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How Fish Get Away With Being Colorful

Video vocabulary

fish

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US / fɪʃ /

UK / fɪʃ /

A1
  • noun
  • Animal that swims and lives in water
  • verb
  • To go fishing with a net or hook

form

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US / fɔ:m /

UK / fɔrm /

A1
  • noun
  • Sports team or person's current winning record
  • Document you complete when making an application
  • Visible shape or style; type; kind
  • verb
  • To organize something such as a club or group
  • To develop; to come into a shape or substance
  • To make something into a particular shape

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

temperature

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US / ˈtemprətʃə(r) /

UK / ˈtɛmpərəˌtʃʊr,-tʃɚ,ˈtɛmprə- /

A2
  • noun
  • When you your body heat is above normal
  • How hot or cold something is, e.g. the weather

distance

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US / 'dɪstəns /

UK / ˈdɪstəns /

A2
  • noun
  • Lack of friendliness toward another person
  • Amount of space between two places or things
  • verb
  • To make it clear that you are not involved

risky

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US / ˈrɪski /

UK / ˈrɪski /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • With the chance it may be dangerous, unsuccessful

diverse

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US / daɪˈvɜ:s /

UK / dɪˈvɚs, daɪ-, ˈdaɪˌvɚs /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being varied or different from each other
  • Very different from each other

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

something

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US / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

UK / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In some degree or measure
  • noun
  • a person or thing of some value or consequence
  • pronoun
  • Thing that is not yet known or named
  • Approximately

rare

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US / reə(r) /

UK / rɛr /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • (Of meat) cooked, but still red and juicy
  • Unusual or out of the ordinary; not common

spectrum

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US / 'spektrəm /

UK / ˈspɛktrəm /

B1
  • noun
  • The wavelengths of colors from red to violet
  • a range of different positions, opinions, etc. between two extreme points

ton

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US / tʌn /

UK / tʌn /

A2
  • noun
  • Unit of weight; 907 kilograms (US); 1016 (UK)

visual

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US / 'vɪʒʊəl /

UK / ˈvɪʒuəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of or relating to vision
  • noun
  • Pictures/images used to help audience understand

far

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US / fɑ:(r) /

UK / fɑr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A long way away
  • Being a long way away
  • adverb
  • To a large degree or extent

where

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US / hwɛə /

UK / hwɛr, wɛr /

A1
  • conjunction
  • At or in the place which
  • In whatever place
  • pronoun
  • Word you use to ask the location of something

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

coral

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US / 'kɒrəl /

UK / ˈkɑrəl /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Color that is a combination of pink and orange
  • noun
  • Marine substance made from bones of sea creatures

degrade

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US / dɪ'ɡreɪd /

UK / dɪˈɡred /

B2
  • verb
  • To reduce in amount or strength
  • To treat something poorly or without respect

lot

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US / lɒt /

UK / lɑt /

A1
  • noun
  • What happens to a person in life from chance; fate
  • A group of people seen together
  • Item for sale at an auction
  • Small area of land used for a purpose e.g. parking

poor

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US / pʊə(r) /

UK / pʊr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Inferior; below the normal standard
  • Deserving of pity or sympathy
  • Without money; not rich

become

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US / bɪ'kʌm /

UK / bɪˈkʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To begin to be; grow to be; develop into
  • To be suitable for a particular job or role

helpful

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US / ˈhelpfl /

UK / ˈhɛlpfəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Doing things that help someone

pack

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US / pæk /

UK / pæk /

A1
  • noun
  • Bag carried on the back of donkey, etc.
  • Group of people, animals, or objects
  • verb
  • To put things in a suitcase to go on a trip
  • To crowd a place with a large amount of things
  • To put something into a container to store it

same

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US / seɪm /

UK / sem /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in quality and amount
  • Identical; not different
  • Not changing; constant

sport

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US / spɔ:t /

UK / spɔː(r)t /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that is done for fun, e.g. football
  • Game or physical exercise with rules
  • Someone with a good attitude when things go badly
  • verb
  • To do something for fun, e.g. playing with animals
  • To wear, or show something off by wearing it

tiny

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US / 'taɪnɪ /

UK / ˈtaɪni /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very, very small

meal

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US / mi:l /

UK / mil /

A1
  • noun
  • Food for eating at a particular time, e.g. dinner
  • Grain that has been ground into a powder

surprise

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US / səˈpraɪz /

UK / sərˈpraɪz /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • That surprises you; not expected
  • noun
  • Something unexpected that slightly shocks you
  • verb
  • To do something that another person didn't expect

pattern

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US / 'pætn /

UK / ˈpætən /

A2
  • noun
  • Model to follow in making or doing something
  • Colors or shapes which are repeated on objects
  • Regular repeated behavior
  • verb
  • To copy the way something else is made

