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The Fed does need to keep raising rates, says former Fed Gov. Frederic Mishkin

Video vocabulary

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

than

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US / ðən /

UK / ðən /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to compare two things that are not equal

big

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US / bɪɡ /

UK / bɪɡ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Popular
  • Serious
  • Large

let

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US / let /

UK / lɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To allow someone to do something
  • Introducing a suggestion to do something together
  • To rent a house, etc. to others

might

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US / maɪt /

UK / maɪt /

A1
  • other
  • Used to politely request an action
  • Used to express that something could happen
  • Power, strength, force or influence

little

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US / 'lɪtl /

UK / ˈlɪtl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being short in length of time
  • Not great in size, amount, or degree; small
  • Being very young or younger than others
  • adverb
  • By an amount or degree that is not very much
  • Not often; rarely
  • noun
  • A person's name

rate

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US / reɪt /

UK / ret /

A1
  • noun
  • Current price or cost of something
  • Speed or frequency of events over time
  • verb
  • To assess something or consider its qualities

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

unfortunately

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US / ʌnˈfɔ:tʃənətli /

UK / ʌnˈfɔːrtʃənətli /

B1
  • adverb
  • In a way that is to be regretted; unluckily

core

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US / kɔ:(r) /

UK / kɔr, kor /

A2
  • noun
  • Important central part of something
  • verb
  • To take out the central section of a fruit

critical

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US / ˈkrɪtɪkl /

UK / ˈkrɪtɪkəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Making a negative judgment of something
  • Being important or serious; vital; dangerous
  • Most important part

kind

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US / kaɪnd /

UK / kaɪnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In a caring and helpful manner
  • friendly and considerate
  • noun
  • One type of thing

preemptive

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US / prɪ'emptɪv /

UK / pri:'emptɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Acting so as to prevent bad things happening

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

happy

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US / ˈhæpi /

UK / ˈhæpi /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Feeling pleasure or joy; glad

may

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US / meɪ /

UK / me /

A1
  • noun
  • 5th month of the year
  • other
  • Used to express a desire
  • Expresses permission, possibility or probability
  • Used to show that a thing could be true

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

order

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US / 'ɔ:də(r) /

UK / ˈɔrdɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Religious or social group, as of nuns
  • Instructions to others to do what you want
  • State in which things are neat and organized
  • What you ask to buy, e.g. food in restaurant
  • Social or political control of an area
  • verb
  • To put things in a sequence, e.g. a, b, c
  • To give instructions to others to do what you want
  • To ask for something you want to buy, e.g. a meal

bad

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US / bæd /

UK / bæd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not good; wrong
  • Lacking in good morals; evil
  • No longer fresh; spoiled

term

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US / tɜ:m /

UK / tɚm /

A1
  • noun
  • Conditions applying to an agreement, contract
  • Length of time something is expected to happen
  • Fixed period of weeks for learning at school
  • The (precise) name given to something
  • verb
  • To call; give a name to

deep

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US / di:p /

UK / dip /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Complex and important
  • Extreme or intense
  • Going far down from the surface
  • Low in pitch, as a sound
  • adverb
  • At a certain distance beneath the surface

level

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US / 'levl /

UK / ˈlɛvəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • (Sports) equal to another
  • Being steady and determined (e.g. a voice)
  • noun
  • Specific height of something
  • Amount of ability you have compared to others
  • Floor or deck within a building
  • Tool used to determine if something is lying flat
  • verb
  • To aim a gun at someone
  • To destroy a building; flatten an area completely
  • To make things flat or even
  • To make a score equal to another, in sports

price

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US / praɪs /

UK / praɪs /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • Cost of something in money
  • verb
  • To determine or set the cost of something

right

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US / raɪt /

UK / raɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Correct or true
  • The south side of you looking at the rising sun
  • adverb
  • Exactly in a place or time
  • Being appropriate for a particular event
  • In a straight or direct manner
  • noun
  • Something you are legally or morally allowed to do
  • Ideal of what is just and good
  • Political view based on conservatism
  • verb
  • To fix something previously wrong or unjust
  • To make upright, as a boat that has turned over

dead

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US / ded /

UK / dɛd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not alive
  • Being bored or not interested
  • Unable to operate because electricity etc. ran out
  • Being unable to feel, physically or emotionally
  • adverb
  • Completely; absolutely

hard

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US / hɑ:d /

UK / hɑː(r)d /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Difficult to do; difficult to understand
  • (Of facts) not able to be misunderstood; clear
  • (Of alcohol) strong
  • Involving or requiring lots of work, effort, care
  • Being full of pain, trouble, and problems
  • Strong
  • (Of edge) clear; sharp
  • Difficult to bend, break or cut; solid
  • adverb
  • With lots of force, power, or impact

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

serious

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US / ˈsɪəriəs /

UK / ˈsɪriəs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Giving something great energy or sincerity
  • Needing thought or concentration; important; grave
  • Being sincere about something; not joking

