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Amazon CEO Andy Jassy on investor letter: Consumer and enterprise both more careful on spending

Video vocabulary

want

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US / wɔnt /

UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

recent

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US / 'ri:snt /

UK / ˈrisənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or beginning not long ago

pandemic

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US / pæn'demɪk /

UK / pænˈdɛmɪk /

C2
  • adjecitve
  • (of a disease) existing in almost all of an area or in almost all of a group of people, animals, or
  • noun
  • a pandemic disease

segment

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US / ˈsegmənt /

UK / ˈsɛɡmənt /

B1
  • noun
  • Part divided from the other parts of something
  • verb
  • To separate something into different parts

meaningfully

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US / ˈmiːnɪŋfəli /

UK / ˈmiːnɪŋfəli /

B1
  • adverb
  • So someone understands what is intended

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

our

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to us

relationship

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US / rɪˈleɪʃnʃɪp /

UK / rɪˈleʃənˌʃɪp /

A2
  • noun
  • Connection between two or more people or things
  • Way people interact or live with each other
  • Romantic or loving friendship between two people

surge

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US / sɜ:dʒ /

UK / sɜ:rdʒ /

B2
  • noun
  • Sudden movement in one direction by many
  • Sudden or unexpected increase in amount
  • Unexpected increase or movement, as in sea/prices
  • verb
  • To move unexpectedly and quickly in one direction
  • To rise to an unexpected height

business

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US / ˈbɪznəs /

UK / ˈbɪznɪs /

A1
  • noun
  • A company formed for making profit
  • Matter that has to be dealt with; task; situation
  • Activity of working to make a profit

cloud

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US / klaʊd /

UK / klaʊd /

A1
  • noun
  • A mass of smoke or mist hanging in the air
  • verb
  • To confuse the mind/judgment of a person
  • (Of the sky) to get darker and fill with clouds
  • To make (glass, etc.) difficult to see through
  • To make an activity less pleasant or enjoyable
  • (Of person's face, etc.) to show worry/anger

scale

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US / skeɪl /

UK / skel /

A2
  • noun
  • Size, level, or amount when compared
  • Small hard plates that cover the body of fish
  • Device that is used to weigh a person or thing
  • Range of numbers from the lowest to the highest
  • Dimensions or size of something
  • verb
  • To change the size of but keep the proportions
  • To climb something large (e.g. a mountain)
  • To remove the scales of a fish

really

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US / ˈri:əli /

UK / ˈriəˌli, ˈrili /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to stress something that is said; definitely
  • In a true or accurate manner
  • Very

would

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate something imagined
  • Used to ask or request something politely
  • Verb used to indicate possibility, request etc.
  • Used to indicate a preference
  • Used to indicate a reaction
  • Indicates something that occurred repeatedly
  • Used to indicate willingness or ability to do

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

cut

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US / kʌt /

UK / kʌt /

A1
  • noun
  • Act/instance of reducing the size or amount of
  • Small opening made using a sharp object, knife
  • A wound on someone's skin caused by a sharp object
  • verb
  • To reduce the size or amount of something
  • To use knife or scissors to divide, open surfaces

especially

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US / ɪˈspeʃəli /

UK / ɛˈspɛʃəli, ɪˈspɛʃ- /

A1
  • adverb
  • More than usual; extremely

give

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US / ɡɪv /

UK / ɡɪv /

A1
  • noun
  • Degree of flexibility in something, a material
  • verb
  • To hand over or present something to someone
  • To cause someone to have or experience something

collaborate

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US / kəˈlæbəreɪt /

UK / kəˈlæbəˌret /

B1
  • verb
  • To cooperate with or help an enemy
  • To work together to complete a task

opportunity

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US / ˌɒpə'tju:nətɪ /

UK / ˌɑpɚˈtunɪti, -ˈtju- /

A2
  • noun
  • Time, situation when a thing might be done; chance

same

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US / seɪm /

UK / sem /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in quality and amount
  • Identical; not different
  • Not changing; constant

seamlessly

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US / /

UK / /

A1
  • adverb
  • In a flowing, uninterrupted manner

save

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US / seɪv /

UK / sev /

A1
  • noun
  • Preventing a player in a game from scoring a goal
  • preposition
  • Except; not including
  • verb
  • To make your computer keep a file
  • To keep for future use
  • To make something unnecessary; prevent
  • To keep money so that you will have it later
  • To keep something for future use, such as money
  • To keep or rescue someone or something from harm
  • To prevent a player in a game from scoring a goal
  • To avoid the unnecessary waste of energy, etc.