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

blue

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US / blu: /

UK / blu /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Color of the clear sky
  • Feeling sad or down

brilliant

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US / 'brɪlɪənt /

UK / ˈbrɪljənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Having a great amount of intelligence or talent
  • Being very bright, like a diamond; shining

really

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US / ˈri:əli /

UK / ˈriəˌli, ˈrili /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to stress something that is said; definitely
  • In a true or accurate manner
  • Very

barrier

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US / 'bærɪə(r) /

UK / ˈbæriɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Difficult situation preventing something happening
  • Structure or object that stops free movement

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

generally

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US / /

UK / /

A2
  • adverb
  • Usually; as a rule; by, to or for most people

especially

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US / ɪˈspeʃəli /

UK / ɛˈspɛʃəli, ɪˈspɛʃ- /

A1
  • adverb
  • More than usual; extremely

good

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US / ɡʊd /

UK / ɡʊd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper, appropriate or right
  • (Of an amount) enough; plenty
  • Excellent; high quality
  • Acting well or properly; of moral character
  • In a positive or happy emotional state
  • noun
  • Advantage or benefit

color

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US / 'kʌlə(r) /

UK / ˈkʌlɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Quality of things you can see, e.g. red, blue
  • Pink or red in your face, e.g. after being ill
  • The shade of someone's skin e.g. black, or yellow
  • verb
  • To change or affect someone's opinion
  • To make something colorful using colored pencils

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

whole

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US / həul /

UK / hol /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Complete or full; all of
  • Being in a good condition
  • noun
  • Complete amount or sum; total

scatter

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US / 'skætə(r) /

UK / ˈskætɚ /

B2
  • other
  • To place or leave things in various places
  • verb
  • To throw or move into various different directions

quirk

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US / kwɜ:k /

UK / kwə:k /

B2
  • noun
  • Strange aspect (of nature); strange habit
  • Something unusual or strange that occurs by chance

yet

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US / jet /

UK / jɛt /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a later time (used after ‘not’)
  • (Used to emphasize that thing is, will be greater)
  • Eventually; at a future time
  • Until now; up to the present
  • conjunction
  • Adding to what has been said, often as a contrast

air

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US / eə(r) /

UK / er /

A1
  • noun
  • Mixture of gases around the earth that we breathe
  • A person's manner intended to impress others
  • verb
  • To expose to the outside, to dry or freshen
  • To broadcast a TV or radio show
  • To open a subject to discussion and debate

full

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US / fʊl /

UK / fʊl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Containing all the parts; complete
  • Containing or holding as much as possible
  • Having had enough food
  • adverb
  • In a direct manner; completely

quickly

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US / ˈkwɪkli /

UK / ˈkwɪklɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Without taking a lot of time; fast

reef

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US / ri:f /

UK / rif /

B2
  • noun
  • Line of rocks or sand at the surface of the ocean
  • Rolling up sail to make it smaller in strong winds
  • verb
  • To roll up sail to make it smaller in strong winds

scientist

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US / ˈsaɪəntɪst /

UK / ˈsaɪəntɪst /

A2
  • noun
  • Person who is trained in a science

could

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US / kəd /

UK / kʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Past form of 'can' to mean have ability
  • Used to ask for something politely, or to offer

know

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US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

away

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US / ə'weɪ /

UK / əˈwe /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not present
  • adverb
  • Disappear completely
  • Doing something with a lot of energy
  • Not here; far from here; in a different direction
  • To a different area, location

meter

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US / ˈmi:tə(r) /

UK / ˈmitɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of length equal to 100 cm or about 39 inches
  • Device for measuring things e.g. gas
  • Device to put money into to rent a parking place
  • Rhythm of a poem
  • verb
  • To measure water, etc. when it has to be paid for

