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How Your Unhealed Trauma Affects Your Relationships

Video vocabulary

cope

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US / kəʊp /

UK / koʊp /

A2
  • verb
  • To deal with something in spite of difficulties

feel

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US / fi:l /

UK / fil /

A1
  • verb
  • To be aware of or experience an emotion, sensation
  • To sense through direct contact; touch

healthy

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US / ˈhelθi /

UK / ˈhɛlθi /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In good condition physically, or financially; well

previous

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US / ˈpri:viəs /

UK / ˈpriviəs /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Existing or happening before the present time

too

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition, also; with emphasis
  • Say that something is more than you want

develop

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US / dɪ'veləp /

UK / dɪˈvɛləp /

A1
  • verb
  • To explain something in steps and in detail
  • To create or think of something
  • To grow bigger, more complex, or more advanced
  • To make a photograph from film

ever

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US / 'evə(r) /

UK / ˈɛvɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At any time; at all times in the future

intimacy

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US / 'ɪntɪməsɪ /

UK / ˈɪntəməsi /

B2
  • noun
  • The sharing of private and personal things

resemble

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US / rɪˈzembl /

UK / rɪˈzɛmbəl /

B1
  • verb
  • To be similar to in looks or manner

perfectionistic

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US / pə.fek.ʃəˈn.ɪs.tɪk /

UK / pɚ.fek.ʃəˈn.ɪs.tɪk /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • A person who wants everything to be perfect and demands the highest standards possible

point

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US / pɔɪnt /

UK / pɔɪnt /

A1
  • noun
  • An item to be discussed
  • Small spot or dot
  • Fact or detail
  • Feature of something
  • The size of the text on a page or screen
  • A certain time or stage in a process
  • Certain position in time or space
  • Idea or fact you try to convince people about
  • Measurement of scores in a game, sport
  • Sharp end of something, e.g. a pen or pin
  • verb
  • To face a certain direction, e.g. north
  • To indicate something with your finger to others

sure

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US / ʃʊə(r) /

UK / ʃʊr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having no doubts about something
  • Have confidence in your own words or actions
  • Firmly established or held; being firm or stable
  • Being correct or true
  • adverb
  • What you say to agree willingly

lose

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US / lu:z /

UK / luz /

A1
  • verb
  • To be unable to keep in check or control something
  • To decrease in value or quantity (e.g. weight)
  • To stop having certain qualities or abilities
  • To stop having or being entitled to
  • To fail to win something that is being contested
  • To be unable to find something you once had
  • To be dependent on someone (used with 'not')

new

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US / nju: /

UK / nu, nju /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not old, recently born, built or made
  • Being or doing something for the first time
  • Not felt, seen or known previously
  • Having been recently bought or obtained

morgan

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US / ˈmɔːgən /

UK / ˈmɔrgən /

A1
  • other
  • An American breed of small compact saddle horses

try

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US / traɪ /

UK / traɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of putting the ball over the rugby goal line
  • verb
  • To make an effort, to attempt to do something
  • To examine someone or something in a court of law
  • To test to see if it is good or you like it
  • To make a person go through hardship; test
  • To examine something to see if it works

perfectly

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US / ˈpɜ:fɪktli /

UK / ˈpəfɪktli /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a faultless manner; without mistakes

someone

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US / ˈsʌmwʌn /

UK / ˈsʌmˌwʌn, -wən /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person who is not known or named

originate

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US / ə'rɪdʒɪneɪt /

UK / əˈrɪdʒəˌnet /

A2
  • verb
  • To first come into existence
  • To create or start something

respond

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US / rɪ'spɒnd /

UK / rɪˈspɑnd /

A2
  • verb
  • To answer something or someone
  • To have a good reaction to e.g. medical treatment

should

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US / ʃʊd /

UK / ʃʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate what is proper or reasonable

truth

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US / tru:θ /

UK / truθ /

A2
  • noun
  • Real facts about something

four

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US / fɔ:(r) /

UK / fɔr, for /

A1
  • number
  • 4

interact

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US / ˌɪntər'ækt /

UK / ˌɪntɚˈækt /

A2
  • verb
  • To talk or do things with each other

once

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US / wʌns /

UK / wʌns /

A1
  • adverb
  • One time; one instance
  • At a time in the past
  • conjunction
  • When; as soon as

safe

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US / seɪf /

UK / sef /

A2
  • noun
  • Metal box with a lock to keep valuable things in
  • adjecitve
  • Highly likely
  • Being out of danger

while

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US / waɪl /

UK / hwaɪl, waɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • In spite of the fact that; although
  • During the time that; at the same time
  • noun
  • Short amount of time

wait

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US / weɪt /

UK / wet /

A1
  • verb
  • To delay or not do something until later
  • To spend time until an expected thing happens
  • To remain in a place until a thing happens

withhold

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US / wɪð'həʊld /

UK / wɪθˈhold, wɪð- /

B2
  • verb
  • To hold something back; restrict access to

bond

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US / bɒnd /

UK / bɑnd /

A2
  • noun
  • Rope, chain or other thing used to tie someone up
  • Closeness that is shared between people or groups
  • Loan that a government must buy back by a set date
  • Written agreement to pay back borrowed money
  • Joint or connection, often using glue
  • verb
  • To develop a close relationship with
  • To become joined or connected, e.g. using glue

immediately

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US / ɪˈmi:diətli /

UK / ɪˈmidiɪtli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Without any delay; straight away

rough

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US / rʌf /

UK / rʌf /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Causing or involving violence, force, and harm
  • (Of situations) tough; difficult to get through
  • Being imprecise, inexact, and not detailed
  • Not gentle or not soft
  • Having an uneven or not smooth surface
  • Raw and natural
  • (Of sea weather etc.) not calm with strong winds
  • Involving or causing sudden, forceful movements
  • adverb
  • In a manner that is difficult, or violent
  • noun
  • Violent, loud, and unpleasant person
  • Incomplete drawing or draft done lacking detail
  • verb
  • To make something less smooth

use

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US / ju:s /

UK / ju:s /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to employ something
  • Need to enable it to work
  • Permission to do something with something
  • Act of spending money
  • Operation of a machine for its function
  • verb
  • To have; to eat, drink, consume etc.
  • To need to operate or work
  • To operate a machine, e.g. a computer
  • To treat a person badly
  • To do something with, for a task or purpose

after

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US / 'ɑ:ftə(r) /

UK / ˈæftɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Later than another time, or behind something
  • conjunction
  • Following something before
  • preposition
  • When an event happened or time has passed

accident

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US / ˈæksɪdənt /

UK / ˈæksɪdənt, -ˌdɛnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Sudden unplanned event causing damage, injury etc.

always

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US / 'ɔ:lweɪz /

UK / ˈɔlwez,-wɪz,-wiz /

A1
  • adverb
  • For a very long time
  • At all times; in every situation
  • For ever

describe

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US / dɪ'skraɪb /

UK / dɪˈskraɪb /

A1
  • verb
  • To tell the appearance, sound, smell of something

marriage

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US / ˈmærɪdʒ /

UK / ˈmærɪdʒ /

A2
  • noun
  • Relationship between a husband and a wife
  • A wedding ceremony
  • Close union between two things

shame

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US / ʃeɪm /

UK / ʃem /

A2
  • noun
  • Feeling of guilt because you did something wrong
  • verb
  • To make someone feel ashamed

relate

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US / rɪ'leɪt /

UK / rɪˈlet /

A2
  • verb
  • To demonstrate a logical relationship between
  • To understand or sympathize with, e.g. a problem
  • To tell a story, or tell about a particular event

survivor

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US / səˈvaɪvə(r) /

UK / sərˈvaɪvə(r) /

A2
  • noun
  • Person, thing that continues to live or exist

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

common

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US / 'kɒmən /

UK / ˈkɑmən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Shared; Belonging to or used by everyone
  • Typical, normal; not unusual
  • noun
  • Area in a city or town that is open to everyone
  • Field near a village owned by the local community

douglas

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US / ˈdʌɡləs /

UK / ˈdʌɡləs /

A1
  • proper noun
  • The capital of the Isle of Man; population 27,200 (est. 2009).