ceo

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US / ˌsiː iː ˈəʊ /

UK / ˌsiː iː ˈoʊ /

C2
  • abbreviation
  • CEO for Chief Operating Officer

deal

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US / di:l /

UK / dil /

A1
  • verb
  • To cope with something - usually troubles
  • To give (something bad e.g. news) to
  • To buy and sell illegal drugs
  • To give out (cards, etc.) to; distribute
  • To do business with someone or to sell products

experience

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US / ɪk'spɪərɪəns /

UK / ɪkˈspɪriəns /

A1
  • noun
  • Thing a person has done or that happened to them
  • An event at which you learned something
  • Knowledge gained by living life, doing new things
  • verb
  • To gain knowledge by doing things

now

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US / naʊ /

UK / naʊ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At the present time or moment
  • Right away or in the next possible moment
  • Used to refer to something that just happened
  • Time between the present and a moment in the past
  • conjunction
  • Resulting from or because of something

amazon

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US / 'æməzən /

UK / 'æməzən /

A1
  • noun
  • A large strong and aggressive woman
  • other
  • Mainly green tropical American parrots

recession

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US / rɪˈseʃn /

UK / rɪˈsɛʃən /

B2
  • noun
  • Act of moving backward gradually
  • Decreased business activity, when work is scarce

where

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US / hwɛə /

UK / hwɛr, wɛr /

A1
  • conjunction
  • At or in the place which
  • In whatever place
  • pronoun
  • Word you use to ask the location of something

industry

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US / 'ɪndəstrɪ /

UK / ˈɪndəstri /

A1
  • noun
  • Hard work; being busy working
  • Factories or businesses that make certain products

large

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US / lɑ:dʒ /

UK / lɑ:rdʒ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Big; of great size; broad, tall, wide, or fat

office

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US / ˈɒfɪs /

UK / ˈɔ:fɪs /

A1
  • noun
  • Room or building used for business
  • Important job position, often in a government

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

andy

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US / 'ændɪ /

UK / 'ændɪ /

A1

retail

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US / 'ri:teɪl /

UK / ˈriˌtel /

C1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the selling of goods to the public
  • adverb
  • Bought or sold in a store or shop
  • noun
  • Business of selling products to the public
  • verb
  • To sell at a particular price

any

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US / 'enɪ /

UK / ˈɛni /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One, or some, no matter which
  • pronoun
  • One (thing) of many; some

company

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US / 'kʌmpənɪ /

UK / ˈkʌmpəni /

A1
  • noun
  • Good feeling from being with someone else
  • A business that sells things or provides services
  • Guests, especially in your home
  • Being with another person rather than alone

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

think

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US / θɪŋk /

UK / θɪŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To have an idea about something without certainty
  • To have an idea, opinion or belief about something

couple

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US / 'kʌpl /

UK / ˈkʌpəl /

A2
  • noun
  • Two people in a romantic relationship
  • Two of something; two people; a pair
  • verb
  • To join something to something else
  • (Two animals) to engage in sexual relations
  • To put two people or things together

keep

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US / ki:p /

UK / kip /

A1
  • noun
  • Large, strong tower in the middle of a castle
  • Money spent on you so you can live in a place
  • verb
  • To continue doing something; not to stop
  • To stop balls going in a goal in sports
  • To not give back or return something
  • (Of food) to not spoil or not rot
  • To take possession of something to own, e.g. a pet
  • To have and continue to hold something
  • To do something that you have promised or agreed
  • To stay in a certain place or condition
  • To maintain the rules

lie

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US / laɪ /

UK / lai /

A2
  • noun
  • An untrue statement, when you know it is not true
  • verb
  • To be in a horizontal or flat position
  • To say something that you know is not true

front

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US / frʌnt /

UK / frʌnt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Opposite of back; the forward part of an object
  • noun
  • Behavior not showing a person's true feelings
  • Area where fighting in a war is happening
  • Place where air of different temperatures meets
  • verb
  • To have the forward part facing something
  • To lead a group of people, usually a band

only

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US / ˈəunli /

UK / ˈonli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just one; just that amount or thing; not more than
  • Not very important or serious
  • Just that type of thing, person
  • Short time ago; not before a certain time
  • conjunction
  • Except; but

optimize

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US / ˈɒptɪmaɪz /

UK / ˈɑ:ptɪmaɪz /

B2
  • verb
  • To make as effective as possible

two

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • number
  • 2

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

over

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US / 'əʊvə(r) /

UK / ˈovɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Finished; no longer happening
  • Towards the ground/away from a standing position
  • noun
  • A set of six consecutive balls bowled in cricket
  • other
  • Finished
  • preposition
  • Showing the relation when a thing is above another
  • On or covering something
  • Above or across something
  • More than you need
  • From one side to the other
  • In the direction of; toward

resource

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US / riˈsɔ:s /

UK / ˈriˌsɔrs, -ˌsors, -ˌzɔrs, -ˌzors, rɪˈsɔrs, -ˈsors, /

A2
  • noun
  • Something that can be used profitably; asset
  • An essential supply of something
  • Resourcefulness; ability to deal with problems
  • verb
  • To obtain (e.g. oil, gas) from its source

share

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US / ʃeə(r) /

UK / ʃɛr /

A2
  • noun
  • Part-ownership in a property, business or company
  • Part of a company you own, shown by a certificate
  • verb
  • To divide something between two or more people
  • To allow others to use your things equally
  • To give information, etc. to someone