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

care

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US / keə(r) /

UK / kɛr /

A1
  • noun
  • Treatment you receive for your health or safety
  • Something that a person worries about
  • verb
  • To feel interest, concern, or worry
  • To look after someone or something

even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

commercially

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US / kə'mɜ:ʃəlɪ /

UK / kəˈmə:ʃəlɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • In a business-like manner

down

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US / daʊn /

UK / daʊn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being sad, sick, or unhappy
  • Not operating, working, or functioning as expected
  • adverb
  • In a sitting or lying position
  • Towards or on the ground, floor, or bottom
  • Written or copied onto a piece of paper or book
  • noun
  • A period of play in American Football
  • The soft, smooth hairs that cover a bird's body
  • preposition
  • Along something's path, course, or direction
  • Going from a higher position to a lower position
  • verb
  • To eat or drink very quickly and without stopping

friday

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US / ˈfraɪdeɪ /

UK / ˈfraɪdeɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Fifth day of the week; the day after Thursday

then

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US / ðen /

UK / ðɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • A time that is not now
  • Following another thing in time or arrangement
  • Following on reasonably from what was just stated
  • At that time, not now

bias

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US / 'baɪəs /

UK / ˈbaɪəs /

B1
  • noun
  • Preference to believe things even if incorrect
  • verb
  • To unfairly favor one view over another

happen

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US / 'hæpən /

UK / ˈhæpən /

A1
  • verb
  • To take place or occur

perspective

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US / pə'spektɪv /

UK / pɚˈspɛktɪv /

B1
  • noun
  • Artistic method of creating a sense of distance
  • Ability to understand what is important in life

recommend

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US / ˌrekə'mend /

UK / ˌrɛkəˈmɛnd /

A2
  • verb
  • To advise or suggest that someone do something

yeah

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US / jeə /

UK / ˈjɛə, ˈjæə, jɛ- /

A1
  • exclamation
  • Another way of saying 'yes'

case

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US / keɪs /

UK / kes /

A1
  • noun
  • Container used to carry things, e.g. clothes
  • Set of facts about a crime
  • Set of facts about an event
  • Example or instance of something
  • verb
  • To find out about a place, as in planning to steal

great

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US / ɡreɪt /

UK / ɡret /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very large in size
  • Very important
  • Very good; fantastic; wonderful
  • adverb
  • Very good; better than before
  • noun
  • Successful and well-admired person

mean

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US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular meaning or value

guest

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US / ɡest /

UK / ɡɛst /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to people visiting or staying at a place
  • noun
  • Person invited to visit or stay in someone's home
  • Paying customer at a hotel or restaurant

hit

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US / hɪt /

UK / hɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • A planned killing, usually for money
  • Song, movie etc. that is successful
  • When someone strikes someone or something
  • Time when a player makes contact with the ball
  • Time when a website is accessed
  • verb
  • To have a negative impact on a person/place/thing
  • To press something, such as a button or switch
  • To suddenly realize the importance of something
  • To move your hand, a bat, etc. against with force
  • To fight, attack or damage something or someone
  • To arrive at a specific place, level, or goal
  • To make contact with the ball in a game or sport

number

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US / ˈnʌmbə(r) /

UK / ˈnʌmbɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Symbols such as 1, 2, 56, 793
  • Particular song or dance performed during a show
  • Total quantity or amount of things
  • verb
  • To put numbers on things
  • To assign a sequence within a group, series, set
  • To claim to be part of a larger group, series, set

tell

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US / tel /

UK / tɛl /

A1
  • verb
  • To (strongly) advise a person to do something
  • To be able to guess
  • To say or communicate information to someone
  • To inform, but without speaking; indicate
  • To have a negative effect on someone
  • To order someone to do something; command
  • To recognize something based on certain signs
  • To report something to an authority
  • To explain something or teach someone something

report

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US / rɪ'pɔ:t /

UK / rɪˈpɔrt, ˈport /

A1
  • noun
  • Account of the necessary facts and information
  • The telling of news in the media
  • Official statement about something
  • verb
  • To submit a report or bill to the government
  • To write in a newspaper or speak on a news program
  • To state something officially
  • To officially present yourself to an authority
  • To describe something by telling it to others

talk

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US / tɔ:k /

UK / tɔk /

A1
  • noun
  • Style of speaking
  • Discussion between two countries
  • Giving information in front of people; lecture
  • Saying things or ideas to someone with words
  • verb
  • To make a formal speech about something
  • To say things or ideas to someone with words

banking

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US / ˈbæŋkɪŋ /

UK / ˈbæŋkɪŋ /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of keeping your money in a bank
  • verb
  • To put or keep your money in a bank
  • To turn a plane when flying; (of a plane) to turn

job

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US / dʒɒb /

UK / dʒɑ:b /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that must be done
  • Regular work at which you earn money