outcome

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US / ˈaʊtkʌm /

UK / ˈaʊtˌkʌm /

A2
  • noun
  • Something that happens as a result, consequence

notification

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US / ˌnəʊtɪfɪˈkeɪʃn /

UK / ˌnoʊtɪfɪˈkeɪʃn /

B2
  • noun
  • Act of giving formal or official information

who

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US / hu: /

UK / hu /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Which person
  • Used to introduce information about people

closeness

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US / 'kləʊsnəs /

UK / ˈklosnɪs /

B1
  • noun
  • A feeling of being intimate and belonging together

due

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US / dju: /

UK / du, dju /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • When something is required or expected
  • Owed to a person as a right
  • noun
  • Something you deserve; something you can expect

figure

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US / ˈfiɡə /

UK / ˈfɪɡjɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Your body shape
  • Numbers in a calculation
  • Doll-like thing meant to represent a person
  • Picture or diagram giving information in a text
  • Person who is very important or famous
  • Shape of a person seen indistinctly or in outline
  • Amount that is expressed in numbers
  • verb
  • To appear in a game, play or event
  • To calculate how much something will cost
  • To understand after thinking; work out

nurture

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US / ˈnɜ:tʃə(r) /

UK / ˈnɜ:rtʃə(r) /

B1
  • noun
  • Care and support given to people as they develop
  • other
  • To help something or someone to grow or succeed
  • verb
  • To help something or someone to grow or succeed

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

way

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US / weɪ /

UK / we /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to emphasize the amount of something
  • noun
  • Particular aspect of something being thought about
  • One of various choices that could be made
  • Particular existing condition or state
  • (Often long) distance or length of time
  • How something is done
  • Route to go to a place
  • Small street
  • Usual behavior, emotions or habits of someone

abuse

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US / ə'bju:s /

UK / əˈbjuz /

A2
  • noun
  • Improper/dishonest/excessive use of something
  • Insulting someone, e.g. by swearing at them
  • verb
  • To mistreat or be cruel towards someone
  • To use in an inappropriate or excessive way
  • To use something wrongly or dishonestly
  • To insult someone or swear at them

gain

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US / ɡeɪn /

UK / ɡen /

A2
  • noun
  • An increase in something, such as weight
  • verb
  • To increase in something, such as weight
  • To get something wanted, needed or valued

prove

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US / pru:v /

UK / pruv /

A2
  • verb
  • To demonstrate truth by providing evidence

work

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US / wɜ:k /

UK / wɚk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Activity completed in order to make money
  • noun
  • The product of some artistic or literary endeavor
  • Everything created by an author, artist, musician
  • Activity you do in order to make money
  • Place of employment
  • Final product or result of a some labor or effort
  • verb
  • To bring into a specific state of success
  • To be functioning properly, e.g. a car
  • To do your job in your company or workplace
  • To make an effort to do something
  • To operate a machine or device

absorb

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US / əb'sɔ:b /

UK / əbˈsɔrb, -ˈzɔrb /

B1
  • verb
  • To take up all attention / energy of something
  • To take in a liquid; soak up

functional

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US / ˈfʌŋkʃənl /

UK / ˈfʌŋkʃənəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Useful; not just for decoration

hold

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US / həʊld /

UK / hold /

A1
  • noun
  • Section of a ship or plane used for storing things
  • Influence or power held over someone
  • Place of support for hands or feet when climbing
  • verb
  • To agree to keep something for someone
  • To have the capacity to support/contain something
  • To control an area and protect it from attack
  • To not allow someone to leave a place
  • To cause an event to happen at a place or time
  • To use hands or arms to carry or keep something
  • To have a specific quality or property
  • To keep an image, belief or feeling in your mind
  • To have or own something
  • To wait before being able to talk on the phone
  • To limit the movement of someone in a sport

lovable

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US / ˈlʌvəbl /

UK / ˈlʌvəbəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Arousing affection; funny; likeable

severe

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US / sɪ'vɪə(r) /

UK / səˈvɪr /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very bad; harsh
  • Being very serious or extremely bad
  • (Of clothes, etc.) plain; simple; not decorated

certify

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US / ˈsɜ:tɪfaɪ /

UK / ˈsɜ:rtɪfaɪ /

B2
  • verb
  • To approve someone as authorized, valid
  • To confirm the truth or reality of something

damage

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US / ˈdæmɪdʒ /

UK / ˈdæmɪdʒ /

A2
  • noun
  • Physical harm that is done to something
  • verb
  • To harm physically; to hurt or break something

fear

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US / fɪə(r) /

UK / fɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unpleasant feeling caused by being aware of danger
  • verb
  • To be afraid of or nervous about something

painful

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US / ˈpeɪnfl /

UK / ˈpenfəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Causing or feeling physical pain or hurt

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

project

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US / prəˈdʒekt /

UK / prəˈdʒɛkt /

A1
  • noun
  • A planned piece of work for specific purpose
  • Group of homes built by government for poor people
  • verb
  • To predict what will happen in the future
  • To show something on a screen using light
  • To stick out past the edge of something

self

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US / self /

UK / sɛlf /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's own interests or desires
  • Person that someone really is
  • Particular aspect of someone's personality
  • Person, usually someone already been mentioned

take

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US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
  • verb
  • To accept something that is offered
  • To use a method of traveling, e.g. a bus or train
  • To use a camera to make (a photo)
  • To pick up something and go away with it
  • To study a subject in school
  • To attempt to pass (an exam)
  • To require a certain amount of time, money, space

blind

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US / blaɪnd /

UK / blaɪnd /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Unable to see; with eyes that cannot see
  • Lacking in judgment or awareness
  • Be unable to see the truth about a situation
  • noun
  • Window covering that you can pull up and down
  • verb
  • To cause someone to lose the ability to see
  • To be unable to see the truth about a situation

attention

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US / əˈtenʃn /

UK / əˈtɛnʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Taking notice of someone or something
  • (Soldiers) Standing with straight backs

believe

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US / bɪ'li:v /

UK / bɪˈliv /

A1
  • verb
  • To think or accept that something is true
  • To have a particular opinion about something

look

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US / lʊk /

UK / lʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's beauty or physical attractiveness
  • Particular style of dress, clothes, or appearance
  • The way someone, something appears to be
  • Act of searching for or examining something
  • verb
  • To appear to be; seem

thank

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US / θæŋk /

UK / θæŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To tell someone you are grateful to them

disconnection

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US / ˌdɪskəˈnekʃn /

UK / ˌdɪskəˈnekʃn /

B1
  • noun
  • State of no longer being connected or joined

manifest

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US / 'mænɪfest /

UK / ˈmænəˌfɛst /

B1
  • noun
  • List of cargo on a ship
  • verb
  • To express or show clearly

charge

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US / tʃɑ:dʒ /

UK / tʃɑrdʒ /

A2
  • noun
  • An attack by running quickly toward someone
  • A price for a service or goods
  • When a battery has a certain amount of electricity
  • Amount of money you pay for a service
  • verb
  • To run quickly toward someone to attack them
  • To ask for money as a price for a service or goods
  • To put electricity in a battery
  • To give responsibility to take care of or manage
  • To state that someone has committed a crime

limited

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US / ˈlɪmɪtɪd /

UK / ˈlɪmɪtɪd /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of a company) with a limit of financial liability
  • With restrictions; not broad in scope
  • verb
  • To stop or prevent an increase past a point

such

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US / sʌtʃ /

UK / sʌtʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Being similar to
  • (Thing) as previously stated or referred to
  • adverb
  • (Used to emphasize the quality of an adjective)

trauma

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US / 'trɔ:mə /

UK / ˈtraʊmə /

B2
  • noun
  • A very severe or upsetting experience
  • Serious injury to part of the body

board

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US / bɔ:d /

UK / bɔrd, bord /

A1
  • noun
  • Surface for posting or showing information
  • Group of persons who direct an organization
  • Long piece of material used for riding the waves
  • Long thin piece of wood, used for building; plank
  • verb
  • To enter a ship, plane, or other vehicle
  • To cover with long wooden strips of wood
  • To pay money to live in someone's house; lodge

individual

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US / ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒuəl /

UK / ˌɪndəˈvɪdʒuəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Made for use by one single person
  • Having a distinct manner different from others
  • noun
  • Single person, looked at separately from others

much

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US / mʌtʃ /

UK / mʌtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very; to a high level or degree
  • adverb
  • A lot; large amount; a high degree of
  • Nearly; basically
  • On many occasions; often
  • noun
  • A large amount; a great quantity

positive

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US / ˈpɒzətɪv /

UK / ˈpɑzɪtɪv /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Showing agreement or support for something
  • Being sure about something; knowing the truth
  • Having the charge produced by electrons
  • Being good or useful
  • Showing that a chemical is present in a test

strong

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US / strɒŋ /

UK / strɔŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of tea or beer) dark or thick
  • Having big muscles; physically powerful

vehicle

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US / ˈvi:əkl /

UK / ˈvi:hɪkl /

A2
  • noun
  • Machine (such as a car) used to carry things
  • Means of expressing, showing, or achieving

ask

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US / ɑ:sk /

UK / æsk /

A1
  • verb
  • To say to someone that you want something

express

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US / ɪk'spres /

UK / ɪkˈsprɛs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Sent by a fast mail service
  • Traveling at high speed
  • noun
  • Fast train or bus
  • verb
  • To send something by fast mail
  • To state or show what you think or how you feel

grow

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US / ɡrəʊ /

UK / ɡro /

A1
  • verb
  • To get bigger and more mature; make plants do this
  • To improve; to develop better skills over time
  • To develop and become bigger or taller over time

limit

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US / 'lɪmɪt /

UK / ˈlɪmɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Point beyond which it is not possible to go
  • verb
  • To stop or prevent an increase past a point

set

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US / set /

UK / sɛt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Prepared for something; ready
  • noun
  • Complete group of something
  • Place where a television show or movie is filmed
  • Group of games in a tennis match
  • Device that receives radio or television signals
  • verb
  • To make a clock state or ring at a particular time
  • To decide upon or choose something
  • To make something ready for use (e.g. table)
  • To decide on a price for something
  • To become hard (of glue, concrete etc.)
  • To be located in a specific place or time
  • To put (e.g. a vase) down carefully in a place
  • To put someone in a certain condition or state
  • (Of the sun) to go lower than the horizon

yourself

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US / jɔ:ˈself /

UK / jʊrˈsɛlf, jɔr-, jor-, jə- /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Reflexive form of 'you', used for an emphasis

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

within

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US / wɪˈðɪn /

UK / wɪðˈɪn, wɪθ- /

A1
  • adverb
  • Inside the limits of an area, time or range
  • preposition
  • From the inside of something

home

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US / həʊm /

UK / hom /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A sports team's own field or place of play
  • adverb
  • Into the correct or intended position
  • noun
  • House, apartment or building to be rented or sold
  • Institution for sick or elderly people
  • Place where a person or a family lives
  • Country where a person lives or was born
  • Region that is native to peoples, plant or animals
  • verb
  • To move towards a particular target location

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

talk

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US / tɔ:k /

UK / tɔk /

A1
  • noun
  • Style of speaking
  • Discussion between two countries
  • Giving information in front of people; lecture
  • Saying things or ideas to someone with words
  • verb
  • To make a formal speech about something
  • To say things or ideas to someone with words

communicate

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US / kə'mju:nɪkeɪt /

UK / kəˈmjunɪˌket /

A2
  • verb
  • To give and exchange information

counsellor

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US / ˈkaʊnsələ(r) /

UK / ˈkaʊnsəlɚ, -slɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Person offering professional advice to others

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

through

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US / θru: /

UK / θru /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • having finished using or doing something
  • adverb
  • From the beginning of something until the end
  • preposition
  • Over, in, across an entire thing or place
  • Allowing you to pass between, or to
  • By a particular way or process; by the use of

worth

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US / wɜ:θ /

UK / wɚθ /

A2
  • other
  • the financial, practical or moral value of somebody/something
  • having a particular value, especially in money

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

face

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US / feɪs /

UK / fes /

A1
  • noun
  • Side or outer surface of something
  • An expression using mouth, nose, eyes etc.
  • Front part of the head where eyes, mouth etc. are
  • Characteristics you show in public
  • verb
  • To cover a surface with something like paint
  • To deal with a problem or responsibilities
  • To look toward; point in a certain direction

hour

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • noun
  • 60 minutes
  • Particular time of the day
  • Fixed, regularly occurring time

those

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US / ðəʊz /

UK / ðoz /

A1
  • determiner
  • The people or things we are talking about
  • pronoun
  • The objects far from the speaker

entitle

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US / ɪnˈtaɪtl /

UK / ɛnˈtaɪtl /

B1
  • verb
  • To make you eligible to hold a title
  • To give a right (of getting benefits) to someone

never

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US / 'nevə(r) /

UK / ˈnɛvɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Not ever; not at any time

supportive

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US / səˈpɔ:tɪv /

UK / səˈpɔ:rtɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Providing help and support to someone or something

difficult

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US / 'dɪfɪkəlt /

UK / ˈdɪfɪˌkʌlt, -kəlt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Hard; not easy; you need to work hard to do it

highly

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US / ˈhaɪli /

UK / 'haɪlɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In a manner that shows approval
  • More than usual; to a great degree

situation

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US / ˌsɪtʃuˈeɪʃn /

UK / ˌsɪtʃuˈeʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Place, position or area that something is in
  • Circumstance or condition surrounding an event
  • An unexpected problem or difficulty

struggle

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US / 'strʌɡl /

UK / ˈstrʌɡəl /

A2
  • noun
  • Strong efforts made to do something difficult
  • verb
  • To try very hard to do something difficult

behave

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US / bɪˈheɪv /

UK / bɪˈhev /

A2
  • verb
  • To act correctly
  • To act in a particular way
  • To react in a particular way in a given case

aware

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US / əˈwɛə /

UK / əˈwɛr /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Knowing or feeling that something exists

difficulty

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US / ˈdɪfɪkəlti /

UK / ˈdɪfɪˌkʌlti, -kəl- /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that is hard to do

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

hard

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US / hɑ:d /

UK / hɑː(r)d /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Difficult to do; difficult to understand
  • (Of facts) not able to be misunderstood; clear
  • (Of alcohol) strong
  • Involving or requiring lots of work, effort, care
  • Being full of pain, trouble, and problems
  • Strong
  • (Of edge) clear; sharp
  • Difficult to bend, break or cut; solid
  • adverb
  • With lots of force, power, or impact

physician

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US / fɪˈzɪʃn /

UK / fɪˈzɪʃən /

B2
  • noun
  • A medical doctor

present

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US / 'preznt /

UK / ˈprɛznt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in attendance; being there; having turned up
  • noun
  • Gift
  • Verb tense indicating an action is happening now
  • Current time; now
  • verb
  • To introduce someone to others
  • To host a program on television or radio
  • To give a speech or presentation
  • To show something to someone who will examine it
  • To appear or happen
  • To give an award or prize to someone

serious

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US / ˈsɪəriəs /

UK / ˈsɪriəs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Giving something great energy or sincerity
  • Needing thought or concentration; important; grave
  • Being sincere about something; not joking

cause

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US / kɔ:z /

UK / kɔz /

A2
  • noun
  • Belief, goal or organization that people support
  • Reason for
  • verb
  • To make something happen; create effect or result

own

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US / əʊn /

UK / on /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Belong to oneself
  • determiner
  • Yours, his, hers, etc.; not belonging to another
  • pronoun
  • (Something) belong to myself
  • verb
  • To have something as your property

perfection

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US / pəˈfekʃn /

UK / pɚˈfɛkʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • State of excellence that cannot be improved

perfectionist

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US / pəˈfekʃənɪst /

UK / pərˈfekʃənɪst /

B1
  • noun
  • Person displeased by anything is not perfect

similar

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US / ˈsɪmələ(r) /

UK / ˈsɪməlɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Nearly the same; alike

unrealistic

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US / ˌʌnrɪəˈlɪstɪk /

UK / ˌʌnri:əˈlɪstɪk /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Not seeing or interpreting things as they are

anymore

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US / 'enɪmɔ: /

UK / ˌɛniˈmɔr, -ˈmor /

A2
  • adverb
  • No longer; no more

comment

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US / 'kɒment /

UK / ˈkɑmɛnt /

A2
  • noun
  • Something you say, giving an opinion; remark
  • verb
  • To say something that gives your opinion

down

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US / daʊn /

UK / daʊn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being sad, sick, or unhappy
  • Not operating, working, or functioning as expected
  • adverb
  • In a sitting or lying position
  • Towards or on the ground, floor, or bottom
  • Written or copied onto a piece of paper or book
  • noun
  • A period of play in American Football
  • The soft, smooth hairs that cover a bird's body
  • preposition
  • Along something's path, course, or direction
  • Going from a higher position to a lower position
  • verb
  • To eat or drink very quickly and without stopping

family

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US / 'fæməlɪ /

UK / ˈfæmli /

A1
  • noun
  • Close group of people or organizations
  • A group of people who are related through blood
  • Group of related plants or animals

must

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US / məst /

UK / mʌst /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that is necessary or required
  • other
  • (Used to state that something ought to be true)
  • Used to say something is required or necessary

respect

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US / rɪ'spekt /

UK / rɪˈspɛkt /

A2
  • noun
  • Behavior that follows the established rules
  • Admiration for someone
  • Regard or admiration for someone or something
  • verb
  • To follow the established rules
  • To think very highly of another person

then

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US / ðen /

UK / ðɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • A time that is not now
  • Following another thing in time or arrangement
  • Following on reasonably from what was just stated
  • At that time, not now

hyper

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US / ˈhaɪpə(r) /

UK / 'haɪpər /

C1
  • adjecitve
  • Very excited or active

strengthen

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US / ˈstreŋθn /

UK / ˈstrɛŋkθən,ˈstrɛŋ-,ˈstrɛn- /

A2
  • verb
  • To make something stronger

again

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US / ə'ɡen /

UK / əˈɡɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • One more time, once more