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

back

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US / bæk /

UK / bæk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Farthest from the front e.g. in a classroom
  • adverb
  • Have returned to a place you were before
  • noun
  • The part of a chair that the upper body leans upon
  • Location at the rear of something
  • The reverse of side something
  • Area on the rear of your body
  • verb
  • To bet money on something
  • To go backwards in a car
  • To support and encourage someone or some cause

lot

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US / lɒt /

UK / lɑt /

A1
  • noun
  • What happens to a person in life from chance; fate
  • A group of people seen together
  • Item for sale at an auction
  • Small area of land used for a purpose e.g. parking

money

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US / 'mʌnɪ /

UK / ˈmʌni /

A1
  • noun
  • Coins or notes we use to pay for things

interview

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US / 'ɪntəvju: /

UK / ˈɪntɚˌvju /

A2
  • noun
  • Meeting to ask questions to get information
  • verb
  • To formally ask questions about a given topic

change

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US / tʃeɪndʒ /

UK / tʃendʒ /

A1
  • noun
  • Exchange of one set of clothes for another
  • Money in the form of coins instead of paper
  • Money returned after giving too much
  • Act of making or becoming something else
  • verb
  • To exchange one set of clothes for another
  • To exchange one kind of money for another
  • To replace something with another thing
  • To make or become something else
  • To go from one train, bus, etc. and go to another

both

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US / bəuθ /

UK / boθ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time
  • pronoun
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time

build

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US / bɪld /

UK / bɪld /

A1
  • noun
  • Your physical shape; physique
  • verb
  • To establish e.g. a reputation, over time
  • To construct a house, office, factory

work

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US / wɜ:k /

UK / wɚk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Activity completed in order to make money
  • noun
  • The product of some artistic or literary endeavor
  • Everything created by an author, artist, musician
  • Activity you do in order to make money
  • Place of employment
  • Final product or result of a some labor or effort
  • verb
  • To bring into a specific state of success
  • To be functioning properly, e.g. a car
  • To do your job in your company or workplace
  • To make an effort to do something
  • To operate a machine or device

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

top

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US / tɒp /

UK / tɑp /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good or great; excellent
  • Being the most in degree or quality
  • noun
  • Item of clothing covering shoulders to waist, hips
  • A cover or lid
  • Part (e.g. road) that is the furthest away
  • Highest or upper part or point of something
  • Best or highest status or position
  • Flat upper surface or edge of an object
  • Child's toy that spins on its point
  • Upper section or leaves of fruits and vegetables
  • Winning in a sport or contest
  • verb
  • To be higher or larger than a specific value
  • To arrive at the highest point of something
  • To put a cover or layer or over something
  • To kill; murder
  • To hold the highest position on a list
  • To be more important, successful or better than
  • To beat someone or win at a game

believe

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US / bɪ'li:v /

UK / bɪˈliv /

A1
  • verb
  • To think or accept that something is true
  • To have a particular opinion about something

customer

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US / ˈkʌstəmə(r) /

UK / ˈkʌstəmɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Someone who buys goods or services from a business

look

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US / lʊk /

UK / lʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's beauty or physical attractiveness
  • Particular style of dress, clothes, or appearance
  • The way someone, something appears to be
  • Act of searching for or examining something
  • verb
  • To appear to be; seem

pay

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US / peɪ /

UK / pe /

A1
  • noun
  • Money you receive from your job, work, etc.
  • verb
  • To give money for goods or work done
  • To give (attention, respect, etc.) to
  • To be punished or suffer for something you did
  • To make (a visit) to a person or place

outlast

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US / ˌaʊtˈlɑ:st /

UK / ˌaʊtˈlæst /

A1
  • verb
  • To live, function or survive longer than

billion

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US / ˈbɪljən /

UK / ˈbɪljən /

A2
  • noun
  • Number 1,000,000,000

dollar

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US / ˈdɒlə(r) /

UK / ˈdɑ:lə(r) /

A1
  • noun
  • A basic unit of money equal to 100 cent

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

very

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US / 'verɪ /

UK / ˈvɛri /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a large degree or amount
  • adverb
  • A lot; much; many
  • Used to stress or emphasize a noun

way

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US / weɪ /

UK / we /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to emphasize the amount of something
  • noun
  • Particular aspect of something being thought about
  • One of various choices that could be made
  • Particular existing condition or state
  • (Often long) distance or length of time
  • How something is done
  • Route to go to a place
  • Small street
  • Usual behavior, emotions or habits of someone

optimistic

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US / ˌɒptɪˈmɪstɪk /

UK / ˌɑːptɪˈmɪstɪk /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Tending to believe the future will be good