interrupt

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US / ˌɪntə'rʌpt /

UK / ˌɪntəˈrʌpt /

B1
  • verb
  • To stop something from happening for a while

modestly

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US / 'mɒdɪstlɪ /

UK / ˈmɑdɪstlɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • With modesty; in a modest manner

sorry

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US / ˈsɒri /

UK / ˈsɑ:ri /

A1
  • exclamation
  • What you say to admit you were wrong
  • adjecitve
  • Causing others to feel pity; poor
  • Feeling regret or sympathy about wrong thing

sound

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US / saʊnd /

UK / saʊnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Sensible, dependable and reliable
  • Unbroken or undisturbed, as of sleep
  • Firm or solid in structure
  • Sane; not mentally ill
  • Clearly reasoned; involving sense, good judgment
  • noun
  • Unique quality that characterizes a style of music
  • Waves traveling in air or water that can be heard
  • verb
  • To seem or appear to be, from what was said
  • To say in a clear deliberate manner
  • To make a noise, e.g. to ring a bell

door

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US / dɔ:(r) /

UK / dɔr,dor /

A1
  • noun
  • You walk through this when you go in a room

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

why

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US / waɪ /

UK / hwaɪ, waɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Question word to ask for a reason
  • exclamation
  • (Used to express surprise or approval)

board

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US / bɔ:d /

UK / bɔrd, bord /

A1
  • noun
  • Surface for posting or showing information
  • Group of persons who direct an organization
  • Long piece of material used for riding the waves
  • Long thin piece of wood, used for building; plank
  • verb
  • To enter a ship, plane, or other vehicle
  • To cover with long wooden strips of wood
  • To pay money to live in someone's house; lodge

fact

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US / fækt /

UK / fækt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that is known or proved to be true

much

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US / mʌtʃ /

UK / mʌtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very; to a high level or degree
  • adverb
  • A lot; large amount; a high degree of
  • Nearly; basically
  • On many occasions; often
  • noun
  • A large amount; a great quantity

strong

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US / strɒŋ /

UK / strɔŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of tea or beer) dark or thick
  • Having big muscles; physically powerful

under

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US / ˈʌndə(r) /

UK / ˈʌndɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In the same place as another thing, but lower
  • adverb
  • In a lower quantity or price than expected
  • preposition
  • According to the terms of an agreement or law
  • Managed or controlled by the authority of
  • Being of a lesser quality or amount than expected
  • Influenced or affected by something or someone
  • Less or lower in age, amount, size or number

land

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US / lænd /

UK / lænd /

A1
  • noun
  • Region or country
  • Earth; the ground
  • verb
  • To arrive or cause a boat to arrive at the shore
  • To obtain or get something that you wanted
  • To (cause to) come down to the ground safely
  • To cause to arrive in a specific place or state

pause

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US / pɔ:z /

UK / pɔz /

A2
  • noun
  • A temporary break before continuing
  • Function on a device to stop and restart it
  • Sign to hold a musical note a bit longer
  • verb
  • To stop doing for a while before continuing

start

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US / stɑ:t /

UK / stɑrt /

A1
  • noun
  • First time or place that a thing exists; beginning
  • First opportunity to achieve something, e.g. a job
  • Sudden action or movement because you are scared
  • other
  • Beginning of something in place or time
  • verb
  • To do, be or happen for the first time; begin
  • To turn something on

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

within

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US / wɪˈðɪn /

UK / wɪðˈɪn, wɪθ- /

A1
  • adverb
  • Inside the limits of an area, time or range
  • preposition
  • From the inside of something

control

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US / kən'trəʊl /

UK / kənˈtrol /

A1
  • noun
  • A device designed to operate a machine
  • Participant in experiment that is left untouched
  • Act to dominate or command; make manageable
  • A law limiting the growth or spread of something
  • A place which overseas or manages e.g. a factory
  • verb
  • To direct or influence the behavior of something

basis

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US / ˈbeɪsɪs /

UK / ˈbesɪs /

A2
  • noun
  • Main ingredient or part of something
  • Starting situation, fact, idea to develop from

period

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US / ˈpɪəriəd /

UK / ˈpɪriəd /

A1
  • noun
  • Set amount of time during which events take place
  • A way to emphasize what you will say
  • A full stop (.), marking the end of a sentence
  • A menstrual cycle
  • A set time for a class to be held

columbia

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US / kə'lʌmbɪə /

UK / kə'lʌmbi:ə /

A1
  • noun
  • A North American river; rises in southwestern Canada and flows southward across Washington to form t

news

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US / nju:z /

UK / nu:z /

A1
  • noun
  • Broadcast on radio or TV about recent events
  • Information about recent events

restrictive

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US / rɪ'strɪktɪv /

UK / rɪˈstrɪktɪv /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Limiting or controlling what a person can do

question

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US / 'kwestʃən /

UK / ˈkwɛstʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Issue or problems you are dealing with
  • What you ask about; issue
  • verb
  • To ask for or try to get information
  • To have or express concerns or uncertainty

