First time or place that a thing exists; beginning
  • First opportunity to achieve something, e.g. a job
  • Sudden action or movement because you are scared
  • other
  • Beginning of something in place or time
  • verb
  • To do, be or happen for the first time; begin
  • To turn something on

test

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US / test /

UK / test /

A1
  • noun
  • A medical examination
  • Action to establish the truth or nature of
  • Examination; questions to measure knowledge
  • verb
  • To be given a medical examination
  • To try to establish the truth or nature of
  • To ask a series of questions to measure knowledge

since

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US / sɪns /

UK / sɪns /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a point before the present time
  • conjunction
  • For this reason; because
  • preposition
  • From the time in the past that

molecule

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US / ˈmɒlɪkju:l /

UK / ˈmɑlɪˌkjul /

B2
  • noun
  • Two or more atoms chemically combined

mouse

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US / maʊs /

UK / maʊs /

A2
  • noun
  • Small animal that has fur and a long tail
  • Computer device to control movement on a screen
  • Quiet, shy person

stuff

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US / stʌf /

UK / stʌf /

A1
  • noun
  • Generic description for things, materials, objects
  • verb
  • To push material inside something, with force

those

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US / ðəʊz /

UK / ðoz /

A1
  • determiner
  • The people or things we are talking about
  • pronoun
  • The objects far from the speaker

animal

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US / ˈænɪml /

UK / ˈænəməl /

A1
  • noun
  • A living creature that is not a plant or person

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

selection

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US / sɪˈlekʃn /

UK / sɪˈlɛkʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Process of choosing someone or something carefully
  • Something chosen carefully from a larger group
  • Range or variety of things you can choose from

behold

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US / bɪˈhəʊld /

UK / bɪˈhoʊld /

B2
  • verb
  • To look at

equation

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US / ɪˈkweɪʒn /

UK / ɪˈkweʒən, -ʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Mathematical statement showing things to be equal
  • Complex set of different facts, ideas or issues

oxytocin

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US / ˌɒksɪ'təʊsɪn /

UK / ˌɒksɪ'toʊsɪn /

B2
  • noun
  • Hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitocin); stimulates contractions of t

situation

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US / ˌsɪtʃuˈeɪʃn /

UK / ˌsɪtʃuˈeʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Place, position or area that something is in
  • Circumstance or condition surrounding an event
  • An unexpected problem or difficulty

shoot

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US / ʃu:t /

UK / ʃut /

A2
  • noun
  • Emerging new part of a plant
  • verb
  • To kick or throw a ball at a goal
  • To fire a gun; injure or kill someone with a gun
  • To (cause to) fly away forcefully
  • To use a camera to record a film/take a photograph

chute

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US / ʃu:t /

UK / ʃut /

C1
  • noun
  • Sloping channel or passage to throw things down

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

therapy

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US / 'θerəpɪ /

UK / ˈθɛrəpi /

B2
  • noun
  • Treatment to help cure an illness

undergo

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US / ˌʌndəˈgəʊ /

UK / ˌʌndərˈgoʊ /

B1
  • verb
  • To experience or endure something (bad)

through

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US / θru: /

UK / θru /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • having finished using or doing something
  • adverb
  • From the beginning of something until the end
  • preposition
  • Over, in, across an entire thing or place
  • Allowing you to pass between, or to
  • By a particular way or process; by the use of

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

adaptability

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US / əˌdæptə'bɪlətɪ /

UK / əˌdæptə'bɪlətɪ /

B1
  • noun
  • Able to change, succeed in different conditions

effect

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US / ɪ'fekt /

UK / ɪˈfɛkt /

A1
  • noun
  • An advantage, benefit
  • Change brought about by a cause; result

round

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US / raʊnd /

UK / raʊnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in the shape of a circle or ball
  • Consisting of curved and not straight lines
  • Somewhat fat or curved in physical appearance
  • Being a whole number, not a fraction, decimal
  • adverb
  • From beginning to end (e.g. of the year)
  • noun
  • One of the three-minute periods in boxing
  • Drinks bought by one person for a group
  • Series regular visits, routes, or stops at places
  • Single shot or bullet fired from a gun
  • An object with a circular shape
  • One stage in a series of games, e.g. football
  • One's turn in a game such as cards
  • preposition
  • Going around
  • verb
  • To cause or make a circular or curved shape
  • To go or pass around the bend or corner
  • To change from a fraction to nearest whole number

amygdala

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US / ə'mɪɡdələ /

UK / ə'mɪɡdələ /

A1
  • noun
  • Almond-shaped structure in the brain's anterior

interested

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US / ˈɪntrəstɪd /

UK / ˈɪntrɪstɪd, -tərɪstɪd, -təˌrɛstɪd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having had your attention taken; curious
  • verb
  • To make someone want to know about something
  • To persuade to do, become involved with something

involve

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US / ɪn'vɒlv /

UK / ɪnˈvɑlv /

A2
  • verb
  • To have or be included as a part of something

study

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US / 'stʌdɪ /

UK / ˈstʌdi /

A1
  • noun
  • Room that a person studies or reads in
  • Piece of research
  • Topic or subject you research or learn about
  • verb
  • To focus on learning something usually at school