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

know

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US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

corporate

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US / ˈkɔ:pərət /

UK / ˈkɔrpərɪt, ˈkɔrprɪt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning (usually large) companies

careful

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US / ˈkeəfl /

UK / ˈkerfl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Trying not to make mistakes; working slowly

headwind

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US / ˈhedwɪnd /

UK / ˈhɛdˌwɪnd /

C2
  • noun
  • Wind blowing opposite to the path of a ship, plane

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

last

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US / lɑ:st /

UK / læst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Most recent; the latest
  • The one before
  • adverb
  • Final; with nothing following; after all others
  • Most recent; the latest
  • determiner
  • The one at the end
  • verb
  • To remain or continue for a certain period of time

challenge

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US / 'tʃælɪndʒ /

UK / ˈtʃæləndʒ /

A2
  • noun
  • An activity you wish to try that may be hard to do
  • Act of formally inviting someone to compete
  • A question to determine correctness of something
  • verb
  • To formally invite someone to compete at something
  • To question the correctness of something

conscious

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US / ˈkɒnʃəs /

UK / ˈkɑnʃəs /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Aware of what is going on around you

hundred

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US / 'hʌndrəd /

UK / ˈhʌndrɪd /

A1
  • number
  • 100

end

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US / end /

UK / ɛnd /

A1
  • noun
  • The point where a process or activity stops
  • A point that marks the limit of something; finish
  • Goal or desired result
  • The tip, edge or limit of something
  • verb
  • To be the last part of something

layoff

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US / 'leɪɔ:f /

UK / ˈleˌ ɔf /

C2
  • noun
  • Act of sacking employees when work is lacking

worldwide

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US / ˈwɜ:ldwaɪd /

UK / ˈwɚldˈwaɪd /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Spanning or extending throughout the entire world
  • adverb

datum

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US / ˈdeɪtəm /

UK / ˈdetəm, ˈdætəm, ˈdɑtəm /

B1
  • noun
  • Item of factual information

his

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US / hɪz /

UK / hɪz /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Something belonging to a male person

percent

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US / pə'sent /

UK / pɚˈsɛnt /

A2
  • adverb
  • One one-hundredth of a whole; the symbol %

store

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US / stɔ:(r) /

UK / stɔr, stor /

A2
  • noun
  • Place where things are kept for future use
  • Place where you can go to buy things
  • verb
  • To put things in a place for later use

spending

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US / ˈspendɪŋ /

UK / ˈspɛndɪŋ /

A2
  • verb
  • To use money to pay for something
  • To use time in order to do something
  • To use up something completely

upon

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US / əˈpɔn, əpən /

UK / əˈpɑn, əˈpɔn /

A1
  • preposition
  • More formal term for 'on'

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

equation

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US / ɪˈkweɪʒn /

UK / ɪˈkweʒən, -ʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Mathematical statement showing things to be equal
  • Complex set of different facts, ideas or issues

news

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US / nju:z /

UK / nu:z /

A1
  • noun
  • Broadcast on radio or TV about recent events
  • Information about recent events

consumer

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US / kənˈsju:mə(r) /

UK / kənˈsumɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Person who buys goods or services

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

letter

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US / 'letə(r) /

UK / ˈlɛtɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • One of the 26 parts of the English alphabet
  • Message you put in an envelope and send by post

line

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US / laɪn /

UK / laɪn /

A1
  • noun
  • Border that divides two places or regions
  • Long crease in the skin, often from age
  • Mark that is long, straight and very thin
  • Row of words, letters or numbers that are written
  • Telephone connection
  • People waiting one behind the other; queue
  • Long thin wire, e.g. for electrical signal
  • verb
  • To put material along the inside of something

talk

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US / tɔ:k /

UK / tɔk /

A1
  • noun
  • Style of speaking
  • Discussion between two countries
  • Giving information in front of people; lecture
  • Saying things or ideas to someone with words
  • verb
  • To make a formal speech about something
  • To say things or ideas to someone with words

technology

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US / tek'nɒlədʒɪ /

UK / tɛkˈnɑlədʒi /

A2
  • noun
  • Use or knowledge of science in industry etc.

grow

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US / ɡrəʊ /

UK / ɡro /

A1
  • verb
  • To get bigger and more mature; make plants do this
  • To improve; to develop better skills over time
  • To develop and become bigger or taller over time

start

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US / stɑ:t /

UK / stɑrt /

A1
  • noun
  • First time or place that a thing exists; beginning
  • First opportunity to achieve something, e.g. a job
  • Sudden action or movement because you are scared
  • other
  • Beginning of something in place or time
  • verb
  • To do, be or happen for the first time; begin
  • To turn something on

set

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US / set /

UK / sɛt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Prepared for something; ready
  • noun
  • Complete group of something
  • Place where a television show or movie is filmed
  • Group of games in a tennis match
  • Device that receives radio or television signals
  • verb
  • To make a clock state or ring at a particular time
  • To decide upon or choose something
  • To make something ready for use (e.g. table)
  • To decide on a price for something
  • To become hard (of glue, concrete etc.)
  • To be located in a specific place or time
  • To put (e.g. a vase) down carefully in a place
  • To put someone in a certain condition or state
  • (Of the sun) to go lower than the horizon

