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Could giant kelp power our planes? - BBC News

Video vocabulary

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

be

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US / bɪ /

UK / bi /

A1
  • verb
  • Being

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

do

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US / du: /

UK / du /

A1
  • other
  • Question words for 'do' verbs
  • verb
  • To act; to perform actions
  • To be enough; to be acceptable
  • To have a certain effect on something or someone

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

go

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US / ɡəʊ /

UK / ɡo /

A1
  • noun
  • A turn in a game
  • verb
  • To attend or be at a place
  • To do an activity
  • To function properly
  • To move or travel to another place

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to

there

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US / ðɛə /

UK / ðɛr /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to illustrate the existence of something
  • In a particular respect
  • In that place or position, at that location

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

know

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US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

think

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US / θɪŋk /

UK / θɪŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To have an idea about something without certainty
  • To have an idea, opinion or belief about something

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

come

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US / kʌm /

UK / kʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To arrive at a place
  • (Of mail) to be delivered
  • To move toward someone; go with someone
  • To reach a certain point or state

want

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US / wɔnt /

UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

more

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US / mɔ:(r) /

UK / mɔr, mor /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In addition; extra
  • Greater in amount, number, or size
  • adverb
  • To a greater degree; in greater quantity
  • For a longer period of time
  • determiner
  • Additional quantity
  • pronoun
  • A greater or additional number

when

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US / wen /

UK / wɛn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning or during the time something happens
  • adverb
  • Word you use to ask about the time, or day
  • conjunction
  • Although
  • In the event that; if
  • pronoun
  • Which time

would

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate something imagined
  • Used to ask or request something politely
  • Verb used to indicate possibility, request etc.
  • Used to indicate a preference
  • Used to indicate a reaction
  • Indicates something that occurred repeatedly
  • Used to indicate willingness or ability to do

now

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US / naʊ /

UK / naʊ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At the present time or moment
  • Right away or in the next possible moment
  • Used to refer to something that just happened
  • Time between the present and a moment in the past
  • conjunction
  • Resulting from or because of something

some

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US / səm /

UK / sʌm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Remarkable; very good (or very bad) in a way
  • Concerning a certain unclear degree, quantity
  • determiner
  • Used to refer to an unspecified amount or number
  • pronoun
  • Number of persons, things in a group, but not all

because

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US / bɪ'kɒz /

UK / bɪˈkɔz, -ˈkʌz /

A1
  • conjunction
  • For a reason

take

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US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
  • verb
  • To accept something that is offered
  • To use a method of traveling, e.g. a bus or train
  • To use a camera to make (a photo)
  • To pick up something and go away with it
  • To study a subject in school
  • To attempt to pass (an exam)
  • To require a certain amount of time, money, space

here

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • adverb
  • In this place; at this location, position or time

look

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US / lʊk /

UK / lʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's beauty or physical attractiveness
  • Particular style of dress, clothes, or appearance
  • The way someone, something appears to be
  • Act of searching for or examining something
  • verb
  • To appear to be; seem

good

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US / ɡʊd /

UK / ɡʊd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper, appropriate or right
  • (Of an amount) enough; plenty
  • Excellent; high quality
  • Acting well or properly; of moral character
  • In a positive or happy emotional state
  • noun
  • Advantage or benefit

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

right

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US / raɪt /

UK / raɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Correct or true
  • The south side of you looking at the rising sun
  • adverb
  • Exactly in a place or time
  • Being appropriate for a particular event
  • In a straight or direct manner
  • noun
  • Something you are legally or morally allowed to do
  • Ideal of what is just and good
  • Political view based on conservatism
  • verb
  • To fix something previously wrong or unjust
  • To make upright, as a boat that has turned over

really

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US / ˈri:əli /

UK / ˈriəˌli, ˈrili /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to stress something that is said; definitely
  • In a true or accurate manner
  • Very

thing

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US / θɪŋ /

UK / θɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • (Used to introduce the reason for something)
  • Something you cannot remember the name of

then

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US / ðen /

UK / ðɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • A time that is not now
  • Following another thing in time or arrangement
  • Following on reasonably from what was just stated
  • At that time, not now

way

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US / weɪ /

UK / we /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to emphasize the amount of something
  • noun
  • Particular aspect of something being thought about
  • One of various choices that could be made
  • Particular existing condition or state
  • (Often long) distance or length of time
  • How something is done
  • Route to go to a place
  • Small street
  • Usual behavior, emotions or habits of someone

back

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US / bæk /

UK / bæk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Farthest from the front e.g. in a classroom
  • adverb
  • Have returned to a place you were before
  • noun
  • The part of a chair that the upper body leans upon
  • Location at the rear of something
  • The reverse of side something
  • Area on the rear of your body
  • verb
  • To bet money on something
  • To go backwards in a car
  • To support and encourage someone or some cause

these

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US / ði:z /

UK / ðiz /

A1
  • determiner
  • People, things, or ideas near you
  • pronoun
  • The objects near the speaker

