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Why roller coaster loops aren't circular

Video vocabulary

completely

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US / kəmˈpli:tli /

UK / kəmˈpliːtli /

A1
  • adverb
  • In every way or as much as possible

curvature

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US / ˈkɜ:vətʃə(r) /

UK / ˈkə:vəˌtʃʊr, -tʃɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Curving or bending, often abnormal, as of spine

only

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US / ˈəunli /

UK / ˈonli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just one; just that amount or thing; not more than
  • Not very important or serious
  • Just that type of thing, person
  • Short time ago; not before a certain time
  • conjunction
  • Except; but

seat

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US / si:t /

UK / sit /

A1
  • noun
  • Place where a government or organization is based
  • A chair or place to sit
  • Official position in an organization
  • Part of a chair on which a person sits
  • verb
  • To have seats available for a number of people
  • To give someone a place to sit down

two

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • number
  • 2

ease

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US / i:z /

UK / iz /

A2
  • noun
  • State of being comfortable or relaxed
  • verb
  • To make something less difficult, tight, stressed
  • To move slowly and purposely to get in small space

issue

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US / 'ɪʃu: /

UK / ˈɪʃu /

A2
  • noun
  • Important topic discussed, debated or argued over
  • Single edition of a magazine
  • verb
  • To make something available to be used or sold
  • To deliver a statement, etc. in an official manner

along

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US / əˈlɒŋ /

UK / əˈlɔ:ŋ /

A1
  • adverb
  • As a companion; taken with someone
  • preposition
  • At a point on a line

europe

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US / ˈjʊərəp /

UK / ˈjʊrəp /

A1
  • noun
  • A continent including Germany, France and Spain
  • other
  • The second smallest continent (actually a vast peninsula of Eurasia); the British use 'Europe' to re

entirely

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US / ɪnˈtaɪəli /

UK / ɪnˈtaɪərli /

A2
  • adverb
  • Wholly; completely

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

early

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US / ˈɜ:li /

UK / ˈɜ:rli /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or appearing before
  • adverb
  • Coming/happening before others in a time sequence
  • Happening sooner than expected

magic

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US / 'mædʒɪk /

UK / ˈmædʒɪk /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning or involving tricks for entertainment
  • Being able to produce good results or success
  • noun
  • Attractive, appealing, and exciting quality
  • Performance of tricks for entertainment
  • Special ability or skill that causes success
  • Use of the supernatural to make things happen

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

mostly

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US / ˈməʊstli /

UK / ˈmoʊstli /

A2
  • adverb
  • In large part; mainly or chiefly

throughout

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US / θru:ˈaʊt /

UK / θruˈaʊt /

A2
  • adverb
  • From the beginning of something until the end
  • preposition
  • Over/across an entire place/thing; in every part

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

back

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US / bæk /

UK / bæk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Farthest from the front e.g. in a classroom
  • adverb
  • Have returned to a place you were before
  • noun
  • The part of a chair that the upper body leans upon
  • Location at the rear of something
  • The reverse of side something
  • Area on the rear of your body
  • verb
  • To bet money on something
  • To go backwards in a car
  • To support and encourage someone or some cause

major

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US / 'meɪdʒə(r) /

UK / ˈmedʒɚ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Main league; esp. referring to American baseball
  • Important, serious, or large in scope, size
  • noun
  • High-ranking officer in the army
  • Main subject you study at university
  • verb
  • To study a particular subject at university

money

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US / 'mʌnɪ /

UK / ˈmʌni /

A1
  • noun
  • Coins or notes we use to pay for things

until

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US / ənˈtɪl /

UK / ʌnˈtɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Up to; to a time when something happens
  • preposition
  • Before (a specific time)

company

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US / 'kʌmpənɪ /

UK / ˈkʌmpəni /

A1
  • noun
  • Good feeling from being with someone else
  • A business that sells things or provides services
  • Guests, especially in your home
  • Being with another person rather than alone

come

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US / kʌm /

UK / kʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To arrive at a place
  • (Of mail) to be delivered
  • To move toward someone; go with someone
  • To reach a certain point or state

decide

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US / dɪ'saɪd /

UK / dɪˈsaɪd /

A2
  • verb
  • To make a choice or choose after thinking about it
  • To make a legal judgment in court
  • to affect the result of something

evenly

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US / ˈi:vnli /

UK / ˈivənlɪ /

B2
  • adverb
  • Equally; with advantage to both sides
  • In a smooth, level or regular way
  • In a regular, steady, and equally paced manner

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

literally

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US / ˈlɪtərəli /

UK / ˈlɪtərəli /

B1
  • adverb
  • So as to express the exact meaning of something
  • Used to say something is true, even if unlikely

squeeze

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US / skwi:z /

UK / skwiz /

C1
  • noun
  • Amount of liquid from firmly pressing e.g. orange
  • Act of putting pressure on, as to get liquid out
  • When there is not enough space for things/people
  • Act of firmly pressing on two or more sides
  • verb
  • To force or threaten someone to give you something
  • To strongly compress something to get liquid out
  • To be pressed together or crowded into an area
  • To press together the opposite sides of something
  • To reduce the amount of something

call

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US / kɔ:l /

UK / kɔl /

A1
  • noun
  • A order or request for action
  • The sound an animal makes, often when in danger
  • A correct prediction, e.g. a decision in a game
  • A short visit to a place or person
  • A decision by a referee or umpire in a game
  • verb
  • To make a request or order for action
  • (Animal) to make sounds to warn of danger
  • To announce the date of an election
  • To make a judgment about something
  • To give someone or something a name
  • To guess in advance the result or outcome
  • To visit a place or person for a short time
  • To phone someone
  • To speak, announce or shout in a loud voice

double

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US / 'dʌbl /

UK / ˈdʌbəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning or intended for use by two people
  • Two times the amount or degree; twice
  • Made of two parts that are the same, similar
  • noun
  • Person that is exactly like someone else
  • verb
  • To be used for two functions at the same time
  • To make or become twice as much

flag

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US / flæɡ /

UK / flæɡ /

A2
  • noun
  • Piece of cloth representing a team, country etc.
  • verb
  • To indicate something should get special attention
  • To work, run etc. more slowly or with less power

leave

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US / li:v /

UK / liv /

A1
  • noun
  • Permission to do something
  • Vacation time; time off work
  • verb
  • To go away from; depart
  • To gift property to someone after you die
  • To allow something to continue happening
  • To let something remain unused or available
  • To let something or someone remain somewhere

tree

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US / tri: /

UK / tri /

A1
  • noun
  • Tall green plants in a forest

reduce

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US / rɪ'dju:s /

UK / rɪˈdus, -ˈdjus /

A2
  • verb
  • To try to decrease, e.g. your weight if overweight
  • To boil a liquid until it has decreased in amount
  • To make something smaller in size, amount, level

east

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US / i:st /

UK / i:st /

A1
  • noun
  • Direction where the sun rises
  • Geographic area including India, China, Japan etc.

keep

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US / ki:p /

UK / kip /

A1
  • noun
  • Large, strong tower in the middle of a castle
  • Money spent on you so you can live in a place
  • verb
  • To continue doing something; not to stop
  • To stop balls going in a goal in sports
  • To not give back or return something
  • (Of food) to not spoil or not rot
  • To take possession of something to own, e.g. a pet
  • To have and continue to hold something
  • To do something that you have promised or agreed
  • To stay in a certain place or condition
  • To maintain the rules

something

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US / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

