Subtitles section
Repeat sentence
Subtitles mode
Full screen
Previous
Next
x 1.0
Playback speed
More

The year without summer - David Biello

Video vocabulary

already

Copy vocabulary

US / ɔ:lˈredi /

UK / ɔlˈrɛdi /

A1
  • adverb
  • Having happened or been done before this time

enlarge

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪn'lɑ:dʒ /

UK / ɛnˈlɑrdʒ /

B2
  • verb
  • To make something larger (e.g. a photo)

many

Copy vocabulary

US / 'menɪ /

UK / ˈmɛni /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer a large number of things

thousand

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈθaʊznd /

UK / ˈθaʊzənd /

A1
  • number
  • Number 1,000

weather

Copy vocabulary

US / 'weðə(r) /

UK / ˈwɛðɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Whether it is raining, sunny, cold etc. outside
  • verb
  • To successfully deal with a difficult situation
  • To erode or become damaged due to the environment

will

Copy vocabulary

US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

governmental

Copy vocabulary

US / ˌgʌvnˈmentl /

UK / ˌɡʌvərnˈmentl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning government or government business

point

Copy vocabulary

US / pɔɪnt /

UK / pɔɪnt /

A1
  • noun
  • An item to be discussed
  • Small spot or dot
  • Fact or detail
  • Feature of something
  • The size of the text on a page or screen
  • A certain time or stage in a process
  • Certain position in time or space
  • Idea or fact you try to convince people about
  • Measurement of scores in a game, sport
  • Sharp end of something, e.g. a pen or pin
  • verb
  • To face a certain direction, e.g. north
  • To indicate something with your finger to others

proposal

Copy vocabulary

US / prəˈpəʊzl /

UK / prəˈpozəl /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of asking someone to marry you
  • Offer or plan to people who can decide about it

actually

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈæktʃuəli /

UK / ˈæktʃuəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to add new (often different) information

use

Copy vocabulary

US / ju:s /

UK / ju:s /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to employ something
  • Need to enable it to work
  • Permission to do something with something
  • Act of spending money
  • Operation of a machine for its function
  • verb
  • To have; to eat, drink, consume etc.
  • To need to operate or work
  • To operate a machine, e.g. a computer
  • To treat a person badly
  • To do something with, for a task or purpose

desperate

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈdespərət /

UK / ˈdɛspərɪt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being beyond hope; prepared to do anything
  • State of urgently wanting to go to the toilet

haze

Copy vocabulary

US / heɪz /

UK / hez /

B2
  • noun
  • Dust, smoke, or gas that darkens or clouds the air
  • State of confusion about thoughts, or meanings
  • verb
  • To initiate members who perform dangerous acts

someone

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈsʌmwʌn /

UK / ˈsʌmˌwʌn, -wən /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person who is not known or named

unpredictable

Copy vocabulary

US / ˌʌnprɪˈdɪktəbl /

UK / ˌʌnprɪˈdɪktəbəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Difficult to guess about (the future)

eruption

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪ'rʌpʃn /

UK / ɪˈrʌpʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of happening suddenly or begin doing
  • Process of a volcano shooting out hot rocks

marine

Copy vocabulary

US / mə'ri:n /

UK / məˈrin /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Of the ocean or ocean plants and animals
  • Concerning sailing or doing business by sea
  • noun
  • Soldier trained to serve on land and sea

reason

Copy vocabulary

US / 'ri:zn /

UK / ˈrizən /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to think about facts and form a judgment
  • Explanation for why something occurred or was done
  • verb
  • To think and make conclusions in a logical manner

sunshade

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈsʌnʃeɪd /

UK / ˈsʌnˌʃed /

A1
  • noun
  • A parasol, awning, or other device giving protection from the sun.

burn

Copy vocabulary

US / bɜ:n /

UK / bɚn /

A1
  • noun
  • Damage from fire or heat
  • verb
  • To destroy with fire
  • To feel pain and heat
  • To use as fuel for a fire to make light or heat
  • To overcook food with too much heat it goes black

global

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈgləʊbl /

UK / ˈgloʊbl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning, involving, affecting all of something
  • Of, affecting, or involving the entire world

obviously

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈɒbviəsli /

UK / ˈɑːbviəsli /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a way that is obvious/easy to see or understand

while

Copy vocabulary

US / waɪl /

UK / hwaɪl, waɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • In spite of the fact that; although
  • During the time that; at the same time
  • noun
  • Short amount of time

countless

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈkaʊntləs /

UK / ˈkaʊntlɪs /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being too many to be numbered or imagined

massive

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈmæsɪv /

UK / ˈmæsɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Very big; large; too big

realm

Copy vocabulary

US / relm /

UK / rɛlm /

B2
  • noun
  • Area ruled by a king or queen
  • Field of knowledge or thought

should

Copy vocabulary

US / ʃʊd /

UK / ʃʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate what is proper or reasonable

unless

Copy vocabulary

US / ənˈles /

UK / ʌnˈlɛs /

A2
  • conjunction
  • Negative of 'if'

white

Copy vocabulary

US / waɪt /

UK / hwaɪt, waɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Belonging to a race of people with light skin
  • Of the color of fresh snow and milk
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • Lightest color; The color of fresh snow.

enhance

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪn'hɑ:ns /

UK / ɛnˈhæns /

B1
  • verb
  • To improve; make bigger or better

extreme

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪk'stri:m /

UK / ɪkˈstrim /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Very great in degree
  • Farthest from a center
  • Very severe; very strong
  • noun
  • Effort that is thought more than is necessary

small

Copy vocabulary

US / smɔ:l /

UK / smɔl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Little in size; not big
  • (Of letters) not written in capital letters
  • Being insignificant or minor
  • (Of a business) with few people or things; local
  • (Of voice) being soft and quiet
  • (Of a child) being young

ash

Copy vocabulary

US / æʃ /

UK / æʃ /

B1
  • noun
  • Gray powder left after a fire

orbit

Copy vocabulary

US / 'ɔ:bɪt /

UK / ˈɔrbɪt /

B2
  • noun
  • Path an object takes as it circles another object
  • verb
  • To go around another object (often in space)

rebound

Copy vocabulary

US / rɪ'baʊnd /

UK / ˈriˈbaʊnd, rɪ- /

B2
  • noun
  • Bouncing off something, then going back into play
  • Recovery after defeat/bad time back to good state
  • verb
  • To bounce off of a surface
  • To recover or increase after decreasing

sulphurous

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈsʌlfərəs /

UK / ˈsʌlfərəs /

C2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning or containing sulfur

with

Copy vocabulary

US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

away

Copy vocabulary

US / ə'weɪ /

UK / əˈwe /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not present
  • adverb
  • Disappear completely
  • Doing something with a lot of energy
  • Not here; far from here; in a different direction
  • To a different area, location

dark

Copy vocabulary

US / dɑ:k /

UK / dɑrk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Of a color that is not light
  • Marked by unhappiness or hopelessness
  • Having little or no light; not light in color
  • noun
  • The time of day when the sky is black