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

seriously

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US / ˈsɪəriəsli /

UK / ˈsɪriəsli /

B1
  • adverb
  • Involving or requiring great thought or study

effect

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US / ɪ'fekt /

UK / ɪˈfɛkt /

A1
  • noun
  • An advantage, benefit
  • Change brought about by a cause; result

whether

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US / ˈweðə(r) /

UK / ˈhwɛðɚ, ˈwɛð- /

A1
  • conjunction
  • If something will happen or not

slow

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US / sləʊ /

UK / sloʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Lacking activity, busyness or excitement
  • (Clock) showing time earlier than the actual time
  • Having difficulty understanding simple things
  • Moving or happening without speed; not fast
  • verb
  • To move, with less speed than before
  • To move or go without much speed

now

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US / naʊ /

UK / naʊ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At the present time or moment
  • Right away or in the next possible moment
  • Used to refer to something that just happened
  • Time between the present and a moment in the past
  • conjunction
  • Resulting from or because of something

table

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US / ˈteɪbl /

UK / ˈtebəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Diagram that shows data in rows and columns
  • Raised flat surface you sit at to work or eat
  • verb
  • To leave an idea to be discussed at a later date

hawkish

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US / ˈhɔ:kɪʃ /

UK / ˈhɔːkɪʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Wanting to go to war using the military

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

maybe

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US / ˈmeɪbi /

UK / ˈmebi /

A1
  • adverb
  • Possibly but not certainly; perhaps

our

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to us

reasonable

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US / ˈri:znəbl /

UK / ˈrizənəbəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being somewhat good, but not great
  • Fair and sensible; appropriate

quite

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US / kwaɪt /

UK / kwaɪt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Not very; fairly
  • Very; In a complete or total manner

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

cut

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US / kʌt /

UK / kʌt /

A1
  • noun
  • Act/instance of reducing the size or amount of
  • Small opening made using a sharp object, knife
  • A wound on someone's skin caused by a sharp object
  • verb
  • To reduce the size or amount of something
  • To use knife or scissors to divide, open surfaces

good

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US / ɡʊd /

UK / ɡʊd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper, appropriate or right
  • (Of an amount) enough; plenty
  • Excellent; high quality
  • Acting well or properly; of moral character
  • In a positive or happy emotional state
  • noun
  • Advantage or benefit

really

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US / ˈri:əli /

UK / ˈriəˌli, ˈrili /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to stress something that is said; definitely
  • In a true or accurate manner
  • Very

stock

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US / stɒk /

UK / stɑk /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • (E.g. of a response) standard; usual; not original
  • noun
  • Animals such as cattle kept for breeding
  • Tasty liquid added to stews, soups etc.
  • Merchandise; goods kept by a business for sale
  • Piece of a business, bought in the form of shares
  • verb
  • To keep some of, as items for sale

would

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate something imagined
  • Used to ask or request something politely
  • Verb used to indicate possibility, request etc.
  • Used to indicate a preference
  • Used to indicate a reaction
  • Indicates something that occurred repeatedly
  • Used to indicate willingness or ability to do

crazy

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US / 'kreɪzɪ /

UK / ˈkrezi /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Mentally ill; mad
  • Not being sensible or practical
  • Really like someone or something very much
  • noun
  • Person acting in a manner that is strange and odd

want

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US / wɔnt /

UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

yet

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US / jet /

UK / jɛt /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a later time (used after ‘not’)
  • (Used to emphasize that thing is, will be greater)
  • Eventually; at a future time
  • Until now; up to the present
  • conjunction
  • Adding to what has been said, often as a contrast

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

any

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US / 'enɪ /

UK / ˈɛni /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One, or some, no matter which
  • pronoun
  • One (thing) of many; some

deflator

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US / dɪˈfleɪtə /

UK / dɪˈfleɪtər /

A1
  • noun
  • Statistical factor designed to remove the effect of inflation; inflation adjusted variables are in c

come

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US / kʌm /

UK / kʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To arrive at a place
  • (Of mail) to be delivered
  • To move toward someone; go with someone
  • To reach a certain point or state

decide

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US / dɪ'saɪd /

UK / dɪˈsaɪd /

A2
  • verb
  • To make a choice or choose after thinking about it
  • To make a legal judgment in court
  • to affect the result of something

policy

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US / 'pɒləsɪ /

UK / ˈpɑlɪsi /

A2
  • noun
  • Document stating terms of an insurance agreement
  • Course of action proposed by an organization, etc.