world

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US / wɜ:ld /

UK / wɜrld /

A1
  • noun
  • All the humans, events, activities on the earth
  • Political division due to some kind of similarity

end

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US / end /

UK / ɛnd /

A1
  • noun
  • The point where a process or activity stops
  • A point that marks the limit of something; finish
  • Goal or desired result
  • The tip, edge or limit of something
  • verb
  • To be the last part of something

brightly

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US / 'braɪtlɪ /

UK / ˈbraɪtlɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a happy manner
  • With a lot of light

flash

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US / flæʃ /

UK / flæʃ /

B1
  • noun
  • Sudden and brief appearance of something
  • Light used by a camera to brighten the area
  • Sudden feeling, idea or occurrence
  • Publicly exposing your genitals to others
  • Sudden bright light
  • Showing something very quickly and briefly
  • Light used in the dark, powered by batteries
  • verb
  • To appear suddenly and briefly
  • To publicly expose your genitals to others
  • To shine brightly very suddenly and briefly
  • To show something very quickly and briefly

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

document

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US / 'dɒkjʊmənt /

UK / ˈdɑkjəmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Official (printed) record that gives information
  • verb
  • To support an opinion with recorded evidence

relatively

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US / ˈrelətɪvli /

UK / ˈrɛlətɪvlɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a manner comparing something to something else

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

brilliantly

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US / 'brɪlɪəntlɪ /

UK / ˈbrɪljəntlɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a very skilled, intelligent or good way

conspicuous

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US / kənˈspɪkjuəs /

UK / kənˈspɪkjuəs /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Very noticeable; clearly seen; obvious

first

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US / fɜ:st /

UK / fɚst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 1st; Coming before all others in time or place
  • noun
  • Something that has not happened before
  • Position of the winner of a competition

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

different

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US / ˈdɪfrənt /

UK / ˈdɪfrənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not of the same kind; unlike other things

even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

rival

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US / 'raɪvl /

UK / 'raɪvl /

A2
  • verb
  • To be nearly as good as others in quality, skill
  • To be in opposition often as competitors
  • adjecitve
  • Matching the quality, skill, et. of others
  • Opposing; being the team you compete against
  • noun
  • Someone you are competing against/trying to beat

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

disappear

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US / ˌdɪsəˈpɪə(r) /

UK / ˌdɪsəˈpɪr /

A1
  • verb
  • To no longer see because it's not there any more

least

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US / li:st /

UK / list /

A1
  • adverb
  • In the smallest or lowest way
  • noun
  • Something that is of the lowest or smallest degree

great

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US / ɡreɪt /

UK / ɡret /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very large in size
  • Very important
  • Very good; fantastic; wonderful
  • adverb
  • Very good; better than before
  • noun
  • Successful and well-admired person

mean

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US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular meaning or value

tend

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US / tend /

UK / tɛnd /

A2
  • verb
  • To move or act in a certain manner
  • To take care of
  • To regularly behave in a certain way

each

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US / i:tʃ /

UK / itʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Every one of two or more things
  • pronoun
  • Per one person or thing

example

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US / ɪgˈzɑ:mpl /

UK / ɪɡˈzæmpəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Thing, person which represents a category

arrangement

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US / əˈreɪndʒmənt /

UK / əˈrendʒmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Particular design of a device
  • Piece of music written for a particular instrument
  • Group of things organized in a particular way
  • Organized plan, event for a time and place
  • Action done in order for something to happen

force

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US / fɔ:s /

UK / fɔrs, fors /

A1
  • noun
  • Group of persons trained for military action; army
  • Pressure; attraction
  • The use of physical strength/violence to persuade
  • verb
  • To use physical strength or violence to persuade

then

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US / ðen /

UK / ðɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • A time that is not now
  • Following another thing in time or arrangement
  • Following on reasonably from what was just stated
  • At that time, not now

specie

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US / 'spi:ʃi: /

UK / 'spi:ʃɪ /

B1
  • noun
  • Singular of species

deter

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US / dɪˈtɜ:(r) /

UK / dɪˈtə: /

B2
  • verb
  • To stop people doing a thing; stop from happening

place

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US / pleɪs /

UK / ples /

A1
  • noun
  • Particular location, area or region
  • verb
  • To put someone in a particular type of situation
  • To put something in a certain location or position