indonesia

Copy vocabulary

US / ˌɪndəʊ'ni:zjə /

UK / ˌɪndə'ni:ʒəˌ -ʃəˌ -doʊ- /

A1
  • noun
  • A republic in southeastern Asia on an archipelago including more than , islands; achieved independen

model

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈmɒdl /

UK / ˈmɑ:dl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being an excellent example of
  • noun
  • Person who wears fashion to show it to the public
  • A small scale copy of a full original
  • verb
  • To wear and display clothes at a fashion show
  • To make a small scale copy of a full original

meter

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈmi:tə(r) /

UK / ˈmitɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of length equal to 100 cm or about 39 inches
  • Device for measuring things e.g. gas
  • Device to put money into to rent a parking place
  • Rhythm of a poem
  • verb
  • To measure water, etc. when it has to be paid for

protect

Copy vocabulary

US / prə'tekt /

UK / prəˈtɛkt /

A1
  • verb
  • To defend someone or something from harm or danger

rapidly

Copy vocabulary

US / 'ræpɪdlɪ /

UK / ˈræpɪdlɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • With great speed; quickly

world

Copy vocabulary

US / wɜ:ld /

UK / wɜrld /

A1
  • noun
  • All the humans, events, activities on the earth
  • Political division due to some kind of similarity

curb

Copy vocabulary

US / kɜ:b /

UK / kɚb /

B2
  • noun
  • Anything that restrains or controls

could

Copy vocabulary

US / kəd /

UK / kʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Past form of 'can' to mean have ability
  • Used to ask for something politely, or to offer

moment

Copy vocabulary

US / 'məʊmənt /

UK / 'moʊmənt /

A1
  • noun
  • Very short or brief period of time
  • A particular period in time

know

Copy vocabulary

US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

repeat

Copy vocabulary

US / rɪˈpi:t /

UK / rɪˈpit /

A2
  • noun
  • Action that is done again
  • Musical passage that is to be played again
  • Radio or television program that was shown before
  • verb
  • To do something over again
  • To say something you have learned and memorized
  • To relate something you have been told by another
  • To say something again

unnatural

Copy vocabulary

US / ʌnˈnætʃrəl /

UK / ʌnˈnætʃərəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Not being what you would expect; not normal
  • Being different from anything occurring in nature

air

Copy vocabulary

US / eə(r) /

UK / er /

A1
  • noun
  • Mixture of gases around the earth that we breathe
  • A person's manner intended to impress others
  • verb
  • To expose to the outside, to dry or freshen
  • To broadcast a TV or radio show
  • To open a subject to discussion and debate

decade

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈdekeɪd /

UK / ˈdɛkˌed, dɛˈked /

B1
  • noun
  • Period of 10 years

draw

Copy vocabulary

US / drɔ: /

UK / drɔ /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that attracts people to visit a place
  • A lottery or prize
  • Result of a game, contest where the score is equal
  • verb
  • To attract attention to someone or something
  • To get closer to or approach something or someone
  • To influence a person's involvement in something
  • To move an object by pulling
  • To create an image using pen or pencil and paper
  • To take one thing out of a container, etc.
  • (Of 2 teams) to finish a game with the same score

crop

Copy vocabulary

US / krɒp /

UK / krɑp /

B1
  • noun
  • Plants grown on a farm for food, e.g. corn or rice
  • Section of short, thick hair
  • verb
  • To cut something to a shorter length or size

hear

Copy vocabulary

US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • verb
  • To be aware of sound; to perceive with the ear
  • To be told or find out information or facts
  • To consider or listen to a court case

history

Copy vocabulary

US / 'hɪstrɪ /

UK / ˈhɪstəri /

A2
  • noun
  • Established pattern or record
  • Study of past events as an academic subject

sun

Copy vocabulary

US / sʌn /

UK / sʌn /

A1
  • noun
  • Light and heat coming from a large star in the sky
  • Hot shining star the Earth moves around
  • verb
  • To lie in the sunshine and enjoy its warmth

agriculture

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈægrɪkʌltʃə(r) /

UK / ˈæɡrɪˌkʌltʃɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • The science of farming

epidemic

Copy vocabulary

US / ˌepɪ'demɪk /

UK / ˌɛpɪˈdɛmɪk /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Disease that spreads quickly affecting many
  • noun
  • Something that spreads suddenly and widely

fall

Copy vocabulary

US / fɔ:l /

UK / fɔl /

A1
  • noun
  • Season after summer and before winter; Autumn
  • A drop in amount; decrease
  • Dropping from a standing position to the ground
  • verb
  • To drop in amount; to decrease
  • To come down from a higher position suddenly
  • To go from standing to the ground, by accident

focus

Copy vocabulary

US / 'fəʊkəs /

UK / ˈfokəs /

A2
  • noun
  • Main purpose or center of interest or activity
  • verb
  • To see clearly by adjusting your eyes or a camera
  • To keep your attention, concentration on one thing

furthermore

Copy vocabulary

US / ˌfɜ:ðəˈmɔ:(r) /

UK / ˌfɜ:rðərˈmɔ:r /

B1
  • adverb
  • In addition to what has been said

unintended

Copy vocabulary

US / ˌʌnɪnˈtendɪd /

UK / ˌʌnɪnˈtɛndɪd /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being unplanned or not as planned

reef

Copy vocabulary

US / ri:f /

UK / rif /

B2
  • noun
  • Line of rocks or sand at the surface of the ocean
  • Rolling up sail to make it smaller in strong winds
  • verb
  • To roll up sail to make it smaller in strong winds

scientist

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈsaɪəntɪst /

UK / ˈsaɪəntɪst /

A2
  • noun
  • Person who is trained in a science

volcanic

Copy vocabulary

US / vɒlˈkænɪk /

UK / vɑ:lˈkænɪk /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • (E.g. of a temperament) easily angered; violent
  • Of or relating to a volcano or volcanoes

almost

Copy vocabulary

US / 'ɔ:lməʊst /

UK / ˈɔlˌmost, ɔlˈmost /

A1
  • adverb
  • Only a little less than, nearly, not quite

century

Copy vocabulary

US / 'sentʃərɪ /

UK / ˈsɛntʃəri /

A1
  • noun
  • Period of 100 years

have

Copy vocabulary

US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

last

Copy vocabulary

US / lɑ:st /

UK / læst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Most recent; the latest
  • The one before
  • adverb
  • Final; with nothing following; after all others
  • Most recent; the latest
  • determiner
  • The one at the end
  • verb
  • To remain or continue for a certain period of time

island

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈaɪlənd /

UK / ˈaɪlənd /

A1
  • noun
  • Area of land that is surrounded by water

intervene

Copy vocabulary

US / ˌɪntəˈvi:n /

UK / ˌɪntərˈvi:n /

B1
  • verb
  • To get involved to try to prevent trouble

plan

Copy vocabulary

US / plæn /

UK / plæn /

A1
  • noun
  • Drawing of how something should be done or made

sunlight

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈsʌnlaɪt /

UK / ˈsʌnˌlaɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Rays of light coming from the sun