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

care

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US / keə(r) /

UK / kɛr /

A1
  • noun
  • Treatment you receive for your health or safety
  • Something that a person worries about
  • verb
  • To feel interest, concern, or worry
  • To look after someone or something

different

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US / ˈdɪfrənt /

UK / ˈdɪfrənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not of the same kind; unlike other things

even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

eventually

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US / ɪˈventʃuəli /

UK / ɪˈvɛntʃuəli /

A2
  • adverb
  • After a long time; after many attempts; in the end

health

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US / helθ /

UK / hɛlθ /

A1
  • noun
  • (Person, company) being in a good condition; well

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

people

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US / 'pi:pl /

UK / ˈpipəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Persons sharing culture, country, background, etc.
  • Men, Women, Children

remind

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US / rɪ'maɪnd /

UK / rɪˈmaɪnd /

A2
  • verb
  • To cause someone to remember what they forgot

threat

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US / θret /

UK / θrɛt /

A2
  • noun
  • Warning of probable trouble
  • A warning that you may be harmed

surrounding

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US / səˈraʊndɪŋ /

UK / səˈraʊndɪŋ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Bring completed closed around on all sides
  • verb
  • To be all the way around something
  • To be closely connected to and have an effect on
  • To move closer on all sides of something

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

argue

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US / ˈɑ:gju: /

UK / ˈɑ:rgju: /

A1
  • verb
  • To fight or disagree over something
  • To state your reasons for or against an idea

anyone

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US / ˈeniwʌn /

UK / ˈɛniˌwʌn, -wən /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Any person

boundary

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US / 'baʊndrɪ /

UK / ˈbaʊndəri, -dri /

B1
  • noun
  • A division or border to separate two areas

case

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US / keɪs /

UK / kes /

A1
  • noun
  • Container used to carry things, e.g. clothes
  • Set of facts about a crime
  • Set of facts about an event
  • Example or instance of something
  • verb
  • To find out about a place, as in planning to steal

energy

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US / 'enədʒɪ /

UK / ˈɛnədʒi /

A2
  • noun
  • Physical or mental strength

flood

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US / flʌd /

UK / flʌd /

B1
  • noun
  • Large number of people or things arriving at once
  • Destruction when a river breaks its banks
  • verb
  • To quickly appear unexpectedly and in volume
  • (Of liquid) to fill or cover something completely

find

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US / faɪnd /

UK / faɪnd /

A1
  • noun
  • Object discovered by chance
  • Things that have been discovered from searching
  • verb
  • To become aware of something that is happening
  • To discover or meet by chance
  • To decide if someone is guilty of a crime, or not
  • To learn through study, research, or effort
  • To discover something by looking for it

mean

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US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular meaning or value

partner

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US / 'pɑ:tnə(r) /

UK / ˈpɑrtnɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • One you have a business/personal relationship with
  • Someone you have personal relationship with
  • verb
  • To join with others for work or other activity

task

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US / tɑ:sk /

UK / tæsk /

A2
  • noun
  • Big or small piece of work someone has to do
  • verb
  • To be given something to do, e.g. wash dishes

sustain

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US / sə'steɪn /

UK / səˈsten /

B2
  • verb
  • To lengthen or continue to do something
  • To support or maintain someone or something
  • To suffer something damaging or bad

watch

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US / wɒtʃ /

UK / wɑtʃ /

A1
  • noun
  • Period of time someone is responsible for guarding
  • Device you wear on your wrist that shows the time
  • Official warning statement, e.g. of bad weather
  • verb
  • To keep in check, manage, or control something
  • To look at something for entertainment, e.g. TV
  • To guard a place or people; protect child, etc.
  • To look at carefully to work out what is happening
  • To protect and care for someone or something

hit

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US / hɪt /

UK / hɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • A planned killing, usually for money
  • Song, movie etc. that is successful
  • When someone strikes someone or something
  • Time when a player makes contact with the ball
  • Time when a website is accessed
  • verb
  • To have a negative impact on a person/place/thing
  • To press something, such as a button or switch
  • To suddenly realize the importance of something
  • To move your hand, a bat, etc. against with force
  • To fight, attack or damage something or someone
  • To arrive at a specific place, level, or goal
  • To make contact with the ball in a game or sport

number

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US / ˈnʌmbə(r) /

UK / ˈnʌmbɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Symbols such as 1, 2, 56, 793
  • Particular song or dance performed during a show
  • Total quantity or amount of things
  • verb
  • To put numbers on things
  • To assign a sequence within a group, series, set
  • To claim to be part of a larger group, series, set

break

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US / breɪk /

UK / brek /

A1
  • noun
  • Time you stop an activity before continuing
  • End of a relationship
  • An escape from a place such as a jail
  • (Lucky) advantage or benefit from something
  • Find a solution or answer to a problem or crime
  • Change in the weather
  • verb
  • To create a new record e.g. running the 100m dash
  • To form a crack in something
  • To burst or become damaged
  • To end a relationship
  • To escape from a place such as a jail
  • To train a wild animal e.g. a horse
  • To separate into pieces by force, or by dropping
  • To act against a law, rule, or promise
  • To become known suddenly, as in the news
  • To not do what you promised e.g. not keep promises
  • To solve a crime, or answer a problem
  • To stop functioning properly
  • To suddenly start, open or commence
  • To change in pitch suddenly, as in a voice
  • To fall on the shore, as in waves
  • To begin or change suddenly; the dawn or weather
  • To defeat by causing the person to lose their will

hear

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • verb
  • To be aware of sound; to perceive with the ear
  • To be told or find out information or facts
  • To consider or listen to a court case

notice

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US / 'nəʊtɪs /

UK / ˈnotɪs /

A1
  • noun
  • Time by when you must leave, e.g. if you are fired
  • Paper with an announcement, e.g. pinned to a board
  • verb
  • To become aware by sight, touch, or hearing

strongly

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US / strɒŋlɪ /

UK / ˈstrɔŋlɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • With strength or in a strong manner

father

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US / ˈfɑ:ðə(r) /

UK / ˈfɑðɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • A male parent
  • Man who is the first to do or invent something
  • verb
  • To create a child by making a woman pregnant

instance

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US / 'ɪnstəns /

UK / ˈɪnstəns /

A2
  • noun
  • An example of something; case
  • verb
  • To give as an example of something else

social

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US / ˈsəuʃəl /

UK / ˈsoʃəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Involving activity with people, e.g. in free time
  • Liking being with other people; friendly
  • Living together and depending on each other

traumatic

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US / trɔ:ˈmætɪk /

UK / traʊˈmætɪk /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Causing upsetting emotional effects over time
  • Causing an injury

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

almost

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US / 'ɔ:lməʊst /

UK / ˈɔlˌmost, ɔlˈmost /

A1
  • adverb
  • Only a little less than, nearly, not quite

before

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US / bɪˈfɔ:(r) /

UK / bɪˈfɔr,-ˈfor /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a time earlier than the present; previously
  • conjunction
  • In advance of something happening
  • preposition
  • In front of someone or something