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

unique

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US / jʊ'ni:k /

UK / juˈnik /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Unlike other things; being the only one like it

incredible

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US / ɪnˈkredəbl /

UK / ɪnˈkrɛdəbəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very good; amazing
  • Really good; amazing; great
  • Very hard to believe

reallocate

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US / ˌriːˈæləkeɪt /

UK / ˌriːˈæləkeɪt /

B1
  • verb
  • To redistribute or set apart according to a plan

streamline

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US / ˈstri:mlaɪn /

UK / ˈstrimˌlaɪn /

C2
  • adjecitve
  • Having a smooth efficient shape
  • verb
  • To make smooth or more efficient

eighty

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US / 'eɪtɪ /

UK / ˈeti /

A1
  • number
  • 80

those

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US / ðəʊz /

UK / ðoz /

A1
  • determiner
  • The people or things we are talking about
  • pronoun
  • The objects far from the speaker

though

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US / ðəu /

UK / ðo /

A1
  • adverb
  • Although, despite the fact that

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

infrastructure

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US / 'ɪnfrəstrʌktʃə(r) /

UK / ˈɪnfrəˌstrʌktʃɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Basic necessary equipment for a country or region

short

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US / ʃɔ:t /

UK / ʃɔrt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Less than what is needed
  • Suddenly stopping what you are saying or doing
  • verb
  • (Of electric circuit) to spark because faulty
  • adjecitve
  • Measuring a small distance
  • Happening for a small amount of time
  • Unfriendly or rude

spend

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US / spend /

UK / spɛnd /

A2
  • verb
  • To use money to pay for something
  • To use time in order to do something
  • To use up something completely

through

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US / θru: /

UK / θru /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • having finished using or doing something
  • adverb
  • From the beginning of something until the end
  • preposition
  • Over, in, across an entire thing or place
  • Allowing you to pass between, or to
  • By a particular way or process; by the use of

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

why

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US / waɪ /

UK / hwaɪ, waɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Question word to ask for a reason
  • exclamation
  • (Used to express surprise or approval)

fact

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US / fækt /

UK / fækt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that is known or proved to be true

much

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US / mʌtʃ /

UK / mʌtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very; to a high level or degree
  • adverb
  • A lot; large amount; a high degree of
  • Nearly; basically
  • On many occasions; often
  • noun
  • A large amount; a great quantity

itself

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US / ɪtˈself /

UK / ɪtˈsɛlf /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Referring to it

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

here

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • adverb
  • In this place; at this location, position or time

new

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US / nju: /

UK / nu, nju /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not old, recently born, built or made
  • Being or doing something for the first time
  • Not felt, seen or known previously
  • Having been recently bought or obtained

shareholder

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US / ˈʃeəhəʊldə(r) /

UK / ˈʃerhoʊldə(r) /

C2
  • noun
  • Someone who holds shares of stock in a corporation

try

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US / traɪ /

UK / traɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of putting the ball over the rugby goal line
  • verb
  • To make an effort, to attempt to do something
  • To examine someone or something in a court of law
  • To test to see if it is good or you like it
  • To make a person go through hardship; test
  • To examine something to see if it works

enterprise

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US / ˈentəpraɪz /

UK / ˈentərpraɪz /

A2
  • noun
  • A business or organization
  • Task often considered difficult or challenging

market

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US / ˈmɑ:kɪt /

UK / ˈmɑ:rkɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • Need or demand for a particular product or service
  • Area or region where a certain product is sold
  • Public event where people sell goods on tables
  • Institution where stocks are bought and sold
  • verb
  • To publicize products to get you to buy; advertise

memory

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US / 'memərɪ /

UK / ˈmɛməri /

A2
  • noun
  • Ability of the mind to call back past things
  • Space for the storage of information on a computer
  • Something that has been remembered

reason

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US / 'ri:zn /

UK / ˈrizən /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to think about facts and form a judgment
  • Explanation for why something occurred or was done
  • verb
  • To think and make conclusions in a logical manner

side

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US / saɪd /

UK / saɪd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In addition to the central or most important thing
  • Next to, or very close to, the right or left of
  • noun
  • Position or opinion that is opposite to another
  • Right or left part of a person's body
  • Feature of someone's personality
  • Straight edge of an object
  • One of two or more groups fighting each other
  • verb
  • To decide to agree with one point, not the other

exclusive

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US / ɪk'sklu:sɪv /

UK / ɪkˈsklusɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being available only to people with a lot of money
  • Available to only a particular person, group

seattle

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US / sɪ'ætl /

UK / sɪ'ætl /

A1
  • proper noun
  • A port and industrial city in the state of Washington, on the eastern shores of Puget Sound; populat

sell

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US / sel /

UK / sɛl /

A1
  • verb
  • To exchange something for money
  • To persuade people to do, like or agree

strategic

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US / strəˈti:dʒɪk /

UK / strəˈtidʒɪk /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerned with strategy; well thought out

economy

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US / ɪ'kɒnəmɪ /

UK / ɪˈkɑnəmi /

A1
  • noun
  • Using money, resources in a careful, effective way
  • Total of all goods, services and wages in an area

four

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US / fɔ:(r) /

UK / fɔr, for /

A1
  • number
  • 4

global

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US / ˈgləʊbl /

UK / ˈgloʊbl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning, involving, affecting all of something
  • Of, affecting, or involving the entire world

while

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US / waɪl /

UK / hwaɪl, waɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • In spite of the fact that; although
  • During the time that; at the same time
  • noun
  • Short amount of time