without

Copy vocabulary

US / wɪˈðaʊt /

UK / wɪðˈaʊt, wɪθ- /

A1
  • preposition
  • Not with; not having

soot

Copy vocabulary

US / sʊt /

UK / sʊt, sut /

C1
  • noun
  • Fine, black powder produced during burning

cause

Copy vocabulary

US / kɔ:z /

UK / kɔz /

A2
  • noun
  • Belief, goal or organization that people support
  • Reason for
  • verb
  • To make something happen; create effect or result

enough

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪˈnʌf /

UK / ɪˈnʌf /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Sufficient to answer the need
  • adverb
  • To a satisfactory degree
  • pronoun
  • Equal to what is needed; as much as required
  • Adequate number or amount

great

Copy vocabulary

US / ɡreɪt /

UK / ɡret /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very large in size
  • Very important
  • Very good; fantastic; wonderful
  • adverb
  • Very good; better than before
  • noun
  • Successful and well-admired person

restrain

Copy vocabulary

US / rɪ'streɪn /

UK / rɪˈstren /

B1
  • verb
  • To limit, restrict, or keep under control

disappear

Copy vocabulary

US / ˌdɪsəˈpɪə(r) /

UK / ˌdɪsəˈpɪr /

A1
  • verb
  • To no longer see because it's not there any more

least

Copy vocabulary

US / li:st /

UK / list /

A1
  • adverb
  • In the smallest or lowest way
  • noun
  • Something that is of the lowest or smallest degree

action

Copy vocabulary

US / 'ækʃn /

UK / ˈækʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Something that a person or thing does
  • verb
  • To act to do something

apocalyptic

Copy vocabulary

US / əˌpɒkəˈlɪptɪk /

UK / əˌpɑkəˈlɪptɪk /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Involving great disaster or destruction

first

Copy vocabulary

US / fɜ:st /

UK / fɚst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 1st; Coming before all others in time or place
  • noun
  • Something that has not happened before
  • Position of the winner of a competition

actor

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈæktə(r) /

UK / ˈæktɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Person who acts in the theater, movies, or TV

example

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪgˈzɑ:mpl /

UK / ɪɡˈzæmpəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Thing, person which represents a category

greenhouse

Copy vocabulary

US / 'ɡri:nhaʊs /

UK / ˈɡrinˌhaʊs /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Greenhouse gas that makes the Earth get warmer
  • noun
  • Glass building used for growing plants

again

Copy vocabulary

US / ə'ɡen /

UK / əˈɡɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • One more time, once more

different

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈdɪfrənt /

UK / ˈdɪfrənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not of the same kind; unlike other things

even

Copy vocabulary

US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

impact

Copy vocabulary

US / 'ɪmpækt /

UK / ˈɪmˌpækt /

A2
  • noun
  • A striking effect or result to hit with force
  • Very strong influence
  • Act or force of one thing hitting something else
  • verb
  • To hit or strike someone or something with force

like

Copy vocabulary

US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

people

Copy vocabulary

US / 'pi:pl /

UK / ˈpipəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Persons sharing culture, country, background, etc.
  • Men, Women, Children

that

Copy vocabulary

US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

block

Copy vocabulary

US / blɒk /

UK / blɑk /

A2
  • noun
  • Solid piece of material used for building
  • A piece of wood, chocolate etc.
  • Hard piece of wood, stone etc. with straight edges
  • Building made up of offices or apartments
  • Area of a city divided by four streets
  • verb
  • To stop from going forward or making progress

down

Copy vocabulary

US / daʊn /

UK / daʊn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being sad, sick, or unhappy
  • Not operating, working, or functioning as expected
  • adverb
  • In a sitting or lying position
  • Towards or on the ground, floor, or bottom
  • Written or copied onto a piece of paper or book
  • noun
  • A period of play in American Football
  • The soft, smooth hairs that cover a bird's body
  • preposition
  • Along something's path, course, or direction
  • Going from a higher position to a lower position
  • verb
  • To eat or drink very quickly and without stopping

also

Copy vocabulary

US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

climate

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈklaɪmət /

UK / ˈklaɪmɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Typical weather conditions in a particular place

how

Copy vocabulary

US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

year

Copy vocabulary

US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

intense

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪn'tens /

UK / ɪnˈtɛns /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very strong, great or extreme in degree

surface

Copy vocabulary

US / 'sɜ:fɪs /

UK / ˈsɚfəs /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of the top layer; not deep or meaningful
  • noun
  • Top layer of the ground or of water
  • Nature or emotions that show, but may not be true
  • Outside or upper layer of something
  • verb
  • To give (road) a top layer
  • To appear after being hidden, unseen, or unknown
  • To come to the top of something; emerge
  • To come to the top level of water, mud, etc.

entire

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪn'taɪə(r) /

UK / ɛnˈtaɪr /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Complete or full; with no part left out; whole

into

Copy vocabulary

US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

one

Copy vocabulary

US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

other

Copy vocabulary

US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

pull

Copy vocabulary

US / pʊl /

UK / pʊl /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of breathing in smoke, as from a pipe
  • Force something has that draws other things to it
  • Using your hands to move something to you
  • verb
  • To breathe in smoke, as from a pipe
  • To hold something and move it toward you
  • To remove something by force

than

Copy vocabulary

US / ðən /

UK / ðən /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to compare two things that are not equal

little

Copy vocabulary

US / 'lɪtl /

UK / ˈlɪtl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being short in length of time
  • Not great in size, amount, or degree; small
  • Being very young or younger than others
  • adverb
  • By an amount or degree that is not very much
  • Not often; rarely
  • noun
  • A person's name

lead

Copy vocabulary

US / li:d /

UK / lid /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being the main part in movies or plays
  • noun
  • Wire for electricity, computer, etc.; cable
  • Information that could help to solve a crime
  • Main part in a play or movie
  • Heavy, gray metal element
  • Rope used to tie something to stop it escaping
  • Act of being at the front in a race or game
  • verb
  • To show the way or guide others
  • To be at the front of a race or game
  • To travel in front of; go in advance of others

natural

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈnætʃərəl /

UK / ˈnætʃərəl, ˈnætʃrəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being as one would expect; being usual or normal
  • Not made by humans; without human intervention

might

Copy vocabulary

US / maɪt /

UK / maɪt /

A1
  • other
  • Used to politely request an action
  • Used to express that something could happen
  • Power, strength, force or influence

researcher

Copy vocabulary

US / rɪ'sɜ:tʃə(r) /

UK / rɪˈsətʃɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Someone who works to find new facts and ideas

summer

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈsʌmə(r) /

UK / ˈsʌmɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Part of the year when the weather is hot
  • verb
  • To spend time in a place in the warm months

the

Copy vocabulary

US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

average

Copy vocabulary

US / 'ævərɪdʒ /

UK / ˈævərɪdʒ, ˈævrɪdʒ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Typical or normal; usual; ordinary
  • noun
  • Total of numbers divided by the number of items
  • verb
  • To add numbers then divide by the number of items