area

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US / 'eərɪə /

UK / ˈɛriə /

A1
  • noun
  • Amount of measured space
  • A specific section or space; part of a region
  • A subject or field of study

reason

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US / 'ri:zn /

UK / ˈrizən /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to think about facts and form a judgment
  • Explanation for why something occurred or was done
  • verb
  • To think and make conclusions in a logical manner

totally

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US / ˈtəʊtəli /

UK / ˈtotl:ɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In a complete way; completely; absolutely

should

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US / ʃʊd /

UK / ʃʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate what is proper or reasonable

haze

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US / heɪz /

UK / hez /

B2
  • noun
  • Dust, smoke, or gas that darkens or clouds the air
  • State of confusion about thoughts, or meanings
  • verb
  • To initiate members who perform dangerous acts

particle

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US / ˈpɑ:tɪkl /

UK / ˈpɑrtɪkəl /

B1
  • noun
  • Adverb or preposition that joins with a verb
  • Tiny piece or quantity of something

weird

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US / wɪəd /

UK / wɪrd /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Odd or unusual; surprising; strange

sporting

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US / ˈspɔ:tɪŋ, ˈspəʊr- /

UK / ˈspɔrtɪŋ, ˈspor- /

C1
  • verb
  • to wear or be decorated with something
  • To wear, or show something off by wearing it
  • Generoursly

use

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US / ju:s /

UK / ju:s /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to employ something
  • Need to enable it to work
  • Permission to do something with something
  • Act of spending money
  • Operation of a machine for its function
  • verb
  • To have; to eat, drink, consume etc.
  • To need to operate or work
  • To operate a machine, e.g. a computer
  • To treat a person badly
  • To do something with, for a task or purpose

eat

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US / i:t /

UK / it /

A1
  • verb
  • To put food in your mouth

interact

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US / ˌɪntər'ækt /

UK / ˌɪntɚˈækt /

A2
  • verb
  • To talk or do things with each other

while

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US / waɪl /

UK / hwaɪl, waɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • In spite of the fact that; although
  • During the time that; at the same time
  • noun
  • Short amount of time

underwater

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US / ˌʌndəˈwɔ:tə(r) /

UK / ˈʌndɚˌwɔtɚ, -ˌwɑtɚ /

C2
  • adjecitve
  • (Moving or existing) beneath the surface of water

among

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US / əˈmʌŋ /

UK / əˈmʌŋ /

A1
  • preposition
  • In the center of several things

roam

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US / rəʊm /

UK / rom /

B1
  • verb
  • To move about freely without a set destination

tool

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US / tu:l /

UK / tul /

A2
  • noun
  • Device used to make things, e.g. a hammer
  • verb
  • To provide a workshop with the right equipment

already

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US / ɔ:lˈredi /

UK / ɔlˈrɛdi /

A1
  • adverb
  • Having happened or been done before this time

many

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US / 'menɪ /

UK / ˈmɛni /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer a large number of things

wild

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US / waɪld /

UK / waɪld /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Living in nature; not tame
  • (Of land) not developed by people
  • adverb
  • In a manner which lacks control
  • noun
  • A natural environment e.g. jungle, forest

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

associate

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US / ə'səʊʃɪeɪt /

UK / əˈsoʊʃiˌeɪt /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Part of a job title indicating a junior position
  • noun
  • Partner in professional work, e.g. in law
  • verb
  • To spend time with other people; mix with
  • To form a connection in your mind between things

neon

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US / ˈni:ɒn /

UK / ˈni:ɑ:n /

B2
  • noun
  • Gaseous element used in electric lamps and signs

although

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US / ɔ:lˈðəu /

UK / ɔlˈðo /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Despite the fact that; however

less

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US / les /

UK / lɛs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Smaller in amount or degree
  • adverb
  • To a smaller degree
  • noun
  • A smaller amount
  • preposition
  • With the subtraction of

resolution

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US / ˌrezə'lu:ʃn /

UK / ˌrɛzəˈluʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • End part of a story resolving the conflict
  • Ability of a screen or camera to display pixels
  • Statement of the decisions of a group
  • Answer to a problem or conflict
  • Promise made to accomplish something