balance

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US / ˈbæləns /

UK / ˈbæləns /

A2
  • noun
  • Instrument for weighing things
  • Being stable; having equal weight on both sides
  • Money remaining after paying costs
  • verb
  • To be steady by having equal weight on both sides
  • To make two or more things equal

sort

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US / sɔ:t /

UK / sɔrt /

A1
  • noun
  • Group or class of similar things or people
  • verb
  • To organize things by putting them into groups
  • To deal with things in an organized way

point

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US / pɔɪnt /

UK / pɔɪnt /

A1
  • noun
  • An item to be discussed
  • Small spot or dot
  • Fact or detail
  • Feature of something
  • The size of the text on a page or screen
  • A certain time or stage in a process
  • Certain position in time or space
  • Idea or fact you try to convince people about
  • Measurement of scores in a game, sport
  • Sharp end of something, e.g. a pen or pin
  • verb
  • To face a certain direction, e.g. north
  • To indicate something with your finger to others

revenue

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US / 'revənju: /

UK / ˈrevənju /

A2
  • noun
  • Money that is made by or paid to a business
  • Money a government collects from its people

price

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US / praɪs /

UK / praɪs /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • Cost of something in money
  • verb
  • To determine or set the cost of something

physical

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US / ˈfɪzɪkl /

UK / ˈfɪzɪkəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the body of a person
  • Concerning things that can be seen or touched
  • noun
  • Health check at the doctors' or hospital

forward

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US / 'fɔ:wəd /

UK / ˈfɔrwəd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Toward what is ahead; in front
  • Acting in a socially aggressive manner; pushy
  • adverb
  • Toward the front in place; in front
  • Toward a future time; to a more advanced state
  • verb
  • To send something to another address or person

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

invent

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US / ɪnˈvent /

UK / ɪnˈvɛnt /

A2
  • verb
  • To create something such as a story or excuse
  • To create something useful for the first time

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

across

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US / əˈkrɔs /

UK / əˈkrɔs,əˈkrɑs /

A1
  • adverb
  • Distance from one side to another
  • (Go) from one side to the other of something

flip

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US / flɪp /

UK / flɪp /

B2
  • noun
  • Act of turning your body in the air; somersault
  • Movement of something from one position to another
  • verb
  • To turn your body in the air, as in gymnastics
  • To move into a different position quickly
  • To move a button or switch to turn on or off

play

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US / pleɪ /

UK / pleɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Loose, free movement between two objects
  • Single action in a sports game
  • Performance in which people act in a theater
  • verb
  • To act as a character in a movie, or on stage
  • To perform music on an instrument
  • To use a device, e.g. a video game
  • To do something for enjoyment and fun
  • To do or perform a game or sport

shop

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US / ʃɒp /

UK / ʃɑ:p /

A1
  • noun
  • Place to learn how to fix or make things; class
  • Place where things are fixed or repaired, e.g. cars
  • Place which sells things
  • verb
  • To look for or buy goods or services

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

word

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US / wɜ:d /

UK / wɚd /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of language that has a meaning
  • Promise
  • Short remark or piece of information
  • verb
  • To express something by choosing particular words

investment

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US / ɪnˈvestmənt /

UK / ɪnˈvɛstmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Something purchased hoping its value will increase
  • Act of giving time, energy to see a future reward

might

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US / maɪt /

UK / maɪt /

A1
  • other
  • Used to politely request an action
  • Used to express that something could happen
  • Power, strength, force or influence

macroeconomic

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US / ˌmækrəʊˌiːkəˈnɒmɪk /

UK / ˌmækroʊɛkəˈnɑmɪk /

C1
  • adjecitve
  • Of large economic systems extending over region

rate

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US / reɪt /

UK / ret /

A1
  • noun
  • Current price or cost of something
  • Speed or frequency of events over time
  • verb
  • To assess something or consider its qualities

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

able

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US / 'eɪbl /

UK / ˈebəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Skilled; good at something
  • Having the ability to do something

premise

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US / 'premɪs /

UK / ˈprɛmɪs /

B1
  • noun
  • Foundation idea in an argument/discussion
  • verb
  • To base your argument on

term

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US / tɜ:m /

UK / tɚm /

A1
  • noun
  • Conditions applying to an agreement, contract
  • Length of time something is expected to happen
  • Fixed period of weeks for learning at school
  • The (precise) name given to something
  • verb
  • To call; give a name to

demand

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US / dɪ'mɑ:nd /

UK / dɪˈmænd /

A2
  • noun
  • Desire customers have to buy product, service
  • A strong request for someone to do something
  • verb
  • To strongly request someone to do something

innovate

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US / ˈɪnəveɪt /

UK / ˈɪnəˌvet /

B1
  • verb
  • To introduce or create new things or make changes

run

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US / rʌn /

UK / rʌn /

A1
  • noun
  • Journey between two places made by ship or car
  • Series of similar things or successes and failures
  • Act of running; exercise of running
  • verb
  • To depart or travel according to a schedule
  • To cause an animal to move in a certain direction
  • (Of an engine) to be operating
  • To start or use a computer program
  • To flow in a certain direction, like a liquid
  • To manage or operate a business
  • To operate or drive something
  • (Of a road) to go from one place to another
  • To move your legs faster than walking