make

Copy vocabulary

US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

phenomenon

Copy vocabulary

US / fə'nɒmɪnən /

UK / fɪˈnɑməˌnɑn, -nən /

B1
  • noun
  • Unusual event, fact that can be studied
  • Interesting or unusual person, group
  • something that exists and can be seen, felt, tasted, etc., especially something unusual or interesti

safely

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈseɪfli /

UK / ˈseflɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Out of danger

run

Copy vocabulary

US / rʌn /

UK / rʌn /

A1
  • noun
  • Journey between two places made by ship or car
  • Series of similar things or successes and failures
  • Act of running; exercise of running
  • verb
  • To depart or travel according to a schedule
  • To cause an animal to move in a certain direction
  • (Of an engine) to be operating
  • To start or use a computer program
  • To flow in a certain direction, like a liquid
  • To manage or operate a business
  • To operate or drive something
  • (Of a road) to go from one place to another
  • To move your legs faster than walking

follow

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈfɔləu /

UK / ˈfɑlo /

A1
  • verb
  • To come after someone; be guided by someone
  • To support someone, e.g. singer or comedian
  • To be the logical result of something
  • To happen after something else happens
  • To believe a set of values or a moral teacher
  • To understand something happening or being said

giant

Copy vocabulary

US / 'dʒaɪənt /

UK / ˈdʒaɪənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very large, or much bigger than other things
  • noun
  • Tall, large, and powerful human-like creatures
  • Very successful, powerful person or organization

lightning

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈlaɪtnɪŋ /

UK / ˈlaɪtnɪŋ /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Moving very fast or occurring suddenly
  • noun
  • Flashes of light in the sky caused by a storm

predict

Copy vocabulary

US / prɪ'dɪkt /

UK / prɪˈdɪkt /

A2
  • verb
  • To guess or estimate what will or might happen

solution

Copy vocabulary

US / səˈlu:ʃn /

UK / səˈluʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Mix of a liquid and a solid or a gas
  • Way to solve or deal with a problem

across

Copy vocabulary

US / əˈkrɔs /

UK / əˈkrɔs,əˈkrɑs /

A1
  • adverb
  • Distance from one side to another
  • (Go) from one side to the other of something

may

Copy vocabulary

US / meɪ /

UK / me /

A1
  • noun
  • 5th month of the year
  • other
  • Used to express a desire
  • Expresses permission, possibility or probability
  • Used to show that a thing could be true

this

Copy vocabulary

US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

ascend

Copy vocabulary

US / ə'send /

UK / əˈsɛnd /

B2
  • verb
  • To rise, go up to a higher level

difficult

Copy vocabulary

US / 'dɪfɪkəlt /

UK / ˈdɪfɪˌkʌlt, -kəlt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Hard; not easy; you need to work hard to do it

generate

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈdʒenəreɪt /

UK / ˈdʒɛnəˌret /

A2
  • verb
  • To create or be produced or bring into existence
  • To create electricity, heat, energy and power

highly

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈhaɪli /

UK / 'haɪlɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In a manner that shows approval
  • More than usual; to a great degree

struggle

Copy vocabulary

US / 'strʌɡl /

UK / ˈstrʌɡəl /

A2
  • noun
  • Strong efforts made to do something difficult
  • verb
  • To try very hard to do something difficult

cold

Copy vocabulary

US / kəʊld /

UK / kold /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having a very low temperature
  • Being unfriendly or lacking emotion
  • noun
  • Illness of sneezing, coughing, and a sore throat

earth

Copy vocabulary

US / ɜ:θ /

UK / ɚθ /

A1
  • noun
  • Wire connecting an electrical device to the ground
  • The planet we live on
  • Soil in which we grow plants

few

Copy vocabulary

US / fju: /

UK / fju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Not many, a small number

system

Copy vocabulary

US / 'sɪstəm /

UK / ˈsɪstəm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Working in an organized, logical way
  • noun
  • Set of organized, planned ideas that work together

amount

Copy vocabulary

US / ə'maʊnt /

UK / əˈmaʊnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Quantity of something
  • verb
  • To add up to a certain figure

never

Copy vocabulary

US / 'nevə(r) /

UK / ˈnɛvɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Not ever; not at any time

period

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈpɪəriəd /

UK / ˈpɪriəd /

A1
  • noun
  • Set amount of time during which events take place
  • A way to emphasize what you will say
  • A full stop (.), marking the end of a sentence
  • A menstrual cycle
  • A set time for a class to be held

just

Copy vocabulary

US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

modern

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈmɔdən /

UK / ˈmɑdən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Of the present time; up to date; contemporary

nation

Copy vocabulary

US / 'neɪʃn /

UK / ˈneʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Area or region controlled by a government and army

tribute

Copy vocabulary

US / 'trɪbju:t /

UK / ˈtrɪbjut /

B1
  • noun
  • Something that is said or done to show respect
  • Payment, e.g. to another country, for protection

atmospheric

Copy vocabulary

US / ˌætməsˈferɪk /

UK / ˌætməˈsfɛrɪk, -ˈsfɪr- /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning or located in the air around us

begin

Copy vocabulary

US / bɪ'ɡɪn /

UK / ˈbeɡɪn /

A1
  • verb
  • To do the first part of an action; to start

computer

Copy vocabulary

US / kəmˈpju:tə(r) /

UK / kəmˈpjutɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Machine for storing data, accessing the internet

consequence

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈkɔnsikwəns /

UK / ˈkɑnsɪˌkwɛns,-kwəns /

A2
  • noun
  • Importance of a person or thing
  • Outcome of an event; result

cool

Copy vocabulary

US / ku:l /

UK / kul /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Steady and calm when facing difficulties
  • Almost cold; not warm or hot
  • Smart or stylish in a way (young) people admire
  • Unfriendly in an indirect way; distant
  • verb
  • To make something decrease in temperature
  • (Of an emotion, etc.) to become less strongly felt

intend

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪnˈtend /

UK / ɪnˈtɛnd /

A2
  • verb
  • To plan or want to do something

limited

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈlɪmɪtɪd /

UK / ˈlɪmɪtɪd /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of a company) with a limit of financial liability
  • With restrictions; not broad in scope
  • verb
  • To stop or prevent an increase past a point

replicate

Copy vocabulary

US / 'replɪkeɪt /

UK / ˈrɛplɪˌket /

A1
  • verb
  • To make one or more exact copies of itself
  • To repeat something (e.g. experiment, process)

soon

Copy vocabulary

US / su:n /

UK / sun /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a time not long from now

sound

Copy vocabulary

US / saʊnd /

UK / saʊnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Sensible, dependable and reliable
  • Unbroken or undisturbed, as of sleep
  • Firm or solid in structure
  • Sane; not mentally ill
  • Clearly reasoned; involving sense, good judgment
  • noun
  • Unique quality that characterizes a style of music
  • Waves traveling in air or water that can be heard
  • verb
  • To seem or appear to be, from what was said
  • To say in a clear deliberate manner
  • To make a noise, e.g. to ring a bell

steam

Copy vocabulary

US / sti:m /

UK / stim /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • (Train, engine) powered by boiling water
  • noun
  • Mist collecting on a surface when wet air cools
  • Source of stamina, strength or energy
  • Mist of water in the air formed when water boils
  • verb
  • To cover a surface with steam, so as to clean it
  • To cook in mist of tiny drops from boiling water
  • To produce or give off a hot gas by boiling liquid
  • To travel or move using steam as a force