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

very

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US / 'verɪ /

UK / ˈvɛri /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a large degree or amount
  • adverb
  • A lot; much; many
  • Used to stress or emphasize a noun

could

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US / kəd /

UK / kʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Past form of 'can' to mean have ability
  • Used to ask for something politely, or to offer

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

over

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US / 'əʊvə(r) /

UK / ˈovɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Finished; no longer happening
  • Towards the ground/away from a standing position
  • noun
  • A set of six consecutive balls bowled in cricket
  • other
  • Finished
  • preposition
  • Showing the relation when a thing is above another
  • On or covering something
  • Above or across something
  • More than you need
  • From one side to the other
  • In the direction of; toward

much

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US / mʌtʃ /

UK / mʌtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very; to a high level or degree
  • adverb
  • A lot; large amount; a high degree of
  • Nearly; basically
  • On many occasions; often
  • noun
  • A large amount; a great quantity

give

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US / ɡɪv /

UK / ɡɪv /

A1
  • noun
  • Degree of flexibility in something, a material
  • verb
  • To hand over or present something to someone
  • To cause someone to have or experience something

first

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US / fɜ:st /

UK / fɚst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 1st; Coming before all others in time or place
  • noun
  • Something that has not happened before
  • Position of the winner of a competition

where

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US / hwɛə /

UK / hwɛr, wɛr /

A1
  • conjunction
  • At or in the place which
  • In whatever place
  • pronoun
  • Word you use to ask the location of something

people

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US / 'pi:pl /

UK / ˈpipəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Persons sharing culture, country, background, etc.
  • Men, Women, Children

little

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US / 'lɪtl /

UK / ˈlɪtl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being short in length of time
  • Not great in size, amount, or degree; small
  • Being very young or younger than others
  • adverb
  • By an amount or degree that is not very much
  • Not often; rarely
  • noun
  • A person's name

need

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US / ni:d /

UK / nid /

A1
  • noun
  • Thing you must have and cannot not have e.g. air
  • Thing you must have and cannot manage without
  • verb
  • To be unable to manage without something; require

down

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US / daʊn /

UK / daʊn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being sad, sick, or unhappy
  • Not operating, working, or functioning as expected
  • adverb
  • In a sitting or lying position
  • Towards or on the ground, floor, or bottom
  • Written or copied onto a piece of paper or book
  • noun
  • A period of play in American Football
  • The soft, smooth hairs that cover a bird's body
  • preposition
  • Along something's path, course, or direction
  • Going from a higher position to a lower position
  • verb
  • To eat or drink very quickly and without stopping

which

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US / wɪtʃ /

UK / hwɪtʃ,wɪtʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Question word to ask about a person's choice
  • pronoun
  • (Used to describe something previously mentioned)
  • Question word to decide either, or

our

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to us

lot

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US / lɒt /

UK / lɑt /

A1
  • noun
  • What happens to a person in life from chance; fate
  • A group of people seen together
  • Item for sale at an auction
  • Small area of land used for a purpose e.g. parking

two

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • number
  • 2

try

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US / traɪ /

UK / traɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of putting the ball over the rugby goal line
  • verb
  • To make an effort, to attempt to do something
  • To examine someone or something in a court of law
  • To test to see if it is good or you like it
  • To make a person go through hardship; test
  • To examine something to see if it works

use

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US / ju:s /

UK / ju:s /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to employ something
  • Need to enable it to work
  • Permission to do something with something
  • Act of spending money
  • Operation of a machine for its function
  • verb
  • To have; to eat, drink, consume etc.
  • To need to operate or work
  • To operate a machine, e.g. a computer
  • To treat a person badly
  • To do something with, for a task or purpose

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

than

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US / ðən /

UK / ðən /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to compare two things that are not equal

only

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US / ˈəunli /

UK / ˈonli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just one; just that amount or thing; not more than
  • Not very important or serious
  • Just that type of thing, person
  • Short time ago; not before a certain time
  • conjunction
  • Except; but

work

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US / wɜ:k /

UK / wɚk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Activity completed in order to make money
  • noun
  • The product of some artistic or literary endeavor
  • Everything created by an author, artist, musician
  • Activity you do in order to make money
  • Place of employment
  • Final product or result of a some labor or effort
  • verb
  • To bring into a specific state of success
  • To be functioning properly, e.g. a car
  • To do your job in your company or workplace
  • To make an effort to do something
  • To operate a machine or device

those

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US / ðəʊz /

UK / ðoz /

A1
  • determiner
  • The people or things we are talking about
  • pronoun
  • The objects far from the speaker