colorful

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US / 'kʌləfəl /

UK / 'kʌləfəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being exciting or interesting; lively
  • Having a lot of color or colors

big

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US / bɪɡ /

UK / bɪɡ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Popular
  • Serious
  • Large

dweller

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US / ˈdwelə(r) /

UK / ˈdwɛlɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Person or animal that lives in a certain place

little

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US / 'lɪtl /

UK / ˈlɪtl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being short in length of time
  • Not great in size, amount, or degree; small
  • Being very young or younger than others
  • adverb
  • By an amount or degree that is not very much
  • Not often; rarely
  • noun
  • A person's name

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

fade

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US / feɪd /

UK / fed /

A2
  • verb
  • To cause to lose brightness of color
  • To lose strength or freshness

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

than

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US / ðən /

UK / ðən /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to compare two things that are not equal

able

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US / 'eɪbl /

UK / ˈebəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Skilled; good at something
  • Having the ability to do something

ecosystem

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US / ˈi:kəʊsɪstəm /

UK / ˈɛkoˌsɪstəm, ˈiko- /

B1
  • noun
  • Types of plants and animals in an specific area

visible

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US / ˈvɪzəbl /

UK / ˈvɪzəbəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Can see, easily seen or understood
  • Being obvious or easy to see

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

mottle

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US / ˈmɒt(ə)l /

UK / ˈmɑtl /

A1
  • verb
  • To mark or diversify with spots or blotches of a different color or shade

play

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US / pleɪ /

UK / pleɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Loose, free movement between two objects
  • Single action in a sports game
  • Performance in which people act in a theater
  • verb
  • To act as a character in a movie, or on stage
  • To perform music on an instrument
  • To use a device, e.g. a video game
  • To do something for enjoyment and fun
  • To do or perform a game or sport

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

word

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US / wɜ:d /

UK / wɚd /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of language that has a meaning
  • Promise
  • Short remark or piece of information
  • verb
  • To express something by choosing particular words

deep

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US / di:p /

UK / dip /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Complex and important
  • Extreme or intense
  • Going far down from the surface
  • Low in pitch, as a sound
  • adverb
  • At a certain distance beneath the surface

exception

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US / ɪkˈsepʃn /

UK / ɪkˈsɛpʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Something different or not included

mate

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US / meɪt /

UK / met /

B1
  • noun
  • A friend who you work, live, or go to school with
  • Partner in a (sexual) relationship
  • One of a matched pair e.g. a shoe or glove
  • A kind of officer on a ship
  • other
  • Person your wish to, or are married to
  • verb
  • To pair a male and female so they have children
  • To join or fit two things together

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

kind

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US / kaɪnd /

UK / kaɪnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In a caring and helpful manner
  • friendly and considerate
  • noun
  • One type of thing

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

live

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US / lɪv /

UK / liv /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being broadcast as events happen, not recorded
  • Carrying electric current; able to give a shock
  • Glowing because burning; hot
  • Not yet killed (for food)
  • adverb
  • (Music, drama) as it is performed
  • verb
  • To be alive
  • To experience a particular type of life
  • To make your home in a house or town

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

predator

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US / 'predətə(r) /

UK / ˈprɛdətɚ, -ˌtɔr /

B1
  • noun
  • An animal that hunts and kills other animals
  • Person preying on the weak to gain advantage

such

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US / sʌtʃ /

UK / sʌtʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Being similar to
  • (Thing) as previously stated or referred to
  • adverb
  • (Used to emphasize the quality of an adjective)

triggerfish

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US / 'trɪgəfɪʃ /

UK / 'trɪgəfɪʃ /

A1
  • other
  • Any of numerous compressed deep-bodied tropical fishes with sandpapery skin and erectile spines in t

warm

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US / wɔ:m /

UK / wɔrm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Friendly, sincere and kind to others
  • Being friendly or sincere
  • Slightly hot; not very hot
  • verb
  • To become more friendly or to like something
  • To make something hotter

water

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US / 'wɔ:tə(r) /

UK / ˈwɔtɚ, ˈwɑtɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Clear liquid that forms the seas, rivers and rain
  • Large area such as an ocean or sea
  • verb
  • (Of the eyes) to produce tears
  • (Mouth) to become wet at the thought of nice food
  • To pour liquids onto a plant to keep it alive