UK / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In some degree or measure
  • noun
  • a person or thing of some value or consequence
  • pronoun
  • Thing that is not yet known or named
  • Approximately

end

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US / end /

UK / ɛnd /

A1
  • noun
  • The point where a process or activity stops
  • A point that marks the limit of something; finish
  • Goal or desired result
  • The tip, edge or limit of something
  • verb
  • To be the last part of something

thrilling

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US / ˈθrɪlɪŋ /

UK / ˈθrɪlɪŋ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Causing excitement or sudden intense pleasure
  • verb
  • To feel sudden excitement or pleasure

almost

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US / 'ɔ:lməʊst /

UK / ˈɔlˌmost, ɔlˈmost /

A1
  • adverb
  • Only a little less than, nearly, not quite

before

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US / bɪˈfɔ:(r) /

UK / bɪˈfɔr,-ˈfor /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a time earlier than the present; previously
  • conjunction
  • In advance of something happening
  • preposition
  • In front of someone or something

coast

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US / kəʊst /

UK / kost /

A2
  • noun
  • Land near the sea or ocean
  • verb
  • To progress in something without trying hard
  • (Of a vehicle) to move forward without power

island

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US / ˈaɪlənd /

UK / ˈaɪlənd /

A1
  • noun
  • Area of land that is surrounded by water

last

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US / lɑ:st /

UK / læst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Most recent; the latest
  • The one before
  • adverb
  • Final; with nothing following; after all others
  • Most recent; the latest
  • determiner
  • The one at the end
  • verb
  • To remain or continue for a certain period of time

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

matterhorn

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US / ˈmætə:ˌhɔ:n /

UK / ˈmætɚˌhɔrn, ˈmɑtə- /

A1
  • noun
  • A mountain between Switzerland and Italy

popularity

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US / ˌpɒpjuˈlærəti /

UK / ˌpɑ:pjuˈlærəti /

A2
  • noun
  • State of being liked or supported by many people

six

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US / sɪks /

UK / sɪks /

A1
  • number
  • 6

next

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US / nekst /

UK / nɛkst /

A1
  • adverb
  • The one that follows another in time or order
  • At a time or place directly after the present one
  • noun
  • The one that follows after
  • adjecitve
  • Immediately after the previous one
  • First occurrence after the present one

problem

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US / ˈprɒbləm /

UK / ˈprɑbləm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Causing trouble
  • noun
  • Something difficult to deal with or causes trouble
  • Question to show understanding of a math concept

spike

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US / spaɪk /

UK / spaɪk /

B2
  • noun
  • The top point in a graph
  • Long, thin metal rod that ends in a point
  • verb
  • To go up to a point on a graph

could

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US / kəd /

UK / kʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Past form of 'can' to mean have ability
  • Used to ask for something politely, or to offer

foot

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US / fʊt /

UK / fʊt /

A1
  • noun
  • Base of something such as a mountain or vase
  • Length of 12 inches or about 25 cm
  • Lowest part of the leg we use to stand on

handle

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US / 'hændl /

UK / ˈhændl /

A2
  • noun
  • The part of a door you hold to open it
  • Thing you hold to carry or open a bag, pan etc.
  • verb
  • To cope with or take responsibility for
  • To control a machine, car etc.
  • To control or be controlled /used in a certain way
  • To deal with a particular situation/person; manage
  • To buy, sell, or move materials or goods
  • To hold, control, or use something with the hands
  • To touch objects with the hands to look at them

know

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US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

fondness

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US / fɒndnəs /

UK / ˈfɑndnɪs /

B1
  • noun
  • Quality of feeling love or affection

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

decade

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US / ˈdekeɪd /

UK / ˈdɛkˌed, dɛˈked /

B1
  • noun
  • Period of 10 years

full

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US / fʊl /

UK / fʊl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Containing all the parts; complete
  • Containing or holding as much as possible
  • Having had enough food
  • adverb
  • In a direct manner; completely

accord

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US / ə'kɔ:d /

UK / əˈkɔ:rd /

B1
  • noun
  • Agreement or harmony
  • An agreement or treaty between countries
  • verb
  • To be in harmony or agreement; consent
  • To give (someone) the respect due to them

car

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US / kɑ:(r) /

UK / kɑr /

A1
  • noun
  • A vehicle with wheels and engine to carry people

chat

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US / tʃæt /

UK / tʃæt /

A2
  • noun
  • A friendly and relaxed talk with friends
  • verb
  • To talk in a friendly and relaxed manner

flap

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US / flæp /

UK / flæp /

B2
  • noun
  • Motion or sound of something waving back and forth
  • Flat material attached on one side
  • verb
  • To move something back and forth or up and down

hershey

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US / ˈhɜrʃi /

UK / /

A1
  • proper noun
  • A village in southeastern Pennsylvania, created by chocolate manufacturer Milton Hershey (1857–1945)

transition

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US / trænˈzɪʃn /

UK / trænˈzɪʃən, -ˈsɪʃ- /

B1
  • noun
  • Change from one state, movement, place to another
  • verb
  • To change state, movement, place, or subject

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

blood

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US / blʌd /

UK / blʌd /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Related by birth; family
  • noun
  • Red liquid in the bodies of people and animals
  • verb
  • To be initiated into something, e.g. a secret club

rapidly

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US / 'ræpɪdlɪ /

UK / ˈræpɪdlɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • With great speed; quickly

wood

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Living or existing in the woods
  • Made from the material from trees
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • Land covered with trees, smaller than a forest
  • Cut tree used for making fires or building things
  • verb
  • To plant an area of land with trees

world

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US / wɜ:ld /

UK / wɜrld /

A1
  • noun
  • All the humans, events, activities on the earth
  • Political division due to some kind of similarity

diego

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US / /

UK / /

A1

build

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US / bɪld /

UK / bɪld /

A1
  • noun
  • Your physical shape; physique
  • verb
  • To establish e.g. a reputation, over time
  • To construct a house, office, factory

committee

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US / kəˈmɪti /

UK / kəˈmɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • Group of people who do or decide something

heavy

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US / 'hevɪ /

UK / ˈhɛvi /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Greater in amount, degree, or severity than usual
  • Involving serious or strong emotions
  • Having a lot of weight

harmful

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US / ˈhɑ:mfl /

UK / ˈhɑ:rmfl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Likely to cause damage or injury

chart

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US / tʃɑ:t /

UK / tʃɑ:rt /

B1
  • noun
  • Drawing showing information in a clear way
  • Map of the sea or stars
  • verb
  • To make a plan for future action
  • To make a map of
  • To keep a record of developments over time

curve

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US / kə:v /

UK / kɚv /

A2
  • noun
  • Smooth rounded line that is not straight
  • verb
  • To make something bend into a rounded shape

everything

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US / 'evrɪθɪŋ /

UK / ˈɛvriˌθɪŋ /

A1
  • pronoun
  • All of the things mentioned

mountain

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US / 'maʊntən /

UK / ˈmaʊntən /

A1
  • noun
  • Very high piece of land, higher than a hill

very

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US / 'verɪ /

UK / ˈvɛri /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a large degree or amount
  • adverb
  • A lot; much; many
  • Used to stress or emphasize a noun