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

five

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US / faɪv /

UK / faɪv /

A1
  • number
  • 5

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

live

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US / lɪv /

UK / liv /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being broadcast as events happen, not recorded
  • Carrying electric current; able to give a shock
  • Glowing because burning; hot
  • Not yet killed (for food)
  • adverb
  • (Music, drama) as it is performed
  • verb
  • To be alive
  • To experience a particular type of life
  • To make your home in a house or town

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

tell

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US / tel /

UK / tɛl /

A1
  • verb
  • To (strongly) advise a person to do something
  • To be able to guess
  • To say or communicate information to someone
  • To inform, but without speaking; indicate
  • To have a negative effect on someone
  • To order someone to do something; command
  • To recognize something based on certain signs
  • To report something to an authority
  • To explain something or teach someone something

growth

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US / grəʊθ /

UK / groʊθ /

A2
  • noun
  • Improvement, development in a skill over time
  • A mass on the skin or body part related to illness
  • Act of growing

layoffs

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US / ˈleɪˈɒfs /

UK / ˈleɪˌɔfs /

C2
  • other
  • Act of sacking employees when work is lacking

right

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US / raɪt /

UK / raɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Correct or true
  • The south side of you looking at the rising sun
  • adverb
  • Exactly in a place or time
  • Being appropriate for a particular event
  • In a straight or direct manner
  • noun
  • Something you are legally or morally allowed to do
  • Ideal of what is just and good
  • Political view based on conservatism
  • verb
  • To fix something previously wrong or unjust
  • To make upright, as a boat that has turned over

thirty

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US / 'θɜ:tɪ /

UK / ˈθə:ti /

A1
  • number
  • 30

down

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US / daʊn /

UK / daʊn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being sad, sick, or unhappy
  • Not operating, working, or functioning as expected
  • adverb
  • In a sitting or lying position
  • Towards or on the ground, floor, or bottom
  • Written or copied onto a piece of paper or book
  • noun
  • A period of play in American Football
  • The soft, smooth hairs that cover a bird's body
  • preposition
  • Along something's path, course, or direction
  • Going from a higher position to a lower position
  • verb
  • To eat or drink very quickly and without stopping

during

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US / ˈdjʊərɪŋ /

UK / ˈdʊrɪŋ, ˈdjʊr- /

A1
  • preposition
  • At some point in the course of an event or thing

preserve

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US / prɪˈzɜ:v /

UK / prɪˈzɜ:rv /

B1
  • noun
  • Protected area of land with plants and animals
  • verb
  • To cook food so it can be kept for long periods
  • To protect something from harm, loss or damage
  • To keep or maintain unchanged or perfect

then

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US / ðen /

UK / ðɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • A time that is not now
  • Following another thing in time or arrangement
  • Following on reasonably from what was just stated
  • At that time, not now

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

hard

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US / hɑ:d /

UK / hɑː(r)d /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Difficult to do; difficult to understand
  • (Of facts) not able to be misunderstood; clear
  • (Of alcohol) strong
  • Involving or requiring lots of work, effort, care
  • Being full of pain, trouble, and problems
  • Strong
  • (Of edge) clear; sharp
  • Difficult to bend, break or cut; solid
  • adverb
  • With lots of force, power, or impact

annual

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US / ˈænjuəl /

UK / ˈænjuəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Happening once a year, or every year
  • noun
  • Book (in a series) released each year

case

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US / keɪs /

UK / kes /

A1
  • noun
  • Container used to carry things, e.g. clothes
  • Set of facts about a crime
  • Set of facts about an event
  • Example or instance of something
  • verb
  • To find out about a place, as in planning to steal

find

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US / faɪnd /

UK / faɪnd /

A1
  • noun
  • Object discovered by chance
  • Things that have been discovered from searching
  • verb
  • To become aware of something that is happening
  • To discover or meet by chance
  • To decide if someone is guilty of a crime, or not
  • To learn through study, research, or effort
  • To discover something by looking for it

great

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US / ɡreɪt /

UK / ɡret /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very large in size
  • Very important
  • Very good; fantastic; wonderful
  • adverb
  • Very good; better than before
  • noun
  • Successful and well-admired person

partner

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US / 'pɑ:tnə(r) /

UK / ˈpɑrtnɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • One you have a business/personal relationship with
  • Someone you have personal relationship with
  • verb
  • To join with others for work or other activity

priority

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US / praɪ'ɒrətɪ /

UK / praɪˈɔrɪti, -ˈɑr- /

B1
  • noun
  • Thing that is more important/urgent than others

variation

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US / ˌveəriˈeɪʃn /

UK / ˌvɛriˈeʃən, ˈvær- /

A2
  • noun
  • Something almost the same as another but different
  • Music played with a different tune from another

happen

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US / 'hæpən /

UK / ˈhæpən /

A1
  • verb
  • To take place or occur

yeah

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US / jeə /

UK / ˈjɛə, ˈjæə, jɛ- /

A1
  • exclamation
  • Another way of saying 'yes'