warm

Copy vocabulary

US / wɔ:m /

UK / wɔrm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Friendly, sincere and kind to others
  • Being friendly or sincere
  • Slightly hot; not very hot
  • verb
  • To become more friendly or to like something
  • To make something hotter

such

Copy vocabulary

US / sʌtʃ /

UK / sʌtʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Being similar to
  • (Thing) as previously stated or referred to
  • adverb
  • (Used to emphasize the quality of an adjective)

emission

Copy vocabulary

US / iˈmɪʃn /

UK / ɪˈmɪʃən /

B2
  • noun
  • A substance (e.g. gas) released into the air

occur

Copy vocabulary

US / əˈkɜ:(r) /

UK / əˈkɚ /

A2
  • verb
  • To come to pass or to happen

mount

Copy vocabulary

US / maʊnt /

UK / maʊnt /

B2
  • noun
  • An attachment used to keep something in place
  • Title of a specific mountain
  • Horse that someone is riding
  • verb
  • To attach something to something else
  • To set a picture, jewel etc. in
  • To sit on a horse or bike in order to ride it
  • To climb a mountain
  • To organize an exhibition, race etc.
  • To start (an attack) against an enemy

those

Copy vocabulary

US / ðəʊz /

UK / ðoz /

A1
  • determiner
  • The people or things we are talking about
  • pronoun
  • The objects far from the speaker

bleak

Copy vocabulary

US / bli:k /

UK / blik /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Desolate and colorless; without much hope

for

Copy vocabulary

US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

krakatoa

Copy vocabulary

US / /

UK / /

A1
  • proper noun
  • A small volcanic island in Indonesia that lies between Java and Sumatra. It was the scene of a great

resort

Copy vocabulary

US / rɪ'zɔ:t /

UK / rɪ'zɔ:rt /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of choosing something to help with a problem
  • Vacation hotel or complex; area for holidays

time

Copy vocabulary

US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

why

Copy vocabulary

US / waɪ /

UK / hwaɪ, waɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Question word to ask for a reason
  • exclamation
  • (Used to express surprise or approval)

hemisphere

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈhemɪsfɪə(r) /

UK / ˈhɛmɪˌsfɪr /

B2
  • noun
  • One half of a rounded, ball-like object
  • One of the two masses forming the brain

periodically

Copy vocabulary

US / ˌpɪərɪ'ɒdɪklɪ /

UK / pɪrɪˈɑdɪklɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • Over time, often with regular spaces between

start

Copy vocabulary

US / stɑ:t /

UK / stɑrt /

A1
  • noun
  • First time or place that a thing exists; beginning
  • First opportunity to achieve something, e.g. a job
  • Sudden action or movement because you are scared
  • other
  • Beginning of something in place or time
  • verb
  • To do, be or happen for the first time; begin
  • To turn something on

solar

Copy vocabulary

US / 'səʊlə(r) /

UK / ˈsolɚ /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the sun, or its heat

agree

Copy vocabulary

US / əˈgri: /

UK / əˈɡri /

A1
  • verb
  • To have the same opinion as someone else

huge

Copy vocabulary

US / hju:dʒ /

UK / hjudʒ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very very large

management

Copy vocabulary

US / 'mænɪdʒmənt /

UK / ˈmænɪdʒmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • People who are in control of a business or group
  • The process of running an organization

reflect

Copy vocabulary

US / rɪ'flekt /

UK / rɪˈflɛkt /

A2
  • verb
  • To indicate or be a sign of something
  • To bounce back light, heat, sound from a surface
  • To show an image in glass, water, a mirror etc.
  • To think of something seriously and carefully

way

Copy vocabulary

US / weɪ /

UK / we /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to emphasize the amount of something
  • noun
  • Particular aspect of something being thought about
  • One of various choices that could be made
  • Particular existing condition or state
  • (Often long) distance or length of time
  • How something is done
  • Route to go to a place
  • Small street
  • Usual behavior, emotions or habits of someone

believe

Copy vocabulary

US / bɪ'li:v /

UK / bɪˈliv /

A1
  • verb
  • To think or accept that something is true
  • To have a particular opinion about something

blot

Copy vocabulary

US / blɒt /

UK / blɑ:t /

B2
  • verb
  • To remove a spot by putting absorbent material on
  • To block out something so it cannot be seen
  • To make a spot by accident

endure

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪn'djʊə(r) /

UK / ɛnˈdʊr, -ˈdjʊr /

B1
  • verb
  • To last for a long time; continue to exist
  • To accept difficulties without struggle

kilometre

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈkɪləmi:tə(r) /

UK / ˈkɪləmiːtər /

A1
  • noun
  • A metric unit of length equal to 1000 metres

human

Copy vocabulary

US / 'hju:mən /

UK / ˈhjumən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning or characteristic of people
  • noun
  • A person; a man, woman or child

look

Copy vocabulary

US / lʊk /

UK / lʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's beauty or physical attractiveness
  • Particular style of dress, clothes, or appearance
  • The way someone, something appears to be
  • Act of searching for or examining something
  • verb
  • To appear to be; seem

wreak

Copy vocabulary

US / ri:k /

UK / rik /

C1
  • verb
  • To cause something damaging or violent to happen

approach

Copy vocabulary

US / ə'prəʊtʃ /

UK / əˈprəʊtʃ /

A2
  • noun
  • Means of reaching a place, often a road or path
  • Request of someone with a specific goal in mind
  • Specific way to handle a project, task, problem
  • verb
  • To get close to reaching something or somewhere
  • To request someone to do something specific

both

Copy vocabulary

US / bəuθ /

UK / boθ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time
  • pronoun
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time

celsius

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈselsiəs /

UK / ˈselsiəs /

B1
  • noun
  • Another name for 'centigrade'

change

Copy vocabulary

US / tʃeɪndʒ /

UK / tʃendʒ /

A1
  • noun
  • Exchange of one set of clothes for another
  • Money in the form of coins instead of paper
  • Money returned after giving too much
  • Act of making or becoming something else
  • verb
  • To exchange one set of clothes for another
  • To exchange one kind of money for another
  • To replace something with another thing
  • To make or become something else
  • To go from one train, bus, etc. and go to another

erupt

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪˈrʌpt /

UK / ɪˈrʌpt /

B1
  • verb
  • To begin doing something or happen suddenly
  • (Volcano) to spill hot rocks, smoke, and fire

heating

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈhiːtɪŋ /

UK / ˈhiːtɪŋ /

A2
  • noun
  • System that provides warmth to a house or building
  • verb
  • To make hot or hotter

all

Copy vocabulary

US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

april

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈeɪprəl /

UK / ˈeɪprəl /

A1
  • noun
  • 4th month of the year
  • Person's name

fast

Copy vocabulary

US / fɑ:st /

UK / fæst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In a way that is difficult to move or change
  • Moving or able to move quickly
  • Showing time that is later than the actual time
  • adverb
  • With a great deal of speed
  • noun
  • Period of time when a person chooses not to eat
  • verb
  • To refuse food for a long time