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

neither

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US / ˈnaɪðə(r) /

UK / ˈniðɚ, ˈnaɪ- /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Not one or the other not either none of two things
  • adverb
  • Similarly not, also not
  • conjunction
  • Not in either case
  • determiner
  • Not one or the other
  • pronoun
  • Not either one

change

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US / tʃeɪndʒ /

UK / tʃendʒ /

A1
  • noun
  • Exchange of one set of clothes for another
  • Money in the form of coins instead of paper
  • Money returned after giving too much
  • Act of making or becoming something else
  • verb
  • To exchange one set of clothes for another
  • To exchange one kind of money for another
  • To replace something with another thing
  • To make or become something else
  • To go from one train, bus, etc. and go to another

debut

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US / 'deɪbju: /

UK / deˈbju, ˈdeˌbju /

B1
  • noun
  • First performance, appearance, e.g. of opera star

else

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US / els /

UK / ɛls /

A1
  • adverb
  • Otherwise; if you fail to
  • (Of person place thing etc.) besides; in addition

direction

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US / də'rekʃn /

UK / dɪˈrɛkʃən, daɪ- /

A2
  • noun
  • When someone tells people what to do
  • Describes the way you are going, e.g. North

lived

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US / 'lɪvd /

UK / 'lɪvd /

A1
  • verb
  • To be alive
  • To experience a particular type of life
  • To make your home in a house or town

move

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US / mu:v /

UK / muv /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of moving a playing piece in chess, etc.
  • An action; doing something
  • Step taken to achieve a goal
  • verb
  • To cause someone to have certain emotions
  • To cause something to change to a different place
  • To change where people live or a business operates
  • To take action to do or achieve something

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

way

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US / weɪ /

UK / we /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to emphasize the amount of something
  • noun
  • Particular aspect of something being thought about
  • One of various choices that could be made
  • Particular existing condition or state
  • (Often long) distance or length of time
  • How something is done
  • Route to go to a place
  • Small street
  • Usual behavior, emotions or habits of someone

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

america

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US / ə'merɪkə /

UK / əˈmɛrɪkə /

A1
  • noun
  • The United States of America; North America and/or South America

fast

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US / fɑ:st /

UK / fæst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In a way that is difficult to move or change
  • Moving or able to move quickly
  • Showing time that is later than the actual time
  • adverb
  • With a great deal of speed
  • noun
  • Period of time when a person chooses not to eat
  • verb
  • To refuse food for a long time

its

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US / ɪts /

UK / ɪts /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to or belonging to ‘it’
  • determiner
  • Of something; belonging or related to something
  • other
  • Possessive form of “it”

passenger

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US / 'pæsɪndʒə(r) /

UK / ˈpæsəndʒɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Person who is traveling in a vehicle

professor

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US / prəˈfesə(r) /

UK / prəˈfɛsɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Teacher who teaches at a college or university

top

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US / tɒp /

UK / tɑp /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good or great; excellent
  • Being the most in degree or quality
  • noun
  • Item of clothing covering shoulders to waist, hips
  • A cover or lid
  • Part (e.g. road) that is the furthest away
  • Highest or upper part or point of something
  • Best or highest status or position
  • Flat upper surface or edge of an object
  • Child's toy that spins on its point
  • Upper section or leaves of fruits and vegetables
  • Winning in a sport or contest
  • verb
  • To be higher or larger than a specific value
  • To arrive at the highest point of something
  • To put a cover or layer or over something
  • To kill; murder
  • To hold the highest position on a list
  • To be more important, successful or better than
  • To beat someone or win at a game

super

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US / ˈsu:pə(r) /

UK / ˈsupɚ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of the highest quality; great; marvelous

movement

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US / ˈmu:vmənt /

UK / ˈmuvmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Part of a piece of classical music
  • Group with a shared interest or goal
  • Group sharing the same idea to change society, art
  • Action you do when exercising, e.g. in a gym
  • Part of a piece of music

pretty

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US / 'prɪtɪ /

UK / ˈprɪti /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being attractive to the eye in a simple way
  • adverb
  • Very; to a great degree

speed

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US / spi:d /

UK / spid /

A2
  • noun
  • How fast or slow something is or is done
  • verb
  • To move quickly when completing an action
  • To drive a vehicle faster than laws allow

human

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US / 'hju:mən /

UK / ˈhjumən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning or characteristic of people
  • noun
  • A person; a man, woman or child

look

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US / lʊk /

UK / lʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's beauty or physical attractiveness
  • Particular style of dress, clothes, or appearance
  • The way someone, something appears to be
  • Act of searching for or examining something
  • verb
  • To appear to be; seem

pennsylvania

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US / pensɪl'veɪnjə /

UK / ˌpensəl'veɪnjə /

A1
  • other
  • A Mid-Atlantic state; one of the original colonies

regular

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US / ˈregjələ(r) /

UK / ˈrɛɡjəlɚ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Having an equal amount of space or time in between
  • Occurring or being done frequently
  • Being normal, usual, or average
  • noun
  • Customers who frequently visit a place
  • Soldier who has a permanent job in the army

once

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US / wʌns /

UK / wʌns /

A1
  • adverb
  • One time; one instance
  • At a time in the past
  • conjunction
  • When; as soon as

while

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US / waɪl /

UK / hwaɪl, waɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • In spite of the fact that; although
  • During the time that; at the same time
  • noun
  • Short amount of time

centrifugal

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US / ˌsentrɪˈfju:gl /

UK / sɛnˈtrɪfjəɡəl, -ˈtrɪfə- /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Moving away from the center of a turning object

either

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US / ˈaɪðə(r) /

UK / ˈiðɚ, ˈaɪðɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One of two (used when there is a choice of two)
  • adverb
  • (After negative statements) likewise, in addition
  • conjunction
  • Used as the first of two connected things
  • determiner
  • Used as the first of two connected things
  • pronoun
  • The one or the other

new

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US / nju: /

UK / nu, nju /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not old, recently born, built or made
  • Being or doing something for the first time
  • Not felt, seen or known previously
  • Having been recently bought or obtained

precisely

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US / prɪˈsaɪsli /

UK / prɪˈsaɪsli /

B1
  • adverb
  • In an exact and accurate manner
  • (Emphasizes that a statement is totally correct)

small

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US / smɔ:l /

UK / smɔl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Little in size; not big
  • (Of letters) not written in capital letters
  • Being insignificant or minor
  • (Of a business) with few people or things; local
  • (Of voice) being soft and quiet
  • (Of a child) being young

try

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US / traɪ /

UK / traɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of putting the ball over the rugby goal line
  • verb
  • To make an effort, to attempt to do something
  • To examine someone or something in a court of law
  • To test to see if it is good or you like it
  • To make a person go through hardship; test
  • To examine something to see if it works

should

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US / ʃʊd /

UK / ʃʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate what is proper or reasonable

popular

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US / ˈpɒpjələ(r) /

UK / ˈpɑ:pjələ(r) /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Liked or enjoyed by many people

straight

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US / streɪt /

UK / stret /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Not having curves, bends, or angles
  • Not gay; heterosexual
  • honest and direct
  • adverb
  • in a line; immediately; honestly and directly

disney

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US / ˈdɪzni: /

UK / ˈdɪzni /

A1
  • adjective
  • Reminiscent of a film or theme park created by the Walt Disney Company, especially in being simplifi
  • Denoting a noncustodial parent who, when spending time with their child or children, indulges them w