communicate

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US / kə'mju:nɪkeɪt /

UK / kəˈmjunɪˌket /

A2
  • verb
  • To give and exchange information

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

animal

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US / ˈænɪml /

UK / ˈænəməl /

A1
  • noun
  • A living creature that is not a plant or person

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

range

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US / reɪndʒ /

UK / rendʒ /

A2
  • noun
  • Cooking stove with multiple burners
  • Given distance from a point; how far plane can fly
  • Large grassy area where cattle wander and feed
  • Group or chain of mountains
  • Set of things with something in common
  • Limits within which something extends or varies
  • A set of products, e.g. so that people can choose
  • verb
  • To cover an area from one point to another
  • To extend to or vary within given limits
  • To put things in a row or in line
  • To wander or explore

benefit

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US / 'benɪfɪt /

UK / ˈbɛnəfɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Good result or effect, something advantageous
  • verb
  • To have a good effect or be helpful

anywhere

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US / ˈeniweə(r) /

UK / ˈeniwer /

A1
  • adverb
  • To any extent or degree (often used with not)
  • In, at or to any place
  • other
  • Use to indicate limits or variation

light

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US / laɪt /

UK / laɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being bright making it easy to see; not dark
  • Being pale and lacking darkness of color
  • Not heavy; weighing only a little
  • adverb
  • Carrying few bags when traveling
  • noun
  • A source of energy that makes a room or area bright
  • Way in which something or someone is understood
  • verb
  • To cause something to burn; put a burning match to
  • To provide a way to see ahead

those

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US / ðəʊz /

UK / ðoz /

A1
  • determiner
  • The people or things we are talking about
  • pronoun
  • The objects far from the speaker

though

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US / ðəu /

UK / ðo /

A1
  • adverb
  • Although, despite the fact that

die

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US / daɪ /

UK / daɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Cube with dots numbering 1-6 on it used in games
  • verb
  • To cease to function or work
  • (Of a thing) to stop being used or done
  • (Of a person) to stop living

land

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US / lænd /

UK / lænd /

A1
  • noun
  • Region or country
  • Earth; the ground
  • verb
  • To arrive or cause a boat to arrive at the shore
  • To obtain or get something that you wanted
  • To (cause to) come down to the ground safely
  • To cause to arrive in a specific place or state

start

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US / stɑ:t /

UK / stɑrt /

A1
  • noun
  • First time or place that a thing exists; beginning
  • First opportunity to achieve something, e.g. a job
  • Sudden action or movement because you are scared
  • other
  • Beginning of something in place or time
  • verb
  • To do, be or happen for the first time; begin
  • To turn something on

since

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US / sɪns /

UK / sɪns /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a point before the present time
  • conjunction
  • For this reason; because
  • preposition
  • From the time in the past that

within

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US / wɪˈðɪn /

UK / wɪðˈɪn, wɪθ- /

A1
  • adverb
  • Inside the limits of an area, time or range
  • preposition
  • From the inside of something

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

invisible

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US / ɪnˈvɪzəbl /

UK / ɪnˈvɪzəbəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being unable to be seen
  • Of money earned from services, instead of products

earth

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US / ɜ:θ /

UK / ɚθ /

A1
  • noun
  • Wire connecting an electrical device to the ground
  • The planet we live on
  • Soil in which we grow plants

evolve

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US / ɪ'vɒlv /

UK / ɪˈvɑlv /

B1
  • verb
  • To develop certain features
  • To develop or change slowly over time
  • To slowly change or develop into something better

few

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US / fju: /

UK / fju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Not many, a small number

much

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US / mʌtʃ /

UK / mʌtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very; to a high level or degree
  • adverb
  • A lot; large amount; a high degree of
  • Nearly; basically
  • On many occasions; often
  • noun
  • A large amount; a great quantity