its

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪts /

UK / ɪts /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to or belonging to ‘it’
  • determiner
  • Of something; belonging or related to something
  • other
  • Possessive form of “it”

remove

Copy vocabulary

US / rɪˈmu:v /

UK / rɪˈmuv /

A1
  • verb
  • To get rid of something completely
  • To make someone leave his or her job or position
  • To move, erase or take away from a place
  • To take something off (e.g. clothing)

ripple

Copy vocabulary

US / 'rɪpl /

UK / ˈrɪpəl /

B2
  • noun
  • Small gentle low wave on the surface of water, etc.
  • Sound/noise/laughter that changes in volume
  • Feeling or emotion that spreads through a person
  • verb
  • To travel or move as small, gentle waves
  • To be spread through a person or group

strange

Copy vocabulary

US / streɪndʒ /

UK / strendʒ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Unusual or odd; surprising because unexpected

super

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈsu:pə(r) /

UK / ˈsupɚ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of the highest quality; great; marvelous

artist

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈɑ:tɪst /

UK / ˈɑrtɪst /

A2
  • noun
  • A person skilled and creative in art e.g. painter

project

Copy vocabulary

US / prəˈdʒekt /

UK / prəˈdʒɛkt /

A1
  • noun
  • A planned piece of work for specific purpose
  • Group of homes built by government for poor people
  • verb
  • To predict what will happen in the future
  • To show something on a screen using light
  • To stick out past the edge of something

take

Copy vocabulary

US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
  • verb
  • To accept something that is offered
  • To use a method of traveling, e.g. a bus or train
  • To use a camera to make (a photo)
  • To pick up something and go away with it
  • To study a subject in school
  • To attempt to pass (an exam)
  • To require a certain amount of time, money, space

execute

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈeksɪkju:t /

UK / ˈɛksɪˌkjut /

B1
  • verb
  • To kill someone, usually as an official punishment
  • To perform a plan or action

pursue

Copy vocabulary

US / pə'sju: /

UK / pɚˈsu /

B1
  • verb
  • To follow and try to catch, or to reach a goal
  • To try to achieve or get something over time

they

Copy vocabulary

US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

build

Copy vocabulary

US / bɪld /

UK / bɪld /

A1
  • noun
  • Your physical shape; physique
  • verb
  • To establish e.g. a reputation, over time
  • To construct a house, office, factory

building

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈbɪldɪŋ /

UK / ˈbɪldɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • A structure with a roof and walls, e.g. a house
  • verb
  • To establish e.g. a reputation, over time
  • To construct a house, office, factory

work

Copy vocabulary

US / wɜ:k /

UK / wɚk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Activity completed in order to make money
  • noun
  • The product of some artistic or literary endeavor
  • Everything created by an author, artist, musician
  • Activity you do in order to make money
  • Place of employment
  • Final product or result of a some labor or effort
  • verb
  • To bring into a specific state of success
  • To be functioning properly, e.g. a car
  • To do your job in your company or workplace
  • To make an effort to do something
  • To operate a machine or device

cash

Copy vocabulary

US / kæʃ /

UK / kæʃ /

A2
  • noun
  • Physical money (not credit card or digital)
  • verb
  • To sell or give something to get money

fuel

Copy vocabulary

US / 'fju:əl /

UK / ˈfjuəl /

A2
  • noun
  • Material used to produce heat or power when burned
  • verb
  • To give power to (a mob, anger, etc.); incite
  • To provide gas or petrol for something

want

Copy vocabulary

US / wɔnt /

UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

deliberate

Copy vocabulary

US / dɪ'lɪbərət /

UK / dɪˈlɪbərɪt /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Carefully thought out in advance
  • Done purposely
  • verb
  • To consider a problem or decision carefully

measure

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈmeʒə(r) /

UK / ˈmɛʒɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Plan to achieve a desired result
  • Tool used to calculate the size of something
  • verb
  • To determine the value or importance of something
  • To calculate size, weight or temperature of

planet

Copy vocabulary

US / 'plænɪt /

UK / ˈplænɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • One of the bodies that orbit the sun

havoc

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈhævək /

UK / 'hævək /

B2
  • noun
  • Situation with destruction, damage and confusion

interested

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈɪntrəstɪd /

UK / ˈɪntrɪstɪd, -tərɪstɪd, -təˌrɛstɪd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having had your attention taken; curious
  • verb
  • To make someone want to know about something
  • To persuade to do, become involved with something

study

Copy vocabulary

US / 'stʌdɪ /

UK / ˈstʌdi /

A1
  • noun
  • Room that a person studies or reads in
  • Piece of research
  • Topic or subject you research or learn about
  • verb
  • To focus on learning something usually at school

would

Copy vocabulary

US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate something imagined
  • Used to ask or request something politely
  • Verb used to indicate possibility, request etc.
  • Used to indicate a preference
  • Used to indicate a reaction
  • Indicates something that occurred repeatedly
  • Used to indicate willingness or ability to do

can

Copy vocabulary

US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

category

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈkætəgəri /

UK / ˈkætɪˌɡɔri, -ˌɡori /

B1
  • noun
  • Groups of things that are similar in some way

experimental

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪkˌsperɪˈmentl /

UK / ɪkˌspɛrəˈmɛntl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Using techniques that are different or untried

record

Copy vocabulary

US / 'rekɔ:d /

UK / ˈrekərd /

A1
  • noun
  • Highest or most extreme level achieved
  • Round plastic disc on which music has been stored
  • History of a person's past actions or achievements
  • verb
  • To indicate a temperature, speed, etc.; register
  • To write down or say what happened
  • To put music, sounds onto a device to store it

cloud

Copy vocabulary

US / klaʊd /

UK / klaʊd /

A1
  • noun
  • A mass of smoke or mist hanging in the air
  • verb
  • To confuse the mind/judgment of a person
  • (Of the sky) to get darker and fill with clouds
  • To make (glass, etc.) difficult to see through
  • To make an activity less pleasant or enjoyable
  • (Of person's face, etc.) to show worry/anger

effect

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪ'fekt /

UK / ɪˈfɛkt /

A1
  • noun
  • An advantage, benefit
  • Change brought about by a cause; result

scale

Copy vocabulary

US / skeɪl /

UK / skel /

A2
  • noun
  • Size, level, or amount when compared
  • Small hard plates that cover the body of fish
  • Device that is used to weigh a person or thing
  • Range of numbers from the lowest to the highest
  • Dimensions or size of something
  • verb
  • To change the size of but keep the proportions
  • To climb something large (e.g. a mountain)
  • To remove the scales of a fish

boom

Copy vocabulary

US / bu:m /

UK / bum /

B1
  • noun
  • Very fast increase in growth or popularity
  • A very loud and deep sound
  • verb
  • To experience a rapid increase in growth
  • To make a very loud and deep sound

barrier

Copy vocabulary

US / 'bærɪə(r) /

UK / ˈbæriɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Difficult situation preventing something happening
  • Structure or object that stops free movement