point

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US / pɔɪnt /

UK / pɔɪnt /

A1
  • noun
  • An item to be discussed
  • Small spot or dot
  • Fact or detail
  • Feature of something
  • The size of the text on a page or screen
  • A certain time or stage in a process
  • Certain position in time or space
  • Idea or fact you try to convince people about
  • Measurement of scores in a game, sport
  • Sharp end of something, e.g. a pen or pin
  • verb
  • To face a certain direction, e.g. north
  • To indicate something with your finger to others

whip

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US / wɪp /

UK / hwɪp, wɪp /

B1
  • noun
  • A long rope used to hit people or animals
  • verb
  • To defeat thoroughly or easily
  • To beat with a type of long rope
  • To beat cream, eggs etc. so it gets more volume
  • To take away something quickly

switch

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US / swɪtʃ /

UK / swɪtʃ /

A2
  • noun
  • A change or shift from one method to another
  • Thing you move to turn electrical items on or off
  • Thin flexible piece of wood or stick
  • verb
  • To exchange or replace something for another thing

teardrop

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US / ˈtɪədrɒp /

UK / ˈtɪrdrɑ:p /

C2
  • adjecitve
  • Anything shaped like a falling drop

feel

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US / fi:l /

UK / fil /

A1
  • verb
  • To be aware of or experience an emotion, sensation
  • To sense through direct contact; touch

too

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition, also; with emphasis
  • Say that something is more than you want

union

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US / 'ju:nɪən /

UK / ˈjunjən /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of joining two or more things into one
  • Marriage
  • Organization of workers to look after their needs

side

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US / saɪd /

UK / saɪd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In addition to the central or most important thing
  • Next to, or very close to, the right or left of
  • noun
  • Position or opinion that is opposite to another
  • Right or left part of a person's body
  • Feature of someone's personality
  • Straight edge of an object
  • One of two or more groups fighting each other
  • verb
  • To decide to agree with one point, not the other

after

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US / 'ɑ:ftə(r) /

UK / ˈæftɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Later than another time, or behind something
  • conjunction
  • Following something before
  • preposition
  • When an event happened or time has passed

itself

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US / ɪtˈself /

UK / ɪtˈsɛlf /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Referring to it

hurtle

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US / ˈhɜ:tl /

UK / ˈhɜ:rtl /

C1
  • verb
  • To move rapidly or forcefully

many

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US / 'menɪ /

UK / ˈmɛni /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer a large number of things

wild

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US / waɪld /

UK / waɪld /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Living in nature; not tame
  • (Of land) not developed by people
  • adverb
  • In a manner which lacks control
  • noun
  • A natural environment e.g. jungle, forest

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

use

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US / ju:s /

UK / ju:s /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to employ something
  • Need to enable it to work
  • Permission to do something with something
  • Act of spending money
  • Operation of a machine for its function
  • verb
  • To have; to eat, drink, consume etc.
  • To need to operate or work
  • To operate a machine, e.g. a computer
  • To treat a person badly
  • To do something with, for a task or purpose

anderson

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US / ˈændəsn /

UK / ˈændəsən /

A1
  • proper noun
  • An industrial city in east central Indiana; population 57,282 (est. 2008).
  • A city in northwestern South Carolina; population 27,027 (est. 2008).
  • A city in north central California; population 10,538 (est. 2008).

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

craft

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US / krɑ:ft /

UK / kræft /

B1
  • noun
  • Job requiring a worker to have specific skills
  • Vehicle that travels on water or through the air
  • verb
  • To make by hand and with much skill

good

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US / ɡʊd /

UK / ɡʊd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper, appropriate or right
  • (Of an amount) enough; plenty
  • Excellent; high quality
  • Acting well or properly; of moral character
  • In a positive or happy emotional state
  • noun
  • Advantage or benefit

life

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US / laɪf /

UK / laɪf /

A1
  • noun
  • All the living things e.g. animals, plants, humans
  • Period of time things live, from birth to death

distribute

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US / dɪˈstrɪbju:t /

UK / dɪˈstrɪbjut /

A2
  • verb
  • To hand out or give to people
  • To send products to stores to sell
  • To spread something over an area

historical

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US / /

UK / /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Connected with the past

our

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to us

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

become

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US / bɪ'kʌm /

UK / bɪˈkʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To begin to be; grow to be; develop into
  • To be suitable for a particular job or role

physics

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US / ˈfɪzɪks /

UK / ˈfɪzɪks /

A1
  • other
  • The study of heat, light, and energy on objects

smooth

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US / smu:ð /

UK / smuð /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Moving without stops and starts
  • Pleasant and flat to touch, not rough
  • Being free from problems or difficulties
  • verb
  • To make something rough feel flat, e.g. by ironing
  • To spread a substance over a surface

same

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US / seɪm /

UK / sem /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in quality and amount
  • Identical; not different
  • Not changing; constant

unveil

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US / ˌʌnˈveɪl /

UK / ʌnˈvel /

B1
  • verb
  • To remove something's outer covering

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

towards

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US / tə'wɔ:dz /

UK / 'təuədz, twɔ:dz /

A1
  • preposition
  • In the direction of someone or something

ramp

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US / ræmp /

UK / ræmp /

B2
  • noun
  • Path that increases in height as you walk up it
  • verb

cooper

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US / 'ku:pə(r) /

UK / ˈkupɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • A craftsman who makes or repairs wooden barrels or tubs
  • other
  • Make barrels and casks

experience

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US / ɪk'spɪərɪəns /

UK / ɪkˈspɪriəns /

A1
  • noun
  • Thing a person has done or that happened to them
  • An event at which you learned something
  • Knowledge gained by living life, doing new things
  • verb
  • To gain knowledge by doing things

hollow

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US / ˈhɒləʊ /

UK / ˈhɑ:loʊ /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of objects) having nothing inside; not solid
  • Lacking value, sincerity, or meaning
  • (E.g. of a laugh) lacking strength and emotion
  • (Sound) produced when something empty is hit
  • Appearing sunken or curved down
  • noun
  • Gap or indented surface
  • Area of land a little deeper than the surface
  • verb
  • To make a solid object have a large hole inside it

rider

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US / 'raɪdə(r) /

UK / ˈraɪdɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Someone who rides on something, e.g. bike, a horse
  • Addition to a piece of writing that changes it
  • A traveler who rides an animal (as a horse)

represent

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US / ˌreprɪ'zent /

UK / ˌrɛprɪˈzɛnt /

A2
  • verb
  • To depict art objects, figures, scenes; to portray
  • To show or describe something in a particular way
  • To act on behalf of others in government
  • To act or speak for another person or other people

support

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US / səˈpɔ:t /

UK / səˈpɔrt, -ˈport /

A1
  • noun
  • Assistance or advice given to someone
  • Evidence that helps prove something is true
  • A thing to hold up or prevent from falling down
  • verb
  • To give assistance or advice to someone
  • To help prove or show that something is true
  • To hold up or prevent from falling down

avoid

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US / ə'vɔɪd /

UK / əˈvɔɪd /

A2
  • verb
  • To prevent from happening
  • To stay away from

crazy

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US / 'kreɪzɪ /

UK / ˈkrezi /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Mentally ill; mad
  • Not being sensible or practical
  • Really like someone or something very much
  • noun
  • Person acting in a manner that is strange and odd