think

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US / θɪŋk /

UK / θɪŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To have an idea about something without certainty
  • To have an idea, opinion or belief about something

anything

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US / ˈeniθɪŋ /

UK / ˈɛniˌθɪŋ /

A1
  • pronoun
  • A thing of any kind

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

certainly

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US / ˈsə:tnli /

UK / ˈsɚtnli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Sure; of course

hike

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US / haɪk /

UK / haɪk /

B1
  • noun
  • Large and unexpected increase in price, level etc.
  • A long walk in mountains, etc. for exercise
  • Long walk, often in a rural area, for exercise
  • verb
  • To make a large and unexpected increase in a price
  • To take a long walk in mountains etc. for exercise

until

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US / ənˈtɪl /

UK / ʌnˈtɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Up to; to a time when something happens
  • preposition
  • Before (a specific time)

untoward

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US / ˌʌntəˈwɔ:d /

UK / ʌnˈtɔ:rd /

B1
  • adverb
  • Not keeping accepted standards of what is right

governor

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US / ˈgʌvənə(r) /

UK / ˈgʌvərnə(r) /

B2
  • noun
  • Person who leads a state or province

real

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US / rɪəl /

UK / ˈriəl, ril /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Actually existing or happening, not imagined
  • Being important or special

tighten

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US / ˈtaɪtn /

UK / ˈtaɪtn: /

A2
  • verb
  • To make a rule, law or system tougher
  • To stretch, pull until movement becomes difficult
  • To turn lid, bolt etc., until it is firmly in place
  • To make face, body stiff due to anger or anxiety

completely

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US / kəmˈpli:tli /

UK / kəmˈpliːtli /

A1
  • adverb
  • In every way or as much as possible

join

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US / dʒɔɪn /

UK / dʒɔɪn /

A1
  • verb
  • To bring something close to another, to become one
  • To become a member of
  • To participate in an activity with others

only

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US / ˈəunli /

UK / ˈonli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just one; just that amount or thing; not more than
  • Not very important or serious
  • Just that type of thing, person
  • Short time ago; not before a certain time
  • conjunction
  • Except; but

possibility

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US / ˌpɒsə'bɪlətɪ /

UK / ˌpɑsəˈbɪlɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • Something with a chance of happening or being true

two

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • number
  • 2

keep

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US / ki:p /

UK / kip /

A1
  • noun
  • Large, strong tower in the middle of a castle
  • Money spent on you so you can live in a place
  • verb
  • To continue doing something; not to stop
  • To stop balls going in a goal in sports
  • To not give back or return something
  • (Of food) to not spoil or not rot
  • To take possession of something to own, e.g. a pet
  • To have and continue to hold something
  • To do something that you have promised or agreed
  • To stay in a certain place or condition
  • To maintain the rules

something

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US / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

UK / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In some degree or measure
  • noun
  • a person or thing of some value or consequence
  • pronoun
  • Thing that is not yet known or named
  • Approximately

far

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US / fɑ:(r) /

UK / fɑr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A long way away
  • Being a long way away
  • adverb
  • To a large degree or extent

recession

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US / rɪˈseʃn /

UK / rɪˈsɛʃən /

B2
  • noun
  • Act of moving backward gradually
  • Decreased business activity, when work is scarce

where

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US / hwɛə /

UK / hwɛr, wɛr /

A1
  • conjunction
  • At or in the place which
  • In whatever place
  • pronoun
  • Word you use to ask the location of something

reality

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US / rɪ'ælətɪ /

UK / riˈælɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • What is true, as opposed to what is imagined

true

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US / tru: /

UK / tru: /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Agreeing with the facts; not false; real or actual

importantly

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US / ɪmˈpɔːtntli /

UK / ɪmˈpɔːrtntli /

A2
  • adverb
  • In an important way;

inflation

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US / ɪn'fleɪʃn /

UK / ɪnˈfleʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of filling something with air or gas
  • Continual rise in the prices of products

market

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US / ˈmɑ:kɪt /

UK / ˈmɑ:rkɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • Need or demand for a particular product or service
  • Area or region where a certain product is sold
  • Public event where people sell goods on tables
  • Institution where stocks are bought and sold
  • verb
  • To publicize products to get you to buy; advertise

past

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US / pɑ:st /

UK / pæst /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • No longer current or new
  • adverb
  • So as to go beyond, or further than something
  • noun
  • Time that existed before now, e.g. long ago
  • preposition
  • After a particular time
  • At a later point in distance; beyond

too

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition, also; with emphasis
  • Say that something is more than you want

exactly

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US / ɪgˈzæktli /

UK / ɪɡˈzæktli /

A1
  • adverb
  • No more and no less than; precisely

should

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US / ʃʊd /

UK / ʃʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate what is proper or reasonable

unless

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US / ənˈles /

UK / ʌnˈlɛs /

A2
  • conjunction
  • Negative of 'if'

point

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US / pɔɪnt /

UK / pɔɪnt /

A1
  • noun
  • An item to be discussed
  • Small spot or dot
  • Fact or detail
  • Feature of something
  • The size of the text on a page or screen
  • A certain time or stage in a process
  • Certain position in time or space
  • Idea or fact you try to convince people about
  • Measurement of scores in a game, sport
  • Sharp end of something, e.g. a pen or pin
  • verb
  • To face a certain direction, e.g. north
  • To indicate something with your finger to others