but

Copy vocabulary

US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

craft

Copy vocabulary

US / krɑ:ft /

UK / kræft /

B1
  • noun
  • Job requiring a worker to have specific skills
  • Vehicle that travels on water or through the air
  • verb
  • To make by hand and with much skill

cut

Copy vocabulary

US / kʌt /

UK / kʌt /

A1
  • noun
  • Act/instance of reducing the size or amount of
  • Small opening made using a sharp object, knife
  • A wound on someone's skin caused by a sharp object
  • verb
  • To reduce the size or amount of something
  • To use knife or scissors to divide, open surfaces

address

Copy vocabulary

US / ə'dres /

UK / əˈdrɛs /

A1
  • noun
  • Exact street location of a place
  • A formal speech to a group of people
  • verb
  • To write the place someone lives on a letter
  • To refer to someone or something formally
  • To make a formal speech to a group of people
  • To try to find a solution to; think about

chaotic

Copy vocabulary

US / keɪ'ɒtɪk /

UK / keɪˈɒtɪk /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Utterly confused

fossil

Copy vocabulary

US / 'fɒsl /

UK / ˈfɑsəl /

B1
  • noun
  • Plant or animal that became rock after many years

helpful

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈhelpfl /

UK / ˈhɛlpfəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Doing things that help someone

hazy

Copy vocabulary

US / 'heɪzɪ /

UK / ˈhezi /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Unclear, dark, or clouded due to dust, smoke etc.
  • Not being exact, certain, or clear

same

Copy vocabulary

US / seɪm /

UK / sem /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in quality and amount
  • Identical; not different
  • Not changing; constant

slow

Copy vocabulary

US / sləʊ /

UK / sloʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Lacking activity, busyness or excitement
  • (Clock) showing time earlier than the actual time
  • Having difficulty understanding simple things
  • Moving or happening without speed; not fast
  • verb
  • To move, with less speed than before
  • To move or go without much speed

incredibly

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪnˈkredəbli /

UK / ɪnˈkrɛdəblɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • To a great degree; very; amazingly

not

Copy vocabulary

US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

pinatubo

Copy vocabulary

US / /

UK / /

A1
  • other
  • A volcano on Luzon to the northwest of Manila; erupted in after years of dormancy

call

Copy vocabulary

US / kɔ:l /

UK / kɔl /

A1
  • noun
  • A order or request for action
  • The sound an animal makes, often when in danger
  • A correct prediction, e.g. a decision in a game
  • A short visit to a place or person
  • A decision by a referee or umpire in a game
  • verb
  • To make a request or order for action
  • (Animal) to make sounds to warn of danger
  • To announce the date of an election
  • To make a judgment about something
  • To give someone or something a name
  • To guess in advance the result or outcome
  • To visit a place or person for a short time
  • To phone someone
  • To speak, announce or shout in a loud voice

famine

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈfæmɪn /

UK / ˈfæmɪn /

B2
  • noun
  • Long-lasting period of little food in an area

far

Copy vocabulary

US / fɑ:(r) /

UK / fɑr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A long way away
  • Being a long way away
  • adverb
  • To a large degree or extent

foremost

Copy vocabulary

US / 'fɔ:məʊst /

UK / ˈfɔrˌmost,ˈfor- /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being the best or most important

reduce

Copy vocabulary

US / rɪ'dju:s /

UK / rɪˈdus, -ˈdjus /

A2
  • verb
  • To try to decrease, e.g. your weight if overweight
  • To boil a liquid until it has decreased in amount
  • To make something smaller in size, amount, level

radiation

Copy vocabulary

US / ˌreɪdiˈeɪʃn /

UK / ˌrediˈeʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Energy transmitted as rays, waves or particles
  • Process of emitting something in waves
  • Harmful waves of energy from nuclear activity

where

Copy vocabulary

US / hwɛə /

UK / hwɛr, wɛr /

A1
  • conjunction
  • At or in the place which
  • In whatever place
  • pronoun
  • Word you use to ask the location of something

and

Copy vocabulary

US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

hopefully

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈhəʊpfəli /

UK / ˈhopfəli /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a manner wishing something to happen

approval

Copy vocabulary

US / əˈpru:vl /

UK / əˈpruvəl /

A2
  • noun
  • Agreement that person/thing is acceptable
  • Positive opinion of something or someone

blast

Copy vocabulary

US / blɑ:st /

UK / blæst /

B1
  • noun
  • Destructive wave of air from an explosion
  • Strong current of wind
  • verb
  • To attack someone with words
  • To destroy something with explosives
  • To make a loud noise on or with something

keep

Copy vocabulary

US / ki:p /

UK / kip /

A1
  • noun
  • Large, strong tower in the middle of a castle
  • Money spent on you so you can live in a place
  • verb
  • To continue doing something; not to stop
  • To stop balls going in a goal in sports
  • To not give back or return something
  • (Of food) to not spoil or not rot
  • To take possession of something to own, e.g. a pet
  • To have and continue to hold something
  • To do something that you have promised or agreed
  • To stay in a certain place or condition
  • To maintain the rules

investigate

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪn'vestɪɡeɪt /

UK / ɪnˈvɛstɪˌɡet /

A2
  • verb
  • To try to find out facts; to carry out research

scheme

Copy vocabulary

US / ski:m /

UK / skim /

A2
  • noun
  • Plan (sometimes dishonest) to get or do something
  • Way something is organized, e.g. colors of a room
  • verb
  • To make secret plans to do something (often bad)

version

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈvə:ʃən /

UK / ˈvɚʒən, -ʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Different way that someone interprets something
  • New or different form of something
  • An updated form of some software

large

Copy vocabulary

US / lɑ:dʒ /

UK / lɑ:rdʒ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Big; of great size; broad, tall, wide, or fat

most

Copy vocabulary

US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

any

Copy vocabulary

US / 'enɪ /

UK / ˈɛni /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One, or some, no matter which
  • pronoun
  • One (thing) of many; some

failure

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈfeɪljə(r) /

UK / 'feɪljər /

A1
  • noun
  • When things go wrong; lack of function
  • Act or result of not achieving your goals

experiment

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪk'sperɪmənt /

UK / ɪkˈspɛrəmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Test performed to assess new ideas or theories
  • verb
  • To create and perform tests to research something
  • To try something new that you haven't tried before

help

Copy vocabulary

US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

literally

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈlɪtərəli /

UK / ˈlɪtərəli /

B1
  • adverb
  • So as to express the exact meaning of something
  • Used to say something is true, even if unlikely

risky

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈrɪski /

UK / ˈrɪski /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • With the chance it may be dangerous, unsuccessful

aggressive

Copy vocabulary

US / əˈgresɪv /

UK / əˈɡrɛsɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Using energy and determination to achieve a goal
  • Behaving in a hostile and threatening way

perhaps

Copy vocabulary

US / pəˈhæps /

UK / pɚˈhæps /

A1
  • adverb
  • Possibly, but not certainly; maybe

only

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈəunli /

UK / ˈonli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just one; just that amount or thing; not more than
  • Not very important or serious
  • Just that type of thing, person
  • Short time ago; not before a certain time
  • conjunction
  • Except; but