george

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US / dʒɔ:dʒ /

UK / dʒɔ:dʒ /

A1
  • noun
  • Christian martyr; patron saint of England; hero of the legend of Saint George and the Dragon in whic

want

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US / wɔnt /

UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

weight

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US / weɪt /

UK / wet /

A2
  • noun
  • How heavy something is
  • Metal object to measure how heavy something is
  • Importance, power, and influence person, thing has
  • A source of worry, sadness, or emotional stress

compare

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US / kəm'peə(r) /

UK / kəmˈpɛr /

A1
  • verb
  • To consider how similar and different things are

member

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US / ˈmembə(r) /

UK / ˈmɛmbɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Part of the body of a human, animal
  • Person or thing belonging to a group or team

obsess

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US / əbˈses /

UK / əbˈsɛs, ɑb- /

C1
  • verb
  • To talk or think about someone, something too much
  • To be the only thing that someone thinks about

would

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate something imagined
  • Used to ask or request something politely
  • Verb used to indicate possibility, request etc.
  • Used to indicate a preference
  • Used to indicate a reaction
  • Indicates something that occurred repeatedly
  • Used to indicate willingness or ability to do

understand

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US / ˌʌndə'stænd /

UK / ˌʌndɚˈstænd /

A1
  • verb
  • To know the meaning of language, what someone says

really

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US / ˈri:əli /

UK / ˈriəˌli, ˈrili /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to stress something that is said; definitely
  • In a true or accurate manner
  • Very

body

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US / ˈbɒd.i /

UK / ˈbɑdi /

A1
  • noun
  • An object distinct from other objects
  • A group of people involved in an activity together
  • Main part of something
  • A person's physical self

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

uneven

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US / ʌnˈi:vn /

UK / ʌnˈivən /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Being good in some parts and poor in others
  • Having more on one side; unfairly distributed
  • Unfair; not equal
  • Not even or uniform, as in shape or texture
  • Marked by an irregular pattern

flip

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US / flɪp /

UK / flɪp /

B2
  • noun
  • Act of turning your body in the air; somersault
  • Movement of something from one position to another
  • verb
  • To turn your body in the air, as in gymnastics
  • To move into a different position quickly
  • To move a button or switch to turn on or off

matt

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US / mæt /

UK / mæt /

A1
  • adjective
  • (of a colour, paint, or surface) dull and flat; without a shine.
  • noun
  • A matt paint or finish.
  • A sheet of cardboard placed on the back of a picture, either as a mount or to form a border.
  • verb
  • Give a matt appearance to (something)

nightmare

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US / ˈnaɪtmeə(r) /

UK / ˈnaɪtˌmɛr /

A2
  • noun
  • Frightening, difficult or displeasing experience
  • Frightening or upsetting dream while sleeping

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

shortly

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US / ˈʃɔ:tli /

UK / ˈʃɔrtli /

B1
  • adverb
  • Quickly; soon; in a moment
  • In an unfriendly or rude way

upside

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US / ˈʌpsaɪd /

UK / ˈʌpˌsaɪd /

A2
  • noun
  • Above, over
  • A positive aspect; advantage

less

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US / les /

UK / lɛs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Smaller in amount or degree
  • adverb
  • To a smaller degree
  • noun
  • A smaller amount
  • preposition
  • With the subtraction of

park

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US / pɑ:k /

UK / pɑ:rk /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • Public green area in a town for exercise, relaxing
  • Field upon which a sport is played, e.g. baseball
  • verb
  • To stay still without moving
  • To leave your car, bike in a certain place

entire

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US / ɪn'taɪə(r) /

UK / ɛnˈtaɪr /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Complete or full; with no part left out; whole

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

love

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US / lʌv /

UK / lʌv /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • A very strong feeling of affection
  • The person you care very deeply about
  • Strong, deep emotional and sexual attraction
  • verb
  • To care for and like someone very strongly, deeply
  • To like doing very much; enjoy greatly
  • To feel a strong emotional and romantic attraction

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

perfect

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US / 'pɜ:fɪkt /

UK / ˈpɚfɪkt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • So good it cannot be improved
  • verb
  • To do something so well, it cannot be done better

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

than

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US / ðən /

UK / ðən /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to compare two things that are not equal

pull

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US / pʊl /

UK / pʊl /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of breathing in smoke, as from a pipe
  • Force something has that draws other things to it
  • Using your hands to move something to you
  • verb
  • To breathe in smoke, as from a pipe
  • To hold something and move it toward you
  • To remove something by force

turn

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US / tɜ:n /

UK / tɚn /

A1
  • noun
  • Place where changing of direction happens
  • Your time or chance to perform a duty
  • Your chance to play or do in say a game
  • Unexpected change, as in the weather
  • verb
  • To become (a particular age)
  • To become a different quality, color, etc.
  • To change the direction of something, e.g. a car
  • To move in an opposite direction or position
  • To shape metal with a spinning tool

stress

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US / stres /

UK / strɛs /

A2
  • noun
  • Emphasis on part of a word or sentence
  • Pressure on something or someone
  • A state of mental tension, worry due to problems
  • verb
  • To emphasize one or more parts of a word, sentence
  • To put pressure on something or someone
  • To say your opinion strongly
  • To be in a state of mental tension due to problems

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

live

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US / lɪv /

UK / liv /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being broadcast as events happen, not recorded
  • Carrying electric current; able to give a shock
  • Glowing because burning; hot
  • Not yet killed (for food)
  • adverb
  • (Music, drama) as it is performed
  • verb
  • To be alive
  • To experience a particular type of life
  • To make your home in a house or town

vertical

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US / ˈvɜ:tɪkl /

UK / ˈvɜ:rtɪkl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of a line, etc.) going up and down; not horizontal

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

big

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US / bɪɡ /

UK / bɪɡ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Popular
  • Serious
  • Large

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

stability

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US / stəˈbɪləti /

UK / stəˈbɪlɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • Quality or state of being even or consistent

circular

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US / ˈsɜ:kjələ(r) /

UK / ˈsɜ:rkjələ(r) /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Shaped like a circle or part of a circle
  • noun
  • Paper with news, ads, etc. sent round to people

opposite

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US / ˈɔpəzit /

UK / ˈɑpəzɪt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being totally different from
  • noun
  • Person, thing that is totally different to another
  • preposition
  • Across from or on the side facing something

state

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US / steɪt /

UK / stet /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning region within a country
  • noun
  • Region within a country, with its own government
  • Situation or condition something is in
  • verb
  • To say; declare as fact

university

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US / ˌju:nɪ'vɜ:sətɪ /

UK / ˌjunɪˈvɜrsəti /

A1
  • noun
  • High-level educational institution; college

arc

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US / ɑ:k /

UK / ɑrk /

B2
  • noun
  • Smoothly curving line or movement
  • verb
  • To bend in a smooth curve

bottom

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US / 'bɒtəm /

UK / ˈbɑtəm /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the part under something, e.g. a vase
  • noun
  • The part of your body you sit on
  • Lowest position, often in a company or contest
  • Lowest part of something; part on which it rests
  • Lowest level, part or point of an object
  • The part under something, e.g. a vase
  • verb
  • To hit the lowest part of something