sure

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US / ʃʊə(r) /

UK / ʃʊr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having no doubts about something
  • Have confidence in your own words or actions
  • Firmly established or held; being firm or stable
  • Being correct or true
  • adverb
  • What you say to agree willingly

here

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • adverb
  • In this place; at this location, position or time

economy

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US / ɪ'kɒnəmɪ /

UK / ɪˈkɑnəmi /

A1
  • noun
  • Using money, resources in a careful, effective way
  • Total of all goods, services and wages in an area

matter

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US / 'mætə(r) /

UK / ˈmætɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Material all things are made of that fills space
  • Problem or reason for concern
  • verb
  • To be of great importance; to count

while

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US / waɪl /

UK / hwaɪl, waɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • In spite of the fact that; although
  • During the time that; at the same time
  • noun
  • Short amount of time

wait

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US / weɪt /

UK / wet /

A1
  • verb
  • To delay or not do something until later
  • To spend time until an expected thing happens
  • To remain in a place until a thing happens

actually

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US / ˈæktʃuəli /

UK / ˈæktʃuəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to add new (often different) information

use

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US / ju:s /

UK / ju:s /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to employ something
  • Need to enable it to work
  • Permission to do something with something
  • Act of spending money
  • Operation of a machine for its function
  • verb
  • To have; to eat, drink, consume etc.
  • To need to operate or work
  • To operate a machine, e.g. a computer
  • To treat a person badly
  • To do something with, for a task or purpose

forth

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US / fɔ:θ /

UK / fɔrθ, forθ /

B1
  • adverb
  • So as to be seen; out
  • Outward or forward in space, time

scenario

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US / sɪˈnɑː.ri.əʊ /

UK / səˈner.i.oʊ /

B1
  • noun
  • An imagined sequence of events in a plan/project

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

behind

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US / bɪˈhaɪnd /

UK / bɪˈhaɪnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a later or slower time than expected
  • Being in a losing position in a sporting event
  • Being in the past; old fashioned
  • adverb
  • Remaining
  • noun
  • The part of the body that one sits on
  • preposition
  • At or toward the back of someone or something
  • Supporting or helping someone

headline

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US / ˈhedlaɪn /

UK / ˈhedlaɪn /

B2
  • noun
  • Title summarizing a news story
  • verb
  • To be the main performer at a show

know

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US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

pivot

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US / 'pɪvət /

UK / ˈpɪvət /

B2
  • noun
  • Point on which something turns or balances
  • verb
  • To turn or balance on a center point

feed

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US / fi:d /

UK / fid /

A2
  • noun
  • Food given to animals
  • verb
  • To give food, e.g. to animals or a baby
  • To push something through an opening
  • To provide necessary supplies to

increase

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US / ɪn'kri:s /

UK / ɪnˈkris /

A1
  • noun
  • Fact of increasing; amount something grows by
  • verb
  • To make or become larger in size or amount

unlikely

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US / ʌnˈlaɪkli /

UK / ʌnˈlaɪkli /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Not seeming suitable for a particular purpose
  • adverb
  • Not likely to happen; not likely to be the truth

hand

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US / hænd /

UK / hænd /

A1
  • noun
  • Cards given to a player in a card game
  • Piece of a clock that points to the time
  • Someone who performs physical tasks or work
  • Body part at the end of a person's arm
  • Help for someone performing a particular action
  • Condition of having power or influence
  • Member of the crew of a ship
  • verb
  • To give something to someone personally

indicate

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US / ˈɪndɪkeɪt /

UK / ˈɪndɪˌket /

A2
  • verb
  • To show something; direct attention to; point out
  • To represent something using a symbol or sign

mind

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US / maɪnd /

UK / maɪnd /

A1
  • noun
  • One's opinion or way of thinking about something
  • Part of humans that allows us to think or feel
  • verb
  • To be bothered or upset by something
  • To take care of someone e.g. as a bodyguard

next

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US / nekst /

UK / nɛkst /

A1
  • adverb
  • The one that follows another in time or order
  • At a time or place directly after the present one
  • noun
  • The one that follows after
  • adjecitve
  • Immediately after the previous one
  • First occurrence after the present one

problem

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US / ˈprɒbləm /

UK / ˈprɑbləm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Causing trouble
  • noun
  • Something difficult to deal with or causes trouble
  • Question to show understanding of a math concept

raise

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US / reɪz /

UK / rez /

A1
  • noun
  • Increase in a bet above another when playing cards
  • Pay increase
  • verb
  • To increase a bet above another when playing cards
  • To gather donations for a cause or charity
  • To bring up and educate a child to maturity
  • To bring a dead person to life
  • To increase a quantity, size, intensity or price
  • To lift (e.g. your hand) to a higher position
  • To mention a topic /issue for discussion; bring up
  • To increase (salary, etc.)
  • To grow or care for plants or animals