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

information

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US / ˌɪnfəˈmeɪʃn /

UK / ˌɪnfɚˈmeʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Collection of facts and details about something

part

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US / pɑ:t /

UK / pɑ:rt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To some degree; half; not fully
  • noun
  • Division of a book
  • Ratio of something, e.g. 3 of gin, 1 of tonic
  • A line in a person's hair, made with a comb
  • Character an actor plays on stage, movie, or TV
  • Some, but not all of a specific thing
  • Role in causing something to happen
  • verb
  • To make a line in a person's hair, by using a comb
  • To move two things apart creating a space
  • To leave someone, or to break off a relationship

without

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US / wɪˈðaʊt /

UK / wɪðˈaʊt, wɪθ- /

A1
  • preposition
  • Not with; not having

behind

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US / bɪˈhaɪnd /

UK / bɪˈhaɪnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a later or slower time than expected
  • Being in a losing position in a sporting event
  • Being in the past; old fashioned
  • adverb
  • Remaining
  • noun
  • The part of the body that one sits on
  • preposition
  • At or toward the back of someone or something
  • Supporting or helping someone

complete

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US / kəm'pli:t /

UK / kəmˈplit /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being finished; done; achieved
  • Being as perfect and as total as could be
  • verb
  • To finish or reach the end of doing something

incident

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US / ˈɪnsɪdənt /

UK / ˈɪnsɪdənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Event, usually unusual or important; accident

injury

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US / 'ɪndʒərɪ /

UK / ˈɪndʒəri /

A2
  • noun
  • Physical or emotional harm or damage

know

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US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

mature

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US / məˈtʃʊə(r) /

UK / məˈtʃʊr /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Behaving like an adult
  • Being fully developed physically
  • verb
  • (Wine, cheese) To age to improve its taste

often

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US / ˈɔfən /

UK / ˈɔfən,ˈɑfən,ˈɔftən,ˈɑf- /

A1
  • adverb
  • Many times; frequently; on many occasions

sadness

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US / ˈsædnəs /

UK / ˈsædnəs /

A2
  • noun
  • Unhappy feeling when something bad happened

trust

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US / trʌst /

UK / trʌst /

A2
  • noun
  • Wealth or property held by one person for another
  • The belief that someone is honest
  • Care or responsibility of a person
  • verb
  • To expect confidently
  • To have confidence or faith
  • To be confident someone is honest and reliable
  • To believe someone to be honest and reliable

clear

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US / klɪə(r) /

UK / klɪr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Empty; without anything in it or on it
  • Being certain and without doubt
  • Being without any streaks, spots, or cracks
  • Easy to understand; well-explained; obvious
  • adverb
  • Completely; entirely; through the whole of
  • Away from; free from
  • verb
  • To recover from or remove a problem
  • To get rid of the entire contents of
  • To give permission for something to happen
  • To make a place or surface empty by removing
  • To prove that someone is not guilty or to blame

guard

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US / ɡɑ:d /

UK / ɡɑrd /

A2
  • noun
  • Someone who watches a place or prevents escapes
  • verb
  • To keep watch over something to protect it

hand

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US / hænd /

UK / hænd /

A1
  • noun
  • Cards given to a player in a card game
  • Piece of a clock that points to the time
  • Someone who performs physical tasks or work
  • Body part at the end of a person's arm
  • Help for someone performing a particular action
  • Condition of having power or influence
  • Member of the crew of a ship
  • verb
  • To give something to someone personally

next

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US / nekst /

UK / nɛkst /

A1
  • adverb
  • The one that follows another in time or order
  • At a time or place directly after the present one
  • noun
  • The one that follows after
  • adjecitve
  • Immediately after the previous one
  • First occurrence after the present one

focus

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US / 'fəʊkəs /

UK / ˈfokəs /

A2
  • noun
  • Main purpose or center of interest or activity
  • verb
  • To see clearly by adjusting your eyes or a camera
  • To keep your attention, concentration on one thing

interest

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US / 'ɪntrəst /

UK / ˈɪntrɪst, -tərɪst, -ˌtrɛst /

A1
  • noun
  • Best or most advantageous thing for someone
  • Activity or subject one enjoys doing or learning
  • Fee for borrowing money
  • verb
  • To make someone want to know about something
  • To persuade to do, become involved with something

protect

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US / prə'tekt /

UK / prəˈtɛkt /

A1
  • verb
  • To defend someone or something from harm or danger

young

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US / jʌŋ /

UK / jʌŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • At an early stage of existence; not mature
  • Being recently created or started
  • noun
  • Babies in a group or family of animals

world

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US / wɜ:ld /

UK / wɜrld /

A1
  • noun
  • All the humans, events, activities on the earth
  • Political division due to some kind of similarity

adaptive

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US / ə'dæptɪv /

UK / əˈdæptɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Able to adjust to new conditions

accord

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US / ə'kɔ:d /

UK / əˈkɔ:rd /

B1
  • noun
  • Agreement or harmony
  • An agreement or treaty between countries
  • verb
  • To be in harmony or agreement; consent
  • To give (someone) the respect due to them

deprive

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US / dɪˈpraɪv /

UK / dɪˈpraɪv /

B2
  • verb
  • To deny someone access to or take away something

divorce

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US / dɪ'vɔ:s /

UK / dɪˈvɔrs, -ˈvors /

A2
  • noun
  • Legal breakup of a marriage
  • verb
  • To legally end a marriage to (someone)

loud

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US / laʊd /

UK / laʊd /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being very bright with colors, clothes etc.
  • Making a lot of noise

low

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US / ləʊ /

UK / lo /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having a small quantity, supply, or amount
  • Being unhappy or unpleasant in attitude
  • Not high; being near the ground, or bottom
  • (Of a voice, sound) being soft; quiet
  • noun
  • Situation of not having a lot of something

license

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US / ˈlaɪsns /

UK / ˈlaɪsəns /

B1
  • noun
  • Freedom to do what you want or act as you want
  • verb
  • To give official permission to do something

negative

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US / 'neɡətɪv /

UK / ˈnɛɡətɪv /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being harmful, unwanted or unhelpful
  • In mathematics, being less than zero
  • Focusing on the bad aspects; pessimistic
  • noun
  • The opposite to a positive electrical charge
  • In grammar, containing words such as 'no' or 'not'
  • Reply to a question or statement that means 'no'
  • Image on camera film used to make a photo

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

any

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US / 'enɪ /

UK / ˈɛni /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One, or some, no matter which
  • pronoun
  • One (thing) of many; some

occurrence

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US / əˈkʌrəns /

UK / əˈkɚrəns /

B1
  • noun
  • Specific instance of something happening

pose

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US / pəʊz /

UK / poʊz /

B1
  • noun
  • False behavior to gain respect or liking
  • verb
  • To be or exist as (a problem, threat etc.)
  • To suggest an idea, question or solution
  • To sit or stand while being painted or drawn
  • To put someone in a position to be photographed

remark

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US / rɪˈmɑ:k /

UK / rɪˈmɑ:rk /

A2
  • noun
  • Something you say as a reaction to something
  • Brief formal speech or introduction
  • verb
  • To comment on something that you observe

think

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US / θɪŋk /

UK / θɪŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To have an idea about something without certainty
  • To have an idea, opinion or belief about something

unlovable

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US / 'ʌnlʌvəbl /

UK / 'ʌnlʌvəbl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Not capable of inspiring love or affection

aftermath

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US / ˈɑ:ftəmæθ /

UK / ˈæftərmæθ /

A1
  • noun
  • The bad result/situation after an event

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

back

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US / bæk /

UK / bæk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Farthest from the front e.g. in a classroom
  • adverb
  • Have returned to a place you were before
  • noun
  • The part of a chair that the upper body leans upon
  • Location at the rear of something
  • The reverse of side something
  • Area on the rear of your body
  • verb
  • To bet money on something
  • To go backwards in a car
  • To support and encourage someone or some cause

hardship

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US / ˈhɑ:dʃɪp /

UK / ˈhɑrdˌʃɪp /

B1
  • noun
  • When life is not easy, e.g. through being poor

harsh

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US / hɑ:ʃ /

UK / hɑrʃ /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Rough; tough; hard to experience or accept
  • Being severe and unkind

lot

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US / lɒt /

UK / lɑt /

A1
  • noun
  • What happens to a person in life from chance; fate
  • A group of people seen together
  • Item for sale at an auction
  • Small area of land used for a purpose e.g. parking

pain

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US / peɪn /

UK / pen /

A1
  • noun
  • Strong feeling of hurt or discomfort
  • Something or someone that bothers or upsets you
  • verb
  • To cause someone to feel upset or worry

unknowingly

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US / ʌn'nəʊɪŋlɪ /

UK / ʌn'noʊɪŋlɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • Without knowing or being consciously aware

hurt

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US / hɜ:t /

UK / hɚt /

A1
  • noun
  • Mental, emotional, or physical pain
  • verb
  • To cause pain, damage or injury

mental

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US / ˈmentl /

UK / ˈmɛntl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the mind

procrastinate

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US / prəʊ'kræstɪneɪt /

UK / proˈkræstəˌnet, prə- /

C2
  • verb
  • To delay doing something that you ought to do

sometimes

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US / ˈsʌmtaɪmz /

UK / ˈsʌmˌtaɪmz /

A1
  • adverb
  • Only at certain times; occasionally

abandonment

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US / əˈbændənmənt /

UK / əˈbændənmənt /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of abandoning or leaving something deserted
  • Surrendering to impulses, with no self-control
  • Being left alone by people

button

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US / 'bʌtn /

UK / ˈbʌtn /

A2
  • noun
  • Small round piece material used to fasten clothing
  • Switch activated by pressing
  • verb
  • To fasten e.g. a shirt, coat