decrease

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US / dɪˈkri:s /

UK / dɪˈkris /

B1
  • noun
  • Amount by which something has been reduced
  • verb
  • To reduce the size, amount or number of something

happen

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US / 'hæpən /

UK / ˈhæpən /

A1
  • verb
  • To take place or occur

track

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US / træk /

UK / træk /

A2
  • noun
  • A circular course for running
  • Course or way someone takes, e.g. in education
  • Path in a field or a forest made by walkers
  • Often circular course laid out for car racing
  • One of multiple musical recordings on an album
  • Band surrounding the wheels of a tank
  • Metal lines that trains ride on
  • verb
  • To use marks to follow a wild animal
  • To move a certain way/follow a particular course
  • To record and examine the progress of something

block

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US / blɒk /

UK / blɑk /

A2
  • noun
  • Solid piece of material used for building
  • A piece of wood, chocolate etc.
  • Hard piece of wood, stone etc. with straight edges
  • Building made up of offices or apartments
  • Area of a city divided by four streets
  • verb
  • To stop from going forward or making progress

down

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US / daʊn /

UK / daʊn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being sad, sick, or unhappy
  • Not operating, working, or functioning as expected
  • adverb
  • In a sitting or lying position
  • Towards or on the ground, floor, or bottom
  • Written or copied onto a piece of paper or book
  • noun
  • A period of play in American Football
  • The soft, smooth hairs that cover a bird's body
  • preposition
  • Along something's path, course, or direction
  • Going from a higher position to a lower position
  • verb
  • To eat or drink very quickly and without stopping

force

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US / fɔ:s /

UK / fɔrs, fors /

A1
  • noun
  • Group of persons trained for military action; army
  • Pressure; attraction
  • The use of physical strength/violence to persuade
  • verb
  • To use physical strength or violence to persuade

instantly

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US / ˈɪnstəntli /

UK / ˈɪnstəntli /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a manner without delay; immediately

then

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US / ðen /

UK / ðɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • A time that is not now
  • Following another thing in time or arrangement
  • Following on reasonably from what was just stated
  • At that time, not now

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

again

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US / ə'ɡen /

UK / əˈɡɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • One more time, once more

current

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US / 'kʌrənt /

UK / ˈkɚrənt, ˈkʌr- /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or being in the present time
  • noun
  • Electricity flowing through wires
  • Movement of water in a river, or air in the sky

even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

people

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US / 'pi:pl /

UK / ˈpipəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Persons sharing culture, country, background, etc.
  • Men, Women, Children

roller

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US / ˈrəʊlə(r) /

UK / ˈroʊlə(r) /

A2
  • noun
  • Long round piece of wood for flattening dough
  • Plastic or metal tube for shaping hair
  • Tool shaped like a tube used for crushing things
  • Powerful large long wave

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

san

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US / /

UK / /

A1
  • adjective
  • Relating to the San or their languages.
  • noun
  • A member of the aboriginal peoples of southern Africa commonly called Bushmen.
  • The group of Khoisan languages spoken by the San.

spine

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US / spaɪn /

UK / spaɪn /

B1
  • noun
  • Line of bones that runs down your back
  • The place the pages of a book are attached
  • Strength of purpose; courage; determination

randy

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US / 'rændɪ /

UK / ˈrændi /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Wanting to have sex (often)

second

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US / 'sekənd /

UK / ˈsɛkənd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 2nd; the one following first
  • noun
  • Unit of time; one sixtieth of a minute
  • Short period of time that you wait for someone
  • (Do) soon

shut

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US / ʃʌt /

UK / ʃʌt /

A2
  • verb
  • To stop being open for business
  • To close something, e.g. a door

cart

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US / kɑ:t /

UK / kɑrt /

B1
  • noun
  • Vehicle on wheels for carry things; trolley
  • verb
  • To move things on a wheeled trolley
  • To move something with effort

coney

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US / 'kəʊnɪ /

UK / 'koʊnɪ /

A1
  • other
  • Black-spotted usually dusky-colored fish with reddish fins

dynamic

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US / daɪˈnæmɪk /

UK / daiˈnæmik /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Always active or energetic; getting things done

geisler

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US / ˈgaɪslər /

UK / /

A1

jump

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US / dʒʌmp /

UK / dʒʌmp /

A1
  • noun
  • Large sudden increase
  • An act of springing into the air
  • Bar or other thing that is jumped over
  • A sudden movement due to surprise
  • verb
  • To attack someone suddenly
  • To push your body into the air with your legs
  • To suddenly decide to do something
  • To make a sudden movement due to surprise

ride

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US / raɪd /

UK / raɪd /

A1
  • noun
  • Machine at an amusement park for riding on for fun
  • Trip on a bicycle or a horse
  • verb
  • To travel in a particular vehicle as a passenger
  • To sit on and control a horse or vehicle

cause

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US / kɔ:z /

UK / kɔz /

A2
  • noun
  • Belief, goal or organization that people support
  • Reason for
  • verb
  • To make something happen; create effect or result

first

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US / fɜ:st /

UK / fɚst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 1st; Coming before all others in time or place
  • noun
  • Something that has not happened before
  • Position of the winner of a competition

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

president

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US / ˈprezɪdənt /

UK / ˈprɛzɪdənt,-ˌdɛnt /

A2
  • noun
  • Person in charge of a country, or organization

claim

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US / kleɪm /

UK / klem /

A2
  • noun
  • Demand for something that is believed to be due
  • Something said to be true when others don't agree
  • verb
  • To demand something that is believed to be due
  • To cause someone's life to come to an end
  • To say something is true when others may not agree

bunch

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US / bʌntʃ /

UK / bʌntʃ /

B1
  • noun
  • A group of things of the same kind
  • verb
  • To group people or things closely together
  • (Cloth) to gather/be gathered together in folds

hit

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US / hɪt /

UK / hɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • A planned killing, usually for money
  • Song, movie etc. that is successful
  • When someone strikes someone or something
  • Time when a player makes contact with the ball
  • Time when a website is accessed
  • verb
  • To have a negative impact on a person/place/thing
  • To press something, such as a button or switch
  • To suddenly realize the importance of something
  • To move your hand, a bat, etc. against with force
  • To fight, attack or damage something or someone
  • To arrive at a specific place, level, or goal
  • To make contact with the ball in a game or sport

york

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US / jɔ:k /

UK / jɔrk /

A1
  • proper noun
  • A city in northern England, on the Ouse River; population 136,900 (est. 2009).
  • A commercial and industrial city in southeastern Pennsylvania; population 40,097 (est. 2008).
  • The southwestern tip of Hayes Peninsula, on Baffin Bay in Greenland. It served as a base for US expl

stretchy

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US / ˈstretʃi /

UK / ˈstrɛtʃi /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Able to be stretched; elastic

bend

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US / bend /

UK / bɛnd /

A2
  • noun
  • When a road changes direction; turn
  • verb
  • To become curved or no longer straight
  • To move your body so that it is not straight up
  • To turn in a different direction, as a road
  • To use force to make an object not straight

case

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US / keɪs /

UK / kes /

A1
  • noun
  • Container used to carry things, e.g. clothes
  • Set of facts about a crime
  • Set of facts about an event
  • Example or instance of something
  • verb
  • To find out about a place, as in planning to steal