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

different

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US / ˈdɪfrənt /

UK / ˈdɪfrənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not of the same kind; unlike other things

even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

impact

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US / 'ɪmpækt /

UK / ˈɪmˌpækt /

A2
  • noun
  • A striking effect or result to hit with force
  • Very strong influence
  • Act or force of one thing hitting something else
  • verb
  • To hit or strike someone or something with force

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

optimism

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US / ˈɒptɪmɪzəm /

UK / ˈɑptəˌmɪzəm /

B2
  • noun
  • Condition of having a positive outlook or belief

people

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US / 'pi:pl /

UK / ˈpipəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Persons sharing culture, country, background, etc.
  • Men, Women, Children

second

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US / 'sekənd /

UK / ˈsɛkənd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 2nd; the one following first
  • noun
  • Unit of time; one sixtieth of a minute
  • Short period of time that you wait for someone
  • (Do) soon

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • Amazon CEO Andy Jassy recently released his second annual shareholder letter, highlighting the challenges the company has faced over the past year. In an exclusive interview, Jassy discusses the impact of the pandemic on consumer and enterprise spending, as well as the future investments and growth potential for Amazon.
    Jassy begins by expressing his optimism for the future of Amazon. He notes that despite being a $434 billion retail business, Amazon only holds a 1% market share in the worldwide retail segment, with 80% of retail still taking place in physical stores. Similarly, in the AWS (Amazon Web Services) business, with an $85 billion revenue run rate, 90% of global IT spend is still on premises rather than in the cloud. Jassy believes that these trends will eventually shift, leading to significant growth opportunities for Amazon.
    Considering the challenging macroeconomic conditions of the past year, Jassy emphasizes the impressive growth of Amazon's top line, especially during the pandemic. Despite the difficulties, the company has managed to maintain its growth trajectory and even experience a surge in demand.
  • Subtitles section
  • We are live in Seattle this morning with an exclusive interview with Andy Jassy, of course, the CEO of Amazon, just out this morning with his second annual shareholder letter, now as CEO.
  • And we had an opportunity to spend some time with you last year at this time.
  • But what a year.
  • It's been a challenging year.
  • You talk about your optimism, but I want to talk about sort of what's happened over the last year.
  • There's some new news in this about some of the corporate layoffs and where you see this company.
  • At the same time, in terms of thinking about investments in the future and what that balance looks like.
  • Yeah, well, it's I think when when you I'm very optimistic about what lies ahead for Amazon.
  • And I think there are a lot of reasons for I'd start with just a couple data points.
  • If you if you look at our two largest businesses, if you look in our stores business, which are retail business, we still only have even though it's about a four hundred thirty four billion dollar business.
  • We still only have about one percent of the worldwide market segment share in retail and 80 percent of it still lives in physical stores.
  • And if you look in our AWS business, which is about an eighty five billion dollar revenue run rate business, about 90 percent of that global IT spend is still on premises, not in the cloud.
  • So if you believe that those equations are going to flip over time, which we do and we're seeing we have a lot more growth in front of us.
  • And so I look at where we are today and then I think about working through one of the harder macroeconomic years in recent memory.
  • And the fact that we were able to grow our top line on top of an incredible surge during the pandemic.
  • And the fact that we were able to innovate across all our businesses, which will impact both the short and long term.
  • And the fact that we have changed the way that we're going to invent and collaborate together by getting into the office more.
  • And the fact that we were able to meaningfully streamline our costs while at the same time, preserving the strategic long term investments that we believe can meaningfully change customer experiences in Amazon for the long term.
  • I think we've got a lot to look forward to.
  • At the same time, you do talk about macroeconomic headwinds, especially in the context of AWS.
  • How do you see that playing itself out?
  • We keep talking about the R word recession.
  • Do you see that upon us here?
  • Well, you know, we see a couple of different things right now.
  • You know, on the consumer side, consumers are spending, but they're just much more careful about what they're spending on.
  • And we see a lot of trading down in price.
  • A lot of trading down.
  • We do.
  • You know, if you have a variation of a product and you might have seen more people shopping at the higher end, you see people trying to save money wherever they can.
  • And people are very deal conscious.
  • It's why we spent so much time with our selling partners trying to find great deals and bargains for people.
  • And so you see that on the consumer side.
  • On the enterprise side, most companies are trying to find ways in an uncertain economy to save money however they can.
  • And that impacts in our enterprise business.
  • It impacts things like advertising, as you see around the industry, but also in people's technology infrastructure spend.
  • And so, you know, in the case of AWS, we're spending a lot of our time trying to help customers save money at this point.
  • One of the great things about the cloud and AWS is that when you have much more demand, you can seamlessly scale up.
  • And if you don't have that demand, you can give it back to us and stop paying for it.
  • That elasticity is very unique in the cloud.
  • You don't get that on premises.
  • And so because we're trying to build a set of customer relationships in a business that outlast all of us and are not optimized for any one quarter a year, we're spending most of our time trying to help our customers save money.
  • And what most of them tell us is they say, look, we're not really cost cutting.
  • We're cost optimizing.
  • And we want to reallocate our priorities and our resources on things that can change our customer experience.
  • On the AWS side, though.