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

healing

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US / ˈhi:lɪŋ /

UK / 'hi:lɪŋ /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of helping others to recover their health
  • verb
  • To recover from or forget a bad experience
  • To make or become healthy or well again

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

resource

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US / riˈsɔ:s /

UK / ˈriˌsɔrs, -ˌsors, -ˌzɔrs, -ˌzors, rɪˈsɔrs, -ˈsors, /

A2
  • noun
  • Something that can be used profitably; asset
  • An essential supply of something
  • Resourcefulness; ability to deal with problems
  • verb
  • To obtain (e.g. oil, gas) from its source

share

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US / ʃeə(r) /

UK / ʃɛr /

A2
  • noun
  • Part-ownership in a property, business or company
  • Part of a company you own, shown by a certificate
  • verb
  • To divide something between two or more people
  • To allow others to use your things equally
  • To give information, etc. to someone

affect

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US / ə'fekt /

UK / əˈfɛkt /

A2
  • verb
  • To cause a change in something else

professional

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US / prə'feʃənl /

UK / prəˈfɛʃənəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of jobs such as doctor, lawyer, accountant, etc.
  • Acting/done properly as a qualified person would
  • Getting paid for playing a sport/doing an activity
  • noun
  • Highly qualified person, e.g. lawyer or doctor
  • One who plays a sport or similar activity as a job

only

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US / ˈəunli /

UK / ˈonli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just one; just that amount or thing; not more than
  • Not very important or serious
  • Just that type of thing, person
  • Short time ago; not before a certain time
  • conjunction
  • Except; but

put

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US / pʊt /

UK / pʊt /

A1
  • phrasal verb
  • to make a light stop shining by pressing or moving a switch
  • verb
  • To move or place a thing in a particular position
  • To rate something in importance or value
  • To write or say something in a certain manner

perhaps

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US / pəˈhæps /

UK / pɚˈhæps /

A1
  • adverb
  • Possibly, but not certainly; maybe

two

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • number
  • 2

thoughtful

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US / ˈθɔ:tfl /

UK / ˈθɔtfəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerned about needs and feelings of other people

version

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US / ˈvə:ʃən /

UK / ˈvɚʒən, -ʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Different way that someone interprets something
  • New or different form of something
  • An updated form of some software

defensive

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US / dɪˈfensɪv /

UK / dɪˈfɛnsɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Protecting something, yourself from attack

leave

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US / li:v /

UK / liv /

A1
  • noun
  • Permission to do something
  • Vacation time; time off work
  • verb
  • To go away from; depart
  • To gift property to someone after you die
  • To allow something to continue happening
  • To let something remain unused or available
  • To let something or someone remain somewhere

trait

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US / treɪt /

UK / tret /

C2
  • noun
  • A particular characteristic that can produce a particular type of behavior

where

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US / hwɛə /

UK / hwɛr, wɛr /

A1
  • conjunction
  • At or in the place which
  • In whatever place
  • pronoun
  • Word you use to ask the location of something

pattern

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US / 'pætn /

UK / ˈpætən /

A2
  • noun
  • Model to follow in making or doing something
  • Colors or shapes which are repeated on objects
  • Regular repeated behavior
  • verb
  • To copy the way something else is made

resolve

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US / rɪ'zɒlv /

UK / rɪˈzɑlv /

B1
  • verb
  • To make a decision to do something
  • To find an answer, solution to a problem/ question
  • To change gradually into a different form
  • To decide to try to do something
  • To change into something, other parts, etc.

sense

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US / sens /

UK / sɛns /

A1
  • noun
  • Certain mental feeling or emotion
  • Normal or clear state of mind
  • Meaning of a particular word, phrase or text
  • verb
  • To perceive using sight, sound, taste touch etc.
  • To recognize the presence of something

support

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US / səˈpɔ:t /

UK / səˈpɔrt, -ˈport /

A1
  • noun
  • Assistance or advice given to someone
  • Evidence that helps prove something is true
  • A thing to hold up or prevent from falling down
  • verb
  • To give assistance or advice to someone
  • To help prove or show that something is true
  • To hold up or prevent from falling down

experience

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US / ɪk'spɪərɪəns /

UK / ɪkˈspɪriəns /

A1
  • noun
  • Thing a person has done or that happened to them
  • An event at which you learned something
  • Knowledge gained by living life, doing new things
  • verb
  • To gain knowledge by doing things

friend

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US / frend /

UK / frɛnd /

A1
  • noun
  • Person who you like and enjoy being with

perceive

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US / pə'si:v /

UK / pɚˈsiv /

B1
  • verb
  • To notice or become aware of something
  • To think of someone or something in a certain way

belief

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US / bɪˈli:f /

UK / bɪˈlif /

A1
  • noun
  • Being sure that something exists or is true
  • Trust in an idea or set of ideas
  • A particular opinion about something

belong

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US / bɪ'lɒŋ /

UK / bɪˈlɔŋ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be a welcomed as a new member of a group
  • To own something
  • To be in the right place or situation

mother

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US / ˈmʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈmʌðɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Female who has a child or children; female parent
  • verb
  • To take care of someone as if they were your child

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

relationship

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US / rɪˈleɪʃnʃɪp /

UK / rɪˈleʃənˌʃɪp /

A2
  • noun
  • Connection between two or more people or things
  • Way people interact or live with each other
  • Romantic or loving friendship between two people

themselves

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US / ðəmˈselvz /

UK / ðɛmˈsɛlvz, ðəm- /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Reflexive form of 'they'

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

condescend

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US / ˌkɒndɪˈsend /

UK / ˌkɑ:ndɪˈsend /

A1
  • verb
  • To assume a superior air

content

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US / 'kɒntent /

UK / ˈkɑnˌtɛnt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being happy or satisfied
  • noun
  • Information in something, e.g. book or computer

become

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US / bɪ'kʌm /

UK / bɪˈkʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To begin to be; grow to be; develop into
  • To be suitable for a particular job or role

child

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US / tʃaɪld /

UK / tʃaɪld /

A1
  • noun
  • A very young person, between about 2 and 15

carry

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US / ˈkæri /

UK / ˈkæri /

A1
  • verb
  • To have a child, be pregnant
  • To have a disease you might give to others
  • (Of stores) to sell a particular product
  • To hold something and move it to another place
  • To travel a long distance (sound)
  • To support the weight or burden of something

feeling

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US / ˈfi:lɪŋ /

UK / ˈfilɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • Sensation or emotion you experience
  • verb
  • To be aware of or experience an emotion, sensation
  • To sense through direct contact; touch

helpful

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US / ˈhelpfl /

UK / ˈhɛlpfəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Doing things that help someone

prevent

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US / prɪ'vent /

UK / prɪˈvɛnt /

A2
  • verb
  • To stop something from happening or existing

same

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US / seɪm /

UK / sem /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in quality and amount
  • Identical; not different
  • Not changing; constant

subscribe

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US / səb'skraɪb /

UK / səbˈskraɪb /

B1
  • verb
  • To regularly pay to receive a service

ability

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US / ə'bɪlətɪ /

UK / əˈbɪlɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • The power, resources or skill to do something

childhood

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US / ˈtʃaɪldhʊd /

UK / ˈtʃaɪldˌhʊd /

B1
  • noun
  • The time when you are a child

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

barrier

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US / 'bærɪə(r) /

UK / ˈbæriɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Difficult situation preventing something happening
  • Structure or object that stops free movement

desire

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US / dɪ'zaɪə(r) /

UK / dɪˈzaɪr /

A2
  • noun
  • Thing that is wished for or wanted
  • verb
  • To wish for, hope or want something

especially

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US / ɪˈspeʃəli /

UK / ɛˈspɛʃəli, ɪˈspɛʃ- /

A1
  • adverb
  • More than usual; extremely

give

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US / ɡɪv /

UK / ɡɪv /

A1
  • noun
  • Degree of flexibility in something, a material
  • verb
  • To hand over or present something to someone
  • To cause someone to have or experience something

life

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US / laɪf /

UK / laɪf /

A1
  • noun
  • All the living things e.g. animals, plants, humans
  • Period of time things live, from birth to death

shout

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US / ʃaʊt /

UK / ʃaʊt /

A2
  • noun
  • Speaking loudly so you get attention
  • verb
  • To speak very loudly to get attention

wound

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US / waʊnd /

UK / waʊnd /

A2
  • noun
  • Sadness or displeasure caused by a bad memory
  • Physical injury, especially that suffered in war
  • verb
  • To rotate a part of say a watch to make it work
  • To hurt someone emotionally
  • To injure someone in a fight with a knife gun etc.