enough

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US / ɪˈnʌf /

UK / ɪˈnʌf /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Sufficient to answer the need
  • adverb
  • To a satisfactory degree
  • pronoun
  • Equal to what is needed; as much as required
  • Adequate number or amount

great

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US / ɡreɪt /

UK / ɡret /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very large in size
  • Very important
  • Very good; fantastic; wonderful
  • adverb
  • Very good; better than before
  • noun
  • Successful and well-admired person

mean

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US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular meaning or value

offer

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US / 'ɒfə(r) /

UK / ˈɔfɚ, ˈɑfɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Price you say you are willing to pay for something
  • Act of making a thing available to be accepted
  • verb
  • To suggest a price you are willing to pay
  • To give the opportunity to accept something
  • To say you are willing to do something
  • To give or say something as an act of worship

watch

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US / wɒtʃ /

UK / wɑtʃ /

A1
  • noun
  • Period of time someone is responsible for guarding
  • Device you wear on your wrist that shows the time
  • Official warning statement, e.g. of bad weather
  • verb
  • To keep in check, manage, or control something
  • To look at something for entertainment, e.g. TV
  • To guard a place or people; protect child, etc.
  • To look at carefully to work out what is happening
  • To protect and care for someone or something

exact

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US / ɪɡ'zækt /

UK / ɪɡˈzækt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Completely correct; accurate; specific
  • verb
  • To get something, sometimes using force

start

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US / stɑ:t /

UK / stɑrt /

A1
  • noun
  • First time or place that a thing exists; beginning
  • First opportunity to achieve something, e.g. a job
  • Sudden action or movement because you are scared
  • other
  • Beginning of something in place or time
  • verb
  • To do, be or happen for the first time; begin
  • To turn something on

since

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US / sɪns /

UK / sɪns /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a point before the present time
  • conjunction
  • For this reason; because
  • preposition
  • From the time in the past that

designer

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US / dɪˈzaɪnə(r) /

UK / dɪˈzaɪnə /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Describing something that has been designed
  • noun
  • Someone who creates plans to make something

hour

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • noun
  • 60 minutes
  • Particular time of the day
  • Fixed, regularly occurring time

novelty

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US / ˈnɒvlti /

UK / ˈnɑ:vlti /

B2
  • noun
  • Items that are unusual, interesting, or unique

those

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US / ðəʊz /

UK / ðoz /

A1
  • determiner
  • The people or things we are talking about
  • pronoun
  • The objects far from the speaker

steel

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US / sti:l /

UK / stil /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Made of, or partly made of, a strong silvery metal
  • noun
  • Very strong or determined character in a person
  • Very strong metal made of iron, etc.
  • verb
  • To prepare yourself for something difficult

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

solid

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US / 'sɒlɪd /

UK / ˈsɑlɪd /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being able to be trusted; reliable
  • Substance that is hard or of fixed shape
  • Being well made and expected to last long
  • Having no space or emptiness inside
  • Being made entirely of one material or substance
  • noun
  • Something firm or hard; not gas or liquid

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

proudly

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US / ˈpraʊdli /

UK / ˈpraʊdlɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • With pride; in a proud manner

website

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US / ˈwebsaɪt /

UK / 'websaɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • Collection of webpages in one location

short

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US / ʃɔ:t /

UK / ʃɔrt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Less than what is needed
  • Suddenly stopping what you are saying or doing
  • verb
  • (Of electric circuit) to spark because faulty
  • adjecitve
  • Measuring a small distance
  • Happening for a small amount of time
  • Unfriendly or rude

catastrophe

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US / kə'tæstrəfɪ /

UK / kəˈtæstrəfi /

B2
  • noun
  • Very bad disaster causing much suffering, etc.

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

home

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US / həʊm /

UK / hom /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A sports team's own field or place of play
  • adverb
  • Into the correct or intended position
  • noun
  • House, apartment or building to be rented or sold
  • Institution for sick or elderly people
  • Place where a person or a family lives
  • Country where a person lives or was born
  • Region that is native to peoples, plant or animals
  • verb
  • To move towards a particular target location

modern

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US / ˈmɔdən /

UK / ˈmɑdən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Of the present time; up to date; contemporary

line

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US / laɪn /

UK / laɪn /

A1
  • noun
  • Border that divides two places or regions
  • Long crease in the skin, often from age
  • Mark that is long, straight and very thin
  • Row of words, letters or numbers that are written
  • Telephone connection
  • People waiting one behind the other; queue
  • Long thin wire, e.g. for electrical signal
  • verb
  • To put material along the inside of something

tubular

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US / ˈtju:bjələ(r) /

UK / ˈtu:bjələ(r) /

C1
  • adjecitve
  • Long, round and with hollow inside; made of tubes
  • Made with tubes

explode

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US / ɪk'spləʊd /

UK / ɪkˈsplod /

B1
  • verb
  • To express an emotion in a sudden and loud way
  • To increase in number or amount very quickly
  • To burst or cause to burst into pieces

few

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US / fju: /

UK / fju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Not many, a small number

hometown

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US / 'həʊmtaʊn /

UK / ˈhomˈtaʊn /

B2
  • noun
  • Town (or city) where you grew up or where you live

much

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US / mʌtʃ /

UK / mʌtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very; to a high level or degree
  • adverb
  • A lot; large amount; a high degree of
  • Nearly; basically
  • On many occasions; often
  • noun
  • A large amount; a great quantity

strong

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US / strɒŋ /

UK / strɔŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of tea or beer) dark or thick
  • Having big muscles; physically powerful

per

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US / pə(r) /

UK / pɚ /

A2
  • preposition
  • In the manner directed or suggested
  • For each; during each

enthusiast

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US / ɪnˈθju:ziæst /

UK / ɪnˈθu:ziæst /

B1
  • noun
  • A person having a strong liking for something

head

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US / hed /

UK / hɛd /

A1
  • noun
  • Counter for the number of cattle
  • Natural mental ability or intelligence
  • Leader or person with the greatest authority
  • Mind; mental ability; mental state
  • Side of a coin with a head on it
  • Top part of your body with eyes and a mouth
  • Starting point of something, e.g. a river
  • verb
  • To hit a ball with your head in a game
  • To be first or at the front or top (e.g. a list)
  • To travel or move toward a particular place; To go in a particular direction
  • To become the leader of something
  • To lead or be responsible for something