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

super

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US / ˈsu:pə(r) /

UK / ˈsupɚ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of the highest quality; great; marvelous

who

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US / hu: /

UK / hu /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Which person
  • Used to introduce information about people

background

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US / ˈbækgraʊnd /

UK / ˈbækˌɡraʊnd /

A2
  • noun
  • Images, color, or information behind the main one
  • Someone's personal work and educational history
  • A position not as important as the main event
  • Past events that influence things in the present

between

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US / bɪˈtwi:n /

UK / bɪˈtwin /

A1
  • preposition
  • From one person, thing, or place, to another
  • In the space that separates two objects
  • Among two or more people who share something

risk

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US / rɪsk /

UK / rɪsk /

A1
  • noun
  • Actions that cause potential problems
  • verb
  • To do something potentially dangerous or foolish

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

very

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US / 'verɪ /

UK / ˈvɛri /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a large degree or amount
  • adverb
  • A lot; much; many
  • Used to stress or emphasize a noun

absorb

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US / əb'sɔ:b /

UK / əbˈsɔrb, -ˈzɔrb /

B1
  • verb
  • To take up all attention / energy of something
  • To take in a liquid; soak up

both

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US / bəuθ /

UK / boθ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time
  • pronoun
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time

change

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US / tʃeɪndʒ /

UK / tʃendʒ /

A1
  • noun
  • Exchange of one set of clothes for another
  • Money in the form of coins instead of paper
  • Money returned after giving too much
  • Act of making or becoming something else
  • verb
  • To exchange one set of clothes for another
  • To exchange one kind of money for another
  • To replace something with another thing
  • To make or become something else
  • To go from one train, bus, etc. and go to another

show

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US / ʃəʊ /

UK / ʃo /

A1
  • noun
  • False display of love, emotion or action
  • An event for displaying or promoting goods
  • Play, opera or theater production
  • Presentation that is broadcast on TV or radio
  • verb
  • To be easily seen or displayed
  • To display your emotions or feelings
  • To let someone see something; display
  • To explain or teach how something is done
  • To lead someone somewhere; point them to something
  • To prove something to be true, correct
  • To reveal or allow something to be seen

bright

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US / braɪt /

UK / braɪt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Cheerful and happy (manner)
  • (Of color) light and easy to see; vivid
  • Producing a lot of light
  • Smart; intelligent; clever

bit

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US / bɪt /

UK / bɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • Device put in a horse's mouth to control it
  • Small piece of something
  • verb
  • (E.g. of fish) to take bait and be caught

look

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US / lʊk /

UK / lʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's beauty or physical attractiveness
  • Particular style of dress, clothes, or appearance
  • The way someone, something appears to be
  • Act of searching for or examining something
  • verb
  • To appear to be; seem

nature

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US / 'neɪtʃə(r) /

UK / ˈnetʃɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's character or particular way of behaving
  • Basic look, feel or function of something
  • Physical world, including plants, animals, rocks

sardine

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US / ˌsɑ:ˈdi:n /

UK / ˌsɑ:rˈdi:n /

B2
  • noun
  • Small fish similar to a herring

add

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US / æd /

UK / æd /

A1
  • verb
  • To include as well
  • To put two things or numbers together, e.g. 2+2

shadow

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US / 'ʃædəʊ /

UK / ˈʃædo /

A2
  • noun
  • Person who follows another person to observe them
  • Area of darkness that is caused by blocked light
  • verb
  • To cover something with shade
  • To secretly follow a person

spot

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US / spɒt /

UK / spɑt /

A2
  • noun
  • A certain place or area
  • A difficult time; awkward situation
  • Place or ranking on a list
  • A small amount of (substance help hard work etc.)
  • Mark caused by a drop of liquid, food, etc.
  • verb
  • To see someone or something by chance

communication

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US / kəˌmju:nɪ'keɪʃn /

UK / kəˌmjunɪˈkeʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Talking to people; giving information to people

drab

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US / dræb /

UK / dræb /

C1
  • adjecitve
  • Dull; without much color; plain

pretty

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US / 'prɪtɪ /

UK / ˈprɪti /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being attractive to the eye in a simple way
  • adverb
  • Very; to a great degree

else

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US / els /

UK / ɛls /

A1
  • adverb
  • Otherwise; if you fail to
  • (Of person place thing etc.) besides; in addition