involve

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US / ɪn'vɒlv /

UK / ɪnˈvɑlv /

A2
  • verb
  • To have or be included as a part of something

study

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US / 'stʌdɪ /

UK / ˈstʌdi /

A1
  • noun
  • Room that a person studies or reads in
  • Piece of research
  • Topic or subject you research or learn about
  • verb
  • To focus on learning something usually at school

would

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate something imagined
  • Used to ask or request something politely
  • Verb used to indicate possibility, request etc.
  • Used to indicate a preference
  • Used to indicate a reaction
  • Indicates something that occurred repeatedly
  • Used to indicate willingness or ability to do

understand

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US / ˌʌndə'stænd /

UK / ˌʌndɚˈstænd /

A1
  • verb
  • To know the meaning of language, what someone says

avoid

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US / ə'vɔɪd /

UK / əˈvɔɪd /

A2
  • verb
  • To prevent from happening
  • To stay away from

dissociation

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US / dɪˌsəʊʃiˈeɪʃn /

UK / dɪˌsoʊʃiˈeɪʃn /

C1
  • noun
  • Separation of one part of your life from others

video

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US / 'vɪdɪəʊ /

UK / ˈvɪdiˌo /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of a moving film, with sound
  • noun
  • Recording capturing action with sound
  • verb
  • To make a moving film of, with sound

let

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US / let /

UK / lɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To allow someone to do something
  • Introducing a suggestion to do something together
  • To rent a house, etc. to others

lead

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US / li:d /

UK / lid /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being the main part in movies or plays
  • noun
  • Wire for electricity, computer, etc.; cable
  • Information that could help to solve a crime
  • Main part in a play or movie
  • Heavy, gray metal element
  • Rope used to tie something to stop it escaping
  • Act of being at the front in a race or game
  • verb
  • To show the way or guide others
  • To be at the front of a race or game
  • To travel in front of; go in advance of others

might

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US / maɪt /

UK / maɪt /

A1
  • other
  • Used to politely request an action
  • Used to express that something could happen
  • Power, strength, force or influence

researcher

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US / rɪ'sɜ:tʃə(r) /

UK / rɪˈsətʃɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Someone who works to find new facts and ideas

receive

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US / rɪ'si:v /

UK / rɪˈsiv /

A1
  • verb
  • To get something someone has given or sent to you
  • To allow someone to become a member (of a club)
  • To welcome someone as a guest into your home
  • To respond to (e.g. news) in a particular way

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

trusting

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US / ˈtrʌstɪŋ /

UK / ˈtrʌstɪŋ /

A2
  • verb
  • To expect confidently
  • To have confidence or faith
  • To be confident someone is honest and reliable

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

five

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US / faɪv /

UK / faɪv /

A1
  • number
  • 5

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

nonjudgmental

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US / nɒndʒʌdʒ'mentl /

UK / nɒndʒʌdʒ'mentl /

A1
  • other
  • Refraining from making judgments especially ones based on personal opinions or standards

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

happy

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US / ˈhæpi /

UK / ˈhæpi /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Feeling pleasure or joy; glad

may

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US / meɪ /

UK / me /

A1
  • noun
  • 5th month of the year
  • other
  • Used to express a desire
  • Expresses permission, possibility or probability
  • Used to show that a thing could be true

motor

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US / ˈməʊtə(r) /

UK / ˈmotɚ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning cars and vehicles
  • Concerned with or involving movement of muscles
  • noun
  • An engine that drives a car, train etc.
  • verb
  • To travel in a car or automobile

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

caregiver

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US / ˈkeəgɪvə(r) /

UK / ˈkergɪvə(r) /

C2
  • noun
  • Person giving care or helping others

bell

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US / bel /

UK / bɛl /

A2
  • noun
  • Metal object shaped like a cup that rings when hit
  • Electronic device that makes a ringing sound

dispute

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US / dɪ'spju:t /

UK / dɪˈspjut /

B1
  • noun
  • Argument with someone about something
  • A question or doubt about something
  • verb
  • To argue with someone about something
  • To disagree about who owns or controls something
  • To question the truth or reality of something

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

love

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US / lʌv /

UK / lʌv /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • A very strong feeling of affection
  • The person you care very deeply about
  • Strong, deep emotional and sexual attraction
  • verb
  • To care for and like someone very strongly, deeply
  • To like doing very much; enjoy greatly
  • To feel a strong emotional and romantic attraction

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

open

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US / 'əʊpən /

UK / ˈopən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Available for use; accessible
  • Not being hidden; available for others to see
  • Being available for customers to enter or use
  • Allowing everyone to use or take part in
  • Not secret anymore
  • Not closed or shut
  • Willing to accept new ideas and thoughts
  • noun
  • Name for a tennis or golf competition
  • verb
  • To make accessible or able to be used, e.g. road
  • To start the activities or services of a business
  • To make a space or hole appear in something
  • To move or change so that it is no longer closed
  • To start something, e.g. a new business

psychological

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US / ˌsaɪkəˈlɒdʒɪkl /

UK / ˌsaɪkəˈlɑdʒɪkəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the study of the mind
  • Concerning psychology

perfect

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US / 'pɜ:fɪkt /

UK / ˈpɚfɪkt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • So good it cannot be improved
  • verb
  • To do something so well, it cannot be done better

than

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US / ðən /

UK / ðən /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to compare two things that are not equal

encounter

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US / ɪn'kaʊntə(r) /

UK / ɛnˈkaʊntɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • A chance meeting; unexpected or unplanned meeting
  • verb
  • To come up against a problem or trouble; meet
  • To meet someone or something unexpectedly

dissociate

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US / dɪ'səʊʃɪeɪt /

UK / dɪˈsoʃiˌet, -si- /

C1
  • verb
  • To cut the connection to

manner

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US / ˈmænə(r) /

UK / ˈmænɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • The way a person acts, talks, or behaves
  • Polite and respectful behavior to others
  • The way that something happens or is done

rejection

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US / rɪ'dʒekʃn /

UK / rɪˈdʒɛkʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Decision that something is not good enough
  • Act of refusing to consider or believe

below

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US / bɪ'ləʊ /

UK / bɪˈlo /

A1
  • preposition
  • In a lower position, place, or level

greg

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US / 'gri:nweɪ /

UK / 'gri:nˌweɪ /

A1

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

order

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US / 'ɔ:də(r) /

UK / ˈɔrdɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Religious or social group, as of nuns
  • Instructions to others to do what you want
  • State in which things are neat and organized
  • What you ask to buy, e.g. food in restaurant
  • Social or political control of an area
  • verb
  • To put things in a sequence, e.g. a, b, c
  • To give instructions to others to do what you want
  • To ask for something you want to buy, e.g. a meal

ones

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US / wʌnz /

UK / wʌnz /

A1
  • number
  • Number 1, a single person or thing

run

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US / rʌn /

UK / rʌn /

A1
  • noun
  • Journey between two places made by ship or car
  • Series of similar things or successes and failures
  • Act of running; exercise of running
  • verb
  • To depart or travel according to a schedule
  • To cause an animal to move in a certain direction
  • (Of an engine) to be operating
  • To start or use a computer program
  • To flow in a certain direction, like a liquid
  • To manage or operate a business
  • To operate or drive something
  • (Of a road) to go from one place to another
  • To move your legs faster than walking

treat

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US / tri:t /

UK / trit /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you buy for others as a surprise present
  • something that tastes good and that is not eaten often
  • verb
  • To pay for the food or enjoyment of someone else
  • To use medical methods to try to cure an illness
  • To act in a certain way toward someone

adapt

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US / ə'dæpt /

UK / əˈdæpt /

B1
  • verb
  • To change something for a different function
  • To change something to fit or suit a new purpose

able

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US / 'eɪbl /

UK / ˈebəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Skilled; good at something
  • Having the ability to do something

equally

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US / ˈi:kwəli /

UK / ˈiːkwəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • In an equal, even, or identical manner

sexually

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US / 'sekʃəlɪ /

UK / ˈsɛkʃʊəlɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a way or manner that involves sex

three

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US / θri: /

UK / θri /

A1
  • number
  • Number 3

accept

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US / ək'sept /

UK / ækˈsɛpt /

A1
  • verb
  • To agree to receive or take something offered
  • To admit that something is true or correct

deep

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US / di:p /

UK / dip /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Complex and important
  • Extreme or intense
  • Going far down from the surface
  • Low in pitch, as a sound
  • adverb
  • At a certain distance beneath the surface

level

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US / 'levl /

UK / ˈlɛvəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • (Sports) equal to another
  • Being steady and determined (e.g. a voice)
  • noun
  • Specific height of something
  • Amount of ability you have compared to others
  • Floor or deck within a building
  • Tool used to determine if something is lying flat
  • verb
  • To aim a gun at someone
  • To destroy a building; flatten an area completely
  • To make things flat or even
  • To make a score equal to another, in sports