percent

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US / pə'sent /

UK / pɚˈsɛnt /

A2
  • adverb
  • One one-hundredth of a whole; the symbol %

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

accommodative

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US / ə'kɒmə'deɪtɪv /

UK / ə'kɒməˌdeɪtɪv /

A1
  • other
  • Tending to reconcile or accommodate; bringing into harmony
  • Willing to adjust to differences in order to obtain agreement

before

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US / bɪˈfɔ:(r) /

UK / bɪˈfɔr,-ˈfor /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a time earlier than the present; previously
  • conjunction
  • In advance of something happening
  • preposition
  • In front of someone or something

bite

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US / baɪt /

UK / baɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Amount of food taken into your mouth at one time
  • Wound left from being bitten
  • verb
  • (E.g. of fish) to take bait and be caught
  • To close your teeth onto something, usually to eat

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

information

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US / ˌɪnfəˈmeɪʃn /

UK / ˌɪnfɚˈmeʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Collection of facts and details about something

initially

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US / ɪˈnɪʃəli /

UK / ɪˈnɪʃəli /

A2
  • adverb
  • At first; originally

remember

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US / rɪ'membə(r) /

UK / rɪˈmɛmbɚ /

A1
  • verb
  • To give someone a gift, e.g. birthday, wedding
  • To hold a thought in your mind to not forget it
  • To bring a previous image or idea to your mind

away

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US / ə'weɪ /

UK / əˈwe /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not present
  • adverb
  • Disappear completely
  • Doing something with a lot of energy
  • Not here; far from here; in a different direction
  • To a different area, location

federal

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US / 'fedərəl /

UK / ˈfɛdərəl, ˈfɛdrəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Consisting of several united states

sector

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US / ˈsektə(r) /

UK / ˈsɛktɚ, -ˌtɔr /

A2
  • noun
  • Part that a place is divided into
  • Area; type of industry or business

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

approach

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US / ə'prəʊtʃ /

UK / əˈprəʊtʃ /

A2
  • noun
  • Means of reaching a place, often a road or path
  • Request of someone with a specific goal in mind
  • Specific way to handle a project, task, problem
  • verb
  • To get close to reaching something or somewhere
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show

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US / ʃəʊ /

UK / ʃo /

A1
  • noun
  • False display of love, emotion or action
  • An event for displaying or promoting goods
  • Play, opera or theater production
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  • verb
  • To be easily seen or displayed
  • To display your emotions or feelings
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territory

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US / 'terətrɪ /

UK / ˈtɛrɪˌtɔri, -ˌtori /

B1
  • noun
  • Area of land defended by an animal
  • Area of particular knowledge or experience
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foreseeable

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US / fɔ:ˈsi:əbl /

UK / forˈsiəbl: /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • That can be predicted in the future

professor

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US / prəˈfesə(r) /

UK / prəˈfɛsɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Teacher who teaches at a college or university

unfortunate

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US / ʌnˈfɔ:tʃənət /

UK / ʌnˈfɔrtʃənɪt /

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  • Having bad luck; bringing a bad result

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US / kə:v /

UK / kɚv /

A2
  • noun
  • Smooth rounded line that is not straight
  • verb
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stubbornly

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US / 'stʌbənli /

UK / /

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  • adverb
  • In a way showing you are unwilling to give in

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
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  • Two or more people, animals, or things

very

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US / 'verɪ /

UK / ˈvɛri /

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  • Concerning a large degree or amount
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  • A lot; much; many
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ago

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US / əˈgəʊ /

UK / əˈgoʊ /

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  • adverb
  • At a specified length of time in the past

way

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US / weɪ /

UK / we /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to emphasize the amount of something
  • noun
  • Particular aspect of something being thought about
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US / jes /

UK / jɛs /

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  • adverb
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communicative

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US / kə'mju:nɪkətɪv /

UK / kəˈmjunɪˌketɪv, -kətɪv /

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  • Talkative; cooperative in giving information

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US / əʊld /

UK / old /

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  • Having existed for a long time, not young or new
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take

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US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
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yesterday

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US / ˈjestədeɪ /

UK / ˈjestərdeɪ /

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  • adverb
  • Day before today
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  • Day before today

bit

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UK / bɪt /

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  • noun
  • Device put in a horse's mouth to control it
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US / lʊk /

UK / lʊk /

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  • noun
  • Person's beauty or physical attractiveness
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  • To appear to be; seem

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UK / pe /

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  • noun
  • Money you receive from your job, work, etc.
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underlie

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US / ˌʌndəˈlaɪ /

UK / ˌʌndərˈlaɪ /

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  • verb
  • To be the basis, foundation or cause of something
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pretty