would

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate something imagined
  • Used to ask or request something politely
  • Verb used to indicate possibility, request etc.
  • Used to indicate a preference
  • Used to indicate a reaction
  • Indicates something that occurred repeatedly
  • Used to indicate willingness or ability to do

experience

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US / ɪk'spɪərɪəns /

UK / ɪkˈspɪriəns /

A1
  • noun
  • Thing a person has done or that happened to them
  • An event at which you learned something
  • Knowledge gained by living life, doing new things
  • verb
  • To gain knowledge by doing things

now

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US / naʊ /

UK / naʊ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At the present time or moment
  • Right away or in the next possible moment
  • Used to refer to something that just happened
  • Time between the present and a moment in the past
  • conjunction
  • Resulting from or because of something

measure

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US / ˈmeʒə(r) /

UK / ˈmɛʒɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Plan to achieve a desired result
  • Tool used to calculate the size of something
  • verb
  • To determine the value or importance of something
  • To calculate size, weight or temperature of

regularity

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US / ˌregjuˈlærəti /

UK / ˌrɛɡjəˈlærətɪ /

A2
  • noun
  • Code of behavior; norms of practice

trial

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US / ˈtraɪəl /

UK / ˈtraɪəl, traɪl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being made or done as a test or experiment
  • noun
  • Hearing and judgment of a case in court
  • Act or process of testing or experimenting
  • verb
  • To be made or done as a test or experiment