huge

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US / hju:dʒ /

UK / hjudʒ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very very large

way

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US / weɪ /

UK / we /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to emphasize the amount of something
  • noun
  • Particular aspect of something being thought about
  • One of various choices that could be made
  • Particular existing condition or state
  • (Often long) distance or length of time
  • How something is done
  • Route to go to a place
  • Small street
  • Usual behavior, emotions or habits of someone
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • How Fish Get Away With Being Colorful
    In the animal world, being brightly colored is basically like sporting a big neon 'eat me' sign, so it's no surprise that colorful animals are relatively rare in nature. But there's one big exception, the animals that live on coral reefs. They sport more colors and more different arrangements of those colors than anywhere else on Earth. How do reef dwellers get away with being so brilliantly bright? Hi, I'm Kate and this is MinuteEarth.
    For the very same reason that bright colors are risky, they make you easy to spot, they're a brilliant way for animals to communicate with each other, like showing off for a potential mate, or deterring a potential rival, or even advertising to a predator that they aren't good to eat. But because of the risks associated with being conspicuous, a lot of animals that do use bright colors to communicate flash those colors quickly, then stash them away. At least, this is how things play out on land. Since air doesn't absorb or scatter much light, bright colors can generally be spotted from pretty far away. In other words, the risks of being brightly colored tend to be pretty high for landlubbers.
    Water though interacts with light in very different ways than air does. First, it absorbs more light, especially at the ends of the visible light spectrum. So although up close this triggerfish is super colorful, from just a few meters away, about the distance most predators roam reefs looking for a meal, many of those bright colors totally disappear. The whole fish ends up looking bluish. Water is also full of particles that scatter light, which creates a kind of visual haze that dulls colors even further.
  • Subtitles section
  • In the animal world, being brightly colored is basically like sporting a big neon eat me sign, so it's no surprise that colorful animals are relatively rare in nature.
  • But there's one big exception, the animals that live on coral reefs.
  • They sport more colors and more different arrangements of those colors than anywhere else on Earth.
  • How do reef dwellers get away with being so brilliantly bright?
  • Hi, I'm Kate and this is MinuteEarth.
  • For the very same reason that bright colors are risky, they make you easy to spot, they're a brilliant way for animals to communicate with each other, like showing off for a potential mate, or deterring a potential rival,
  • Or even advertising to a predator that they aren't good to eat.
  • But because of the risks associated with being conspicuous, a lot of animals that do use bright colors to communicate flash those colors quickly, then stash them away.
  • At least, this is how things play out on land.
  • Since air doesn't absorb or scatter much light, bright colors can generally be spotted from pretty far away.
  • In other words, the risks of being brightly colored tend to be pretty high for landlubbers.
  • Water though interacts with light in very different ways than air does.
  • First, it absorbs more light, especially at the ends of the visible light spectrum.
  • So although up close this triggerfish is super colorful, from just a few meters away, about the distance most predators roam reefs looking for a meal, many of those bright colors totally disappear.
  • The whole fish ends up looking bluish.
  • Water is also full of particles that scatter light, which creates a kind of visual haze that dulls colors even further.
  • Add in a background of mottled coral, some flickery underwater shadows, and the pretty poor visual resolution of most underwater predators, and that brightly colored fish has become basically invisible.
  • So on a coral reef, the risks of being conspicuous aren't as big as they are on land, yet the benefits are huge.
  • Coral reefs are some of the most diverse ecosystems in the world, where tons of tiny fish are packed in like, well, sardines, and need to be able to know who's who, both within a species and among species.
  • Bright colors and wild patterns are great tools for this, and because these little fish are interacting at such a close range, the tiny bit of water between them doesn't scatter or absorb much light.
  • Bright colors still look really bright.
  • In other words, brightly colored reef fish get the best of both worlds.
  • They can be super conspicuous to each other, while also being well-camouflaged from predators.
  • It's this weird quirk that makes coral reefs some of the most colorful places in the animal kingdom.
  • But if conditions on a reef change, the benefits of bright colors could disappear.
  • For example, if warming temperatures force fish deeper, where less light means color fades even at close range.
  • Or if corals start dying off and can't pack in as many species, bright colors won't be as helpful for communication, and reefs could become much more drab.
  • In some areas, like the Great Barrier Reef, where corals are degrading quickly, scientists have already started to document fish evolving into less colorful forms.
  • And that's something that should make all of us a little blue.