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US / 'prɪtɪ /

UK / ˈprɪti /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being attractive to the eye in a simple way
  • adverb
  • Very; to a great degree
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • The former Federal Reserve Board Governor, Rick Mishkin, asserts that the Federal Reserve (Fed) should continue raising interest rates in the next meeting. Mishkin, who is currently a professor at Columbia University, emphasizes the importance of ensuring that inflation remains low. Despite a decrease in headline inflation, core inflation remains stubbornly high, standing at around 4 percent, far from the Fed's 2 percent inflation target. Mishkin also points out that the economy continues to exhibit strength, evident in robust job numbers and a strong stock market. Therefore, in Mishkin's opinion, the Fed should continue its rate hikes. He acknowledges that there was discussion about pausing the rate hikes to assess the situation but argues that the strong economic indicators suggest otherwise. Mishkin believes that unless an unforeseen event occurs or there is a major issue in the banking sector, the Fed should remain committed to raising rates. While he acknowledges that a pause is a possibility, he personally leans towards a more hawkish stance. Referring to a recent statement made by James Bullard, who questioned whether the policy is currently modestly restrictive, Mishkin supports the view that the Fed has a long way to go in bringing inflation down and therefore, hiking rates is necessary.
  • Subtitles section
  • Our next guest does recommend a hike at the next meeting.
  • Joining us this morning, former Federal Reserve Board Governor Rick Mishkin, now a professor at Columbia.
  • Rick, happy Friday.
  • Great to have you with us.
  • It does sound like you want to make sure inflation is dead.
  • Yes.
  • So, take a look at the numbers.
  • The core inflation is still very stubbornly high.
  • You're on a 4 percent level on the P.C. deflator.
  • So the news has not been good there.
  • It's a long way from the 2 percent inflation target.
  • And so it's true that headline inflation has come down, but that really doesn't tell you very much about the underlying inflation rate, which is what the Fed cares about.
  • So that's number one.
  • Number two is the economy is still very strong.
  • And you see it in terms of the jobs numbers, the stock market is strong and so forth.
  • So from my perspective, the Fed really does need to keep raising rates.
  • And you know, it was not crazy to talk about pausing because we might want to see what's going on.
  • On the other hand, the fact this numbers have been so strong and the latest jobs report indicates that they're going to have to keep raising rates.
  • Very unlikely, not unless something really untoward happens or there's a big problem in the banking sector.
  • But I don't see that.
  • Maybe the Fed sees something that we don't see because they have more information.
  • Right now, I think that the Fed's got to show that they're serious about getting inflation down long way away, long way away from where they want to be.
  • So to me, that means that they they need to hike.
  • But, you know, I can see that a pause is a possibility, a strong possibility.
  • But I would go a little bit more hawkish.
  • Yesterday it was Bullard talking about whether or not we're in modestly restrictive territory.
  • Do you not think we're there quite yet?
  • I think we are in modestly restrictive territory.
  • There's no question in my mind that that's the case.
  • Remember, by the way, that initially when the Fed started raising rates, even when they were doing 75 basis point increases, the Fed was actually in very accommodative territory at that time.
  • So it's true that it takes a while for monetary policy to have an effect.
  • But tightening really didn't start to really bite in until not too long ago.
  • So my view on this is that we're a long way from where we have to be.
  • Unless there are some bad things that the Fed's seeing that I don't see, they really should the cautious approach now is actually to keep raising rates.
  • And in fact, most importantly is and why I'd actually I'd like to see a rate rise is that the talk of pivot has to go away.
  • The Fed, no matter what, is going to have to keep rates high for a very long period of time in order to get inflation under control.
  • If they did decide to pause, I think they have to be very communicative about the fact that if anything, there's a strong bias to raising rates further.
  • And certainly there's no really off the table is any kind of pivot in the foreseeable future, you know, within a reasonable period of time.
  • Does that mean I'm sorry to interrupt.
  • Does that mean if you say to talk a pivot should be completely off the table, that that you have closed the door on the scenario where we see a hard landing, a deep recession?
  • Because that's the thinking is that they will do that.
  • They will start cutting when things get bad.
  • Yeah, but actually, but but they have to really be seriously bad.
  • Unfortunately, when you let inflation get out of control, the only way you basically can can get inflation under control is by hitting the economy and slowing it down.
  • And I think that that's the key key here, you know, is the old commercially used to say you have to earn it.
  • And that's exactly what the Fed is going to need to do.
  • That's the unfortunate reality when you've made a mistake and you actually had much too easy monetary policy, which I was very critical of for the Fed for a pretty long time before they started raising rates.
  • If you get behind the curve, you're going to pay the price.
  • But if you don't pay that price, then it's going to be even worse than in fact, inflation won't come down, may even go up.
  • You're then going to have to actually raise rates by even more.
  • And that's the worst case.
  • That's the worst scenario.
  • So better to be preemptive and get it done than basically waiting and then having a real problem.
  • We've seen what that's been like in the past.
  • Not a good scenario.