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
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  • Introduction to Video Content
  • Is MDMA the Solution to PTSD?
    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychological condition that affects a large portion of the population. Current treatments for PTSD are only about 50% effective at best. However, new research suggests that an unconventional medicine called MDMA may offer significant relief for individuals diagnosed with PTSD.
    PTSD can cause individuals to experience fear or stress even when they are not in immediate danger. It can develop as a result of various traumatic experiences, such as witnessing someone's death or being involved in a physical assault. Common symptoms of PTSD include flashbacks, numbed emotional responses, and sleep problems. These symptoms can have a profound impact on all aspects of an individual's life.
    The exact mechanisms in the body that lead to the development of PTSD symptoms are not fully understood. However, one promising avenue of research focuses on the role of a molecule called oxytocin. Oxytocin is involved in regulating anxiety and memories. Studies conducted on rats have shown that high levels of oxytocin primarily target the amygdala, the emotional center of the brain. This leads to a decrease in fear and anxiety, promoting a sense of calmness.
    A study published in 2021 found that individuals with PTSD had significantly lower levels of oxytocin compared to those without the condition. The researchers hypothesized that this oxytocin deficiency could be a contributing factor to the onset and persistence of PTSD symptoms. However, they acknowledged the challenges of accurately measuring oxytocin levels and called for further research in this area.
    The link between oxytocin and PTSD is currently not fully understood, and it is unclear whether the deficiency in oxytocin levels is a cause or a consequence of the disorder. This makes it difficult to determine the exact role of oxytocin in PTSD and how it can be targeted for therapeutic intervention.
    Enter MDMA, commonly known as a party drug. MDMA is a synthetic psychoactive substance that alters mood and perception. It is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance due to its potential for abuse and lack of accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown promise in utilizing MDMA-assisted psychotherapy as a potential treatment for PTSD.
    MDMA-assisted psychotherapy involves a carefully guided session in which an individual takes a controlled dose of MDMA in combination with therapy sessions. The MDMA helps to facilitate emotional openness and build trust between the individual and the therapist. This, in turn, allows the individual to revisit traumatic memories in a controlled and safe environment, potentially leading to significant emotional healing and a reduction in PTSD symptoms.
    Clinical trials have shown promising results in the use of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for individuals with treatment-resistant PTSD. In fact, the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) has conducted Phase 3 clinical trials with MDMA and received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Expanded Access, providing the opportunity for eligible individuals to receive MDMA-assisted psychotherapy before official approval.
    While MDMA-assisted psychotherapy shows promise as a potential treatment for PTSD, it is essential to recognize the risks and limitations associated with MDMA use. The safe and controlled use of MDMA under professional guidance is crucial for maximizing therapeutic benefits while minimizing potential harm.
    In conclusion, the potential use of MDMA as a treatment for PTSD offers hope for individuals who have not responded well to traditional therapies. The combination of MDMA and psychotherapy provides a unique opportunity for emotional healing and symptom reduction. However, further research and clinical trials are necessary to fully understand the mechanisms of MDMA's effects on PTSD and establish its efficacy and safety as a treatment option.
  • Subtitles section
  • What if the solution to one of the most daunting  psychological conditions were a party drug?
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, affects a huge portion of our population.
  • And while the treatments we use today vary, at best they're only about 50% effective.
  • But new research suggests that people diagnosed with PTSD can experience a lot of relief  from an unconventional medicine.
  • And that medicine is MDMA.
  • [Intro] People with PTSD often experience fear or stress, even when they're not in danger.
  • It can result from a range  of previous experiences, such as witnessing someone's  death or a physical assault.
  • If you experience PTSD, you might be familiar with  symptoms like flashbacks, numbed emotional responses, and sleep problems.
  • So this is one of those things that can influence every aspect of your life.
  • But, despite its broad impact, researchers aren't totally sure what's going  on in your body to cause those symptoms.
  • One chemical that might hold  some answers is oxytocin.
  • This is a molecule that regulates  your anxiety and memories.
  • And rat studies suggest that  when you've got a lot of it, oxytocin mainly goes to the  emotional center of your brain, called the amygdala, and decreases your fear and anxiety.
  • That means having a lot of oxytocin is typically great because it keeps you calm.
  • And a study published in  2021 found that PTSD patients had significantly less oxytocin  than people without the condition.
  • The authors of that study suggested that this could be a source of their stress, although they acknowledged that  it's tough to measure this stuff, so more research is needed.
  • Right now, we're kind of in  a chicken-or-egg situation regarding the link between oxytocin and PTSD.
  • People who have a particular  variety of oxytocin-related genes might be at higher risk for PTSD.  That predisposition is the egg.
  • And trauma can kick the enzyme that  breaks down oxytocin into high gear.
  • The environmental factor is the chicken.
  • But both of those things could  happen to the same person.
  • Some people might be unlucky enough to have both the predisposition for low oxytocin and traumatic  experiences that set off PTSD.
  • And for people living with PTSD, studies show that current treatments, like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, only work about half of the time.
  • Since PTSD is associated with low oxytocin levels, one potential solution is  to bump up your oxytocin.
  • But you can't just give someone a shot of oxytocin to get rid of their symptoms because oxytocin has a hard time  getting into the brain from outside.
  • It's blocked by a group of cells  called the blood-brain barrier.
  • And that's where MDMA could help.
  • MDMA stimulates your brain  cells to release more oxytocin.
  • So if you can't give someone oxytocin, you can get them to make  their own using that drug.
  • Clinical studies have found that MDMA, in combination with therapy, is an effective treatment for PTSD.
  • And these were the most thorough tests we do.
  • They were placebo-controlled, so half of the participants got MDMA and the other half got a  pill that didn't do anything.
  • They were randomized, so no selection went into  who got MDMA and who didn't.
  • They were double-blind, so  neither the participants nor the researchers knew  who got MDMA during testing.
  • They were conducted in multiple testing sites, so the results could be more broadly  applicable to people in different places.
  • And they were phase 3 clinical trials, so they'd already passed the basic research and first two rounds of human studies.
  • After the trials, most of the participants who had been given MDMA weren't even diagnosable as having PTSD anymore!
  • And several participants  who hadn't been able to work due to their PTSD symptoms returned to work.
  • Another study followed up with participants who had undergone a similar treatment three years after being given the drug.
  • They found that the treatment  continued to be effective. . . . .
  • Like, not from repeated use, but rather long-lasting effects  from the original trials.
  • In both of these studies, MDMA was combined with therapy.
  • And therapy alone is helpful  for many people with PTSD, but became much more effective when  the drug was added to the equation.
  • The researchers think that MDMA is a helpful tool in combination with therapy because it primes your brain  for learning and change.
  • See, when we're young, our brains  are much more adaptable to taking   in new information and forging connections.
  • That's called the critical  period, because as we age, we get less adaptable and that window  of flexibility starts to close.
  • So that period of time is critical to set up your brain for all of  the things you do later in life.
  • And a study in mice found that MDMA recalibrates sensitivity to  stuff in their environment by reopening that critical period.
  • Mice whose critical period had  already closed were given MDMA, and then started learning  again like the younger mice that were still in their critical period.
  • Another study built on this research, and  while mice were in that adaptable state, they essentially went through exposure-therapy for a similar kind of learned fear that  someone with PTSD might experience.
  • And those animals stopped  showing PTSD-like responses!
  • They did more tests to figure  out which parts of the brain were involved in this treatment  effect, and lo and behold, the was more active after  mice were treated with MDMA.
  • So to put it all together, it seems that MDMA makes cells  in the amygdala more active and release more oxytocin, which increases your brain's adaptability so that you can confront triggering  experiences in a calmer state.
  • That makes it an incredible treatment  option for people living with PTSD.
  • But if you don't have PTSD and you take MDMA recreationally  with any regularity, it might have very different effects.
  • MDMA keeps other chemicals in your brain, like serotonin and dopamine, from being cleared away and recycled.
  • The buildup of these chemicals can  become toxic and damage your neurons.
  • So this stuff should only be used as  advised by a medical professional.
  • But when used appropriately and in  combination with traditional therapy, studies show that MDMA can have  incredible therapeutic effects for people diagnosed with PTSD.
  • Not bad for a party drug.
  • Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
  • And an extra big thank you  to our patrons on Patreon who help keep this channel running.
  • They get access to our exclusive discord, bloopers from our video shoots, and our behind the scenes podcast.
  • If you're interested, head over to patreon.com/scishow to find out more!
  • [ OUTRO ]