still

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US / stɪl /

UK / stɪl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Quiet; without sound
  • adverb
  • (Used of an action or condition that is ongoing)
  • noun
  • Machine or device for making alcohol
  • Photograph (not a video or moving image)

find

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US / faɪnd /

UK / faɪnd /

A1
  • noun
  • Object discovered by chance
  • Things that have been discovered from searching
  • verb
  • To become aware of something that is happening
  • To discover or meet by chance
  • To decide if someone is guilty of a crime, or not
  • To learn through study, research, or effort
  • To discover something by looking for it

big

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US / bɪɡ /

UK / bɪɡ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Popular
  • Serious
  • Large

day

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US / deɪ /

UK / de /

A1
  • noun
  • A period of 24 hours beginning at midnight
  • The period of time when it is light outside
  • Person's name

too

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition, also; with emphasis
  • Say that something is more than you want

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • determiner
  • Constituting nearly all of something
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

show

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US / ʃəʊ /

UK / ʃo /

A1
  • noun
  • False display of love, emotion or action
  • An event for displaying or promoting goods
  • Play, opera or theater production
  • Presentation that is broadcast on TV or radio
  • verb
  • To be easily seen or displayed
  • To display your emotions or feelings
  • To let someone see something; display
  • To explain or teach how something is done
  • To lead someone somewhere; point them to something
  • To prove something to be true, correct
  • To reveal or allow something to be seen

great

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US / ɡreɪt /

UK / ɡret /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very large in size
  • Very important
  • Very good; fantastic; wonderful
  • adverb
  • Very good; better than before
  • noun
  • Successful and well-admired person

happen

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US / 'hæpən /

UK / ˈhæpən /

A1
  • verb
  • To take place or occur

every

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US / 'evrɪ /

UK / ˈɛvri /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Happening at equal specified intervals/distance
  • determiner
  • Including each person or thing in a group

long

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US / lɒŋ /

UK / lɔŋ, lɑŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Large distance from one end to the other
  • Having many parts, e.g. a book with many chapters
  • adverb
  • For a large amount of time
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • verb
  • To have a strong desire for something or someone

never

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US / 'nevə(r) /

UK / ˈnɛvɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Not ever; not at any time

end

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US / end /

UK / ɛnd /

A1
  • noun
  • The point where a process or activity stops
  • A point that marks the limit of something; finish
  • Goal or desired result
  • The tip, edge or limit of something
  • verb
  • To be the last part of something

might

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US / maɪt /

UK / maɪt /

A1
  • other
  • Used to politely request an action
  • Used to express that something could happen
  • Power, strength, force or influence

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

different

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US / ˈdɪfrənt /

UK / ˈdɪfrənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not of the same kind; unlike other things

today

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US / tə'deɪ /

UK / təˈde /

A1
  • adverb
  • On this day; at the time that is happening now
  • noun
  • This day; day that is happening now

again

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US / ə'ɡen /

UK / əˈɡɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • One more time, once more

part

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US / pɑ:t /

UK / pɑ:rt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To some degree; half; not fully
  • noun
  • Division of a book
  • Ratio of something, e.g. 3 of gin, 1 of tonic
  • A line in a person's hair, made with a comb
  • Character an actor plays on stage, movie, or TV
  • Some, but not all of a specific thing
  • Role in causing something to happen
  • verb
  • To make a line in a person's hair, by using a comb
  • To move two things apart creating a space
  • To leave someone, or to break off a relationship

able

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US / 'eɪbl /

UK / ˈebəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Skilled; good at something
  • Having the ability to do something

turn

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US / tɜ:n /

UK / tɚn /

A1
  • noun
  • Place where changing of direction happens
  • Your time or chance to perform a duty
  • Your chance to play or do in say a game
  • Unexpected change, as in the weather
  • verb
  • To become (a particular age)
  • To become a different quality, color, etc.
  • To change the direction of something, e.g. a car
  • To move in an opposite direction or position
  • To shape metal with a spinning tool

place

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US / pleɪs /

UK / ples /

A1
  • noun
  • Particular location, area or region
  • verb
  • To put someone in a particular type of situation
  • To put something in a certain location or position

live

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US / lɪv /

UK / liv /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being broadcast as events happen, not recorded
  • Carrying electric current; able to give a shock
  • Glowing because burning; hot
  • Not yet killed (for food)
  • adverb
  • (Music, drama) as it is performed
  • verb
  • To be alive
  • To experience a particular type of life
  • To make your home in a house or town

move

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US / mu:v /

UK / muv /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of moving a playing piece in chess, etc.
  • An action; doing something
  • Step taken to achieve a goal
  • verb
  • To cause someone to have certain emotions
  • To cause something to change to a different place
  • To change where people live or a business operates
  • To take action to do or achieve something

already

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US / ɔ:lˈredi /

UK / ɔlˈrɛdi /

A