middle

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US / 'mɪdl /

UK / ˈmidl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Equal distance from extremes
  • noun
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  • Introduction to Video Content
  • Roller coasters are a thrilling form of entertainment that has captivated people for decades. From the towering drops to the exhilarating twists and turns, roller coasters provide a unique experience unlike any other. One particular element of roller coasters that always leaves riders on the edge of their seats is the loop. The loop is a staple feature of many roller coasters, sending riders upside down and defying gravity. However, have you ever wondered why roller coaster loops aren't perfectly circular? In this article, we will explore the evolution of looping roller coasters and why their shape is not a simple circle.When it comes to looping roller coasters, the Hershey Park in Pennsylvania is well-known for its Sooperdooperlooper. According to Hershey's website, the Sooperdooperlooper is touted as the 'first-ever looping roller coaster on the east coast.' However, this claim is not entirely accurate. Coney Island, in New York, actually had the first two looping coasters in America nearly 75 years prior to the Sooperdooperlooper. While the Sooperdooperlooper has been around for almost five decades, these early looping coasters in Coney Island did not last for more than a decade. The reason for their short lifespan? Their circular loops.Looping roller coasters originated in Europe in the early 1840s, known then as centrifugal railways. However, these early versions were not widely successful or popular. They were considered more of a novelty than a thrilling attraction. Randy Geisler, a former president and current member of the historical committee for American Coaster Enthusiasts, explains that the loops did not resonate with people in the 1800s. The concept of being inverted and experiencing the forces associated with loops was not as appealing back then.The lack of enthusiasm for looping coasters continued when America built its first looping roller coaster in 1895 at Coney Island, called the Flip Flap Railway. This coaster faced significant challenges due to its circular loops. While circles are a favorite shape in physics, they are far from ideal from a human experience perspective. Matt Anderson, a physics professor at San Diego State University, explains that while perfect circles are easy to work with mathematically, they do not provide the best experience for riders.So, why aren't roller coaster loops circular? The answer lies in the physics of motion and the human body's response to forces. When riders go through a loop, they experience a change in velocity and acceleration. In a circular loop, these forces are not distributed evenly, causing discomfort and even injuries. The change in velocity and acceleration is the highest at the top of the loop, known as the apex, and this is where riders experience the most intense forces. Additionally, in a circular loop, the forces exerted on the rider are primarily directed downward, intensifying the feeling of being pushed down.To remedy the issue of circular loops, roller coaster designers began introducing elliptical shapes for their loops. The elliptical shape, with a wider base and narrower top, allowed for a smoother distribution of forces throughout the loop. This reduced the intense forces at the apex and provided a more comfortable and enjoyable experience for riders. By optimizing the shape of the loop, roller coaster designers were able to push the boundaries of thrill and create exhilarating rides that left riders wanting more.The evolution of looping roller coasters exemplifies the ingenious blending of science and entertainment. Through trial and error, designers discovered that perfect circles might be mathematically elegant but do not translate well into a captivating experience for riders. By understanding the physics behind loops and how the human body responds to forces, roller coaster designers have been able to create loops that are thrilling yet comfortable. So, the next time you find yourself on a looping roller coaster, take a moment to appreciate the complex engineering and physics that went into designing the perfect loop for your enjoyment.
  • Subtitles section
  • There's this coaster in Hershey Park Pennsylvania, called the Sooperdooperlooper.
  • On it, you come around this bend that's full of trees blocking your view and before you know it you're hurtling down the track at 45 miles per hour toward a thrilling 75 foot loop.
  • According to Hershey's website, it's the "first-ever looping roller coaster on the east coast".
  • But the good people at the Hershey company have that wrong.
  • Because about 75 years before the Sooperdooperlooper, Coney Island — in my hometown of New York — was home to the first two looping coasters in America.
  • Unlike the Sooperdooperlooper, which has been around for almost 50 years, these early looping coasters didn't even last a decade.
  • Because, it turns out, loops shouldn't be made like this.
  • Looping roller coasters got their start in Europe as early as 1842.
  • Back then, they were called centrifugal railways They... weren't super popular or successful.
  • They tried a few more in Europe, as we understand it, these were short lived and more a novelty.
  • That's Randy Geisler, former president and current member of the historical committee for American Coaster Enthusiasts.
  • I've loved roller coasters my entire life.
  • The movements, the speed, and just the world whipping by you in every direction.
  • People in the 1800s didn't have the same fondness for looping coasters.
  • And that didn't change much when America built its first looping roller coaster in 1895: Coney Island's Flip Flap Railway.
  • That's because these coasters had a few major problems.
  • The biggest one being, they made the loops circular.
  • In physics, we love perfect circles.
  • It's an easy shape.
  • But from a human experience point of view, it is a nightmare.
  • That's Matt Anderson.
  • I'm a physics professor at San Diego State University.
  • To make it all the way around the Flip Flap's circular loop cars needed to move really, really fast while changing directions.
  • The coaster itself is trying to push you up into a new direction.
  • Your head, your spine, everything else wants to keep going in a straight line.
  • But the coaster is saying, no, you gotta curve into this arc.
  • Changing directions so rapidly causes a spike in G forces/ You've gone from one G instantly to 12 or 14 Gs.
  • That's a big problem.
  • 6Gs is really the most a human body can handle on a rollercoaster and only for about a second.
  • At that force...
  • Literally, all the blood is just being pulled out of your head and you will pass out.
  • You can see how wild the G-forces are in this looping-coaster-simulation chart created by George Sidebotham, a mechanical engineering professor at the Cooper Union.
  • Because of our chat, he became so obsessed with the circular loop problem that he made a bunch of looping-coaster-simulation charts.
  • This line represents a circular loop like the Flip Flap's.
  • After jumping from 1 to 14 Gs, it would decrease as you reached the top of the loop then ramp all the way up again to 14 at the bottom, and then back to 1 as the coaster leaves the curve.
  • Passengers were completely rattled.
  • The Flip Flap, being made mostly of wood, didn't help either.
  • Wood is stretchy and compress-y.
  • You can see the circle moving as the cart goes around.
  • It's stressing it this way and then it's stressing it that way.
  • It just looks like an engineering catastrophe about to happen.
  • The next looping coaster built on Coney Island, the Loop the Loop, Was crafted to avoid all those issues.
  • It was made entirely out of steel, which offered more stability.
  • And the circle was switched to more of an upside down teardrop shape.
  • Squeezing the sides in helped ease the transition into and out of the curvature reducing the G forces and creating a smoother, less body-damaging ride.
  • But still, they had the capacity problem.
  • Neither the Flip Flap or the Loop the Loop could support more than a few riders at a time because the loops were small, and so the cars had to be small, too.
  • Most of the cars, they seated 4 people And pretty much you could only send people about once every 5 minutes.
  • They just couldn't make enough money.
  • There were more people that would watch than ride.
  • The Flip Flap lasted 7 years, the Loop the Loop lasted 9.
  • And all other looping coasters around the world shut down shortly after.
  • It seemed like the end of the track for loops.
  • That is... until something new came along.
  • In 1959, Disney unveiled the Matterhorn.
  • It didn't have a loop but it was the very first tubular steel coaster.
  • Unlike regular steel which was solid throughout, tubular steel was hollow in the middle, making it lighter-weight, and easier to bend into smooth arcs and curves.
  • Unlike wood, tubular steel could support heavy weight, and more dynamic movement.
  • And in 1976, Six Flags Magic Mountain debuted the first modern vertical looping coaster, made with tubular steel.
  • The Great American Revolution squeezed the loop even more than the Loop the Loop creating what's known as a "clothoid loop".
  • It gets smaller and smaller as you get to the top to try and even out the G forces.
  • And then it does exact opposite as it comes back down.
  • With clothoid loop-shaped coasters, designers could distribute the G's more evenly and decide more precisely how many Gs to hit...
  • about 4.9 in the case of the Great American Revolution.
  • A much smoother experience compared to the Flip Flap's uneven G force spikes from 1 to 14 to 9 to 1.
  • This clothoid loop — crafted using strong and easy-to-bend tubular steel, and built 113 feet high meant that the Great American Revolution could support 20 riders at g forces that feel exhilarating instead of harmful.
  • And since then loops have exploded in popularity.
  • Double loops!
  • Crazy loops!
  • And that Sooperdooperlooper in Hershey Park which, by the way, can proudly claim that it's the first modern looping roller coaster on the east coast.