parent

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US / 'peərənt /

UK / ˈpɛrənt, ˈpær- /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's, animal's mother or father
  • Something creating other things of the same kind

physical

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US / ˈfɪzɪkl /

UK / ˈfɪzɪkəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the body of a person
  • Concerning things that can be seen or touched
  • noun
  • Health check at the doctors' or hospital

teach

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US / ti:tʃ /

UK / titʃ /

A1
  • verb
  • To help someone learn or do something

stand

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US / stænd /

UK / stænd /

A1
  • noun
  • Effort to fight against something
  • Piece of furniture; device to hold or support
  • Place in a stadium where spectators watch
  • Table where things are sold at a fair or market
  • verb
  • To be a candidate in an election
  • To be able to accept someone, something; bear
  • To last for a long time
  • To be upright; not be sitting or lying down
  • To place something in a particular position; place
  • To be (as stated)
  • To still be valid
  • To have an opinion about something
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • How Your Unhealed Trauma Affects Your Relationships
    Love is often described as blind, but it is actually trauma that blinds us. When someone experiences a physical injury from a motor vehicle accident, it is labeled as a trauma case. However, trauma can also manifest as emotional wounds that harm our sense of self in just as painful a manner. Unresolved emotional trauma leads us to view ourselves as broken and unworthy of love, and unfortunately, we carry this belief into our relationships. In this article, we will explore how unhealed trauma can impact our relationships.
    When we are in a relationship, we may notice that three different parts of us take charge at different times. According to licensed mental health counselor Greg Douglas, we can either be a wounded child, an adaptive child, or a functional adult in various phases of our lives. Let's begin by discussing the wounded child.
    As children, many of us may have experienced physical, psychological, or sexual abuse. We may have been deprived of love, support, nurturing, or consistent attention from our caregivers. In situations where our loved one makes a condescending remark, reminiscent of what our mother used to say, we find ourselves overwhelmed with feelings of sadness, deep pain, and shame. Our immediate response is to simply accept what has been done to us without even attempting to stand up for ourselves. If someone reminds us of our past traumatic experiences, we are likely to react in the same way we did back then.
    Next, let's explore the adaptive child. Have you ever had a serious disagreement with a caregiver when you were young? Perhaps you were arguing with your father, and when he shouted at you, you responded defensively and also shouted back. In moments like these, we learned that the best way to protect ourselves was to fight back. This adaptive child within us surfaces when we feel threatened in our relationships. We may become defensive, argumentative, or even aggressive as a means of self-preservation.
    Lastly, there is the functional adult. This is the part of us that is capable of adult logic, reasoning, and emotional regulation. However, when we carry unhealed trauma with us, it becomes challenging to access our functional adult self. Instead, our wounded child and adaptive child tend to dominate our actions and decisions. We may find ourselves reacting with heightened emotions, irrational beliefs, and destructive patterns of behavior that hinder the growth and stability of our relationships.
    In conclusion, unhealed trauma from our past can have a profound impact on our current relationships. It is essential to recognize our wounds and begin the healing process in order to foster healthy and fulfilling connections with others. By addressing our unresolved emotional trauma, we can break free from the limitations it imposes on us and create better outcomes for ourselves and those we love. Remember, healing is possible, and we all deserve to experience the joy and security of loving, supportive relationships.
  • Subtitles section
  • They say that love is blind, but it's trauma that's blind.
  • Love sees what is.
  • Neil Strauss.
  • When someone gets involved in a motor vehicle accident and sustains a severe bodily injury, the physicians would describe it as a trauma case.
  • However, trauma can also manifest as an emotional wound, damaging your sense of self in an equally painful way.
  • Unresolved emotional trauma causes you to perceive yourself as broken and unlovable, and you unknowingly carry this belief into your relationships.
  • So with that said, let's take a look at how your unhealed trauma affects your relationships.
  • When you are in a relationship, have you ever noticed that three different parts of you may be in charge?
  • A licensed mental health counselor, Greg Douglas, says that you may be a wounded child, an adaptive child, or a functional adult at any given time in your life.
  • Let's talk about the wounded child.
  • When you were young, were you ever abused physically, psychologically, or sexually?
  • Were you deprived of love, support, nurturing, or consistent attention from your caregivers?
  • Let's say your partner makes a condescending remark to you, almost resembling what your mother always did.
  • You are immediately flooded with feelings of sadness, deep pain, and shame, and your response is just to accept what has been done to you without even trying to stand up for yourself.
  • In this case, when you receive treatment from someone who reminds you of any previous wounding experiences, you will likely behave in the same way you did then.
  • Next is the adaptive child.
  • Have you ever been involved in a serious dispute with your caregiver when you were young?
  • You might've been arguing with your father, and he shouts at you when you respond by becoming defensive and shouting back.
  • Through these experiences, you eventually learned that being loud and angry is the only way to gain respect and be heard.
  • Thus, when you encounter a similar situation in your relationship, you will also respond in the same way, harsh and rough.
  • You can think of an adaptive child as a younger version of yourself who has to figure out how to cope with not meeting your needs.
  • To adapt to the treatment you have received, you use what ideas and resources you have at hand.
  • And then there's the functional adult.
  • As a functional adult, you respond in a manner that resolves the disconnection within the relationship.
  • This is the mature and thoughtful part of you that has left behind the patterns of the adaptive and wounded child and done the work of healing.
  • You've developed an accepting and nonjudgmental viewpoint that strengthens your relationship in the face of hardships.
  • So which part of you is running your relationship?
  • Let us know in the comments below.
  • While you're at it, hit the like button and subscribe to Psych2Go for more content.
  • It means a lot.
  • Okay, let's talk about how unhealed traumas create negative patterns in relationships.
  • Number one, difficulty trusting others.
  • Have you found it difficult to trust other people?
  • Perhaps you have limiting thoughts such as, if I open up, I'll only get hurt again, or I can never let my guard down.
  • Unhealed trauma causes you to put up social barriers to prevent your trust from being lost again.
  • A study by Shaikh and Stolberg found that children from divorced and abusive homes are more likely to struggle with trust in their future relationships.
  • Number two, the need for perfection.
  • Do you find yourself procrastinating, waiting for the perfect time to complete a project?
  • Perhaps you strongly believe that the things you do should be perfect, causing you to take hours to complete a task.
  • If you can relate to this, it is highly likely that your perfectionistic trait originated from psychological wounds from your childhood.
  • If your parents withheld their love, you may have felt that you needed to prove your worth.
  • Perfectionism poses as a severe threat to intimacies, especially marriage.
  • The truth is there can never be a partner who can perfectly fulfill the highly unrealistic expectations of a perfectionist.
  • Number three, trouble communicating or expressing needs.
  • Have you ever found yourself becoming hyper aware of your surroundings?
  • It's a common occurrence for you to lose focus and dissociate from the present.
  • Trauma survivors may have trouble absorbing information due to dissociation and low levels of concentration.
  • Their ability to express themselves and understand what is being said to them may be limited sometimes.
  • Number four, difficulty setting clear boundaries.
  • If others ask too much of you, do you find it hard to say no?
  • According to a licensed clinical professional counselor, Morgan Concepcion, the aftermath of trauma may lead to you believing that others are more important than yourself.
  • It's your belief that you must make other people happy and not cause trouble.
  • Your traumatic experiences have taught you to put others' needs before your own in order to feel safe and protected.
  • And number five, no desire to connect or bond with others.
  • Have you lost interest in interacting with anyone?
  • Were you once a social butterfly?
  • But after a traumatic incident, you just don't have the energy to talk to anyone anymore.
  • According to a board certified psychiatrist, Dr. Marcia Sirota, when you have unresolved trauma, it may cause you to hold on to beliefs that you are not lovable or entitled to have a loving relationship.
  • You may avoid closeness with others because of a fear of rejection and abandonment.
  • So did you relate to any of these points?
  • I sure did.
  • Let us know in the comments.
  • Emotional wounds need to be treated and cared for, just like physical injuries.
  • An individual with a positive self-perception and a sense of where they belong in the world will be able to develop healthy relationships.
  • According to researchers, trauma-informed families often have better outcomes for themselves and their loved ones.
  • For instance, supportive trauma treatments enable families, partners, or friends to grow closer and stronger after trauma.
  • If you found this video helpful, be sure to hit the like button and share it with those out there who need to hear it.
  • Don't forget to subscribe to Psych2Go and hit that notification bell for more new videos.
  • Thanks so much for watching.