disaster

Copy vocabulary

US / dɪ'zɑ:stə(r) /

UK / dɪˈzæstɚ, -ˈsæs- /

A2
  • noun
  • State of extreme ruin and misfortune

form

Copy vocabulary

US / fɔ:m /

UK / fɔrm /

A1
  • noun
  • Sports team or person's current winning record
  • Document you complete when making an application
  • Visible shape or style; type; kind
  • verb
  • To organize something such as a club or group
  • To develop; to come into a shape or substance
  • To make something into a particular shape

from

Copy vocabulary

US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

out

Copy vocabulary

US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

over

Copy vocabulary

US / 'əʊvə(r) /

UK / ˈovɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Finished; no longer happening
  • Towards the ground/away from a standing position
  • noun
  • A set of six consecutive balls bowled in cricket
  • other
  • Finished
  • preposition
  • Showing the relation when a thing is above another
  • On or covering something
  • Above or across something
  • More than you need
  • From one side to the other
  • In the direction of; toward

temperature

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈtemprətʃə(r) /

UK / ˈtɛmpərəˌtʃʊr,-tʃɚ,ˈtɛmprə- /

A2
  • noun
  • When you your body heat is above normal
  • How hot or cold something is, e.g. the weather

another

Copy vocabulary

US / əˈnʌðə(r) /

UK / əˈnʌðɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One more, but not this
  • determiner
  • One more added
  • pronoun
  • One more (thing)

despair

Copy vocabulary

US / dɪ'speə(r) /

UK / dɪˈspɛr /

B1
  • noun
  • Felling of having lost all hope
  • verb
  • To have lost all hope; lose heart

prepare

Copy vocabulary

US / prɪˈpeə(r) /

UK / prɪˈper /

A1
  • verb
  • To make something ready for use
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • The year without summer - David Biello
    It’s April 10th, 1815, and in just a few moments, the sun is going to disappear. On an island in present-day Indonesia, Mount Tambora erupts with a boom that can be heard over 2,000 kilometers away. Sulfurous plumes of steam and ash billow thousands of meters into the sky, forming dark storm clouds of soot and lightning. This eruption will go down as the largest in recorded history, but, at this point, its impact is only just beginning.
    Ascending high into the atmosphere, Tambora’s emissions spread across the globe, blotting out the sun for almost an entire year. The hazy skies and cold weather of 1816 wreak havoc on agriculture, leading to famines all across the Northern Hemisphere. Nations struggle with epidemics, and artists craft bleak tributes to these seemingly apocalyptic times. This was the year without summer— literally one of the darkest periods in human history.
    So why are some modern researchers looking for ways to repeat it? Obviously, no one wants to replicate this period’s famine and despair. But some scientists are interested in using sulfurous haze to block out the sun, and hopefully, slow the effects of global warming. This is one of many proposals in the realm of geoengineering— a class of deliberate, large-scale interventions in Earth’s natural systems intended to help restrain climate change.
    Different geoengineering schemes intervene in different systems. Any plans to cool the planet by blocking the amount of sunlight reaching the earth would fall in the category of solar radiation management. Some of these proposals are massive in scale, such as suggestions to create a helpful version of volcanic plumes or build a giant sunshade in Earth’s orbit. Others are more limited, focusing on enhancing natural cooling systems.
  • Subtitles section
  • It's April 10th, 1815, and in just a few moments, the sun is going to disappear.
  • On an island in present-day Indonesia, Mount Tambora erupts with a boom that can be heard over 2,000 kilometers away.
  • Sulfurous plumes of steam and ash billow thousands of meters into the sky, forming dark storm clouds of soot and lightning.
  • This eruption will go down as the largest in recorded history, but, at this point, its impact is only just beginning.
  • Ascending high into the atmosphere, Tambora's emissions spread across the globe, blotting out the sun for almost an entire year.
  • The hazy skies and cold weather of 1816 wreak havoc on agriculture, leading to famines all across the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Nations struggle with epidemics, and artists craft bleak tributes to these seemingly apocalyptic times.
  • This was the year without summer— literally one of the darkest periods in human history.
  • So why are some modern researchers looking for ways to repeat it?
  • Obviously, no one wants to replicate this period's famine and despair.
  • But some scientists are interested in using sulfurous haze to block out the sun, and hopefully, slow the effects of global warming.
  • This is one of many proposals in the realm of geoengineering— a class of deliberate, large-scale interventions in Earth's natural systems intended to help restrain climate change.
  • Different geoengineering schemes intervene in different systems.
  • Any plans to cool the planet by blocking the amount of sunlight reaching the earth would fall in the category of solar radiation management.
  • Some of these proposals are massive in scale, such as suggestions to create a helpful version of volcanic plumes or build a giant sunshade in Earth's orbit.
  • Others are more limited, focusing on enhancing natural cooling systems.
  • For example, researchers might enlarge marine clouds or make Earth reflect more sunlight by building huge swaths of white surfaces.
  • Many of these plans sound more than a little strange.
  • But there's reason to believe they might work, not least because of natural events like the eruption of Tambora.
  • Scientists know that volcanic eruptions have periodically cooled the climate.
  • Both the Pinatubo eruption in 1991 and 1883′s blast of Krakatoa reduced global average temperatures by at least half-a-degree Celsius for up to a year.
  • These cooling effects are global and fast acting— but they're also incredibly risky.
  • The Earth is a chaotic system where even the smallest changes can create countless unpredictable ripple effects.
  • We know that cooling temperatures impacts precipitation, extreme weather, and other climate phenomena, but it's difficult for even the most advanced computer models to predict how or where these consequences will occur.
  • One country's solar radiation management might be another country's unnatural disaster, causing extreme weather or crop failures like those following Tambora's eruption.
  • And even if these schemes did safely cool the planet, solar radiation management doesn't address the greenhouse gases that are causing global warming.
  • These solutions are just highly experimental band-aids that the world would have to endure for at least a few decades while we work on actually removing CO2 from the air.
  • And if we pulled that band-aid off prematurely, global temperatures could rapidly rebound, causing a period of intense super warming.
  • For these reasons and more solar radiation management is risky.
  • Today, researchers are running small-scale experiments, such as enhancing marine clouds to protect the Great Barrier Reef from further heating and bleaching.
  • And most scientists agree that we should pursue ways to cut emissions and remove atmospheric CO2 first and foremost.
  • However, there are reasons to keep studying these more aggressive approaches.
  • Desperate times call for desperate measures, and in the future, geoengineering might be civilization's last resort.
  • Furthermore, some of these plans would be shockingly easy to execute by some rogue actor with enough cash.
  • So we'll want to be prepared if someone starts geoengineering without governmental approval.
  • But perhaps the most important reason to investigate the impacts of geoengineering is that people are already making large scale interventions in the atmosphere.
  • In many ways, climate change is an unintended geoengineering project fueled by the emissions generated from centuries of burning fossil fuels.
  • And unless we take action to curb emissions and draw CO2 out of the atmosphere soon, summer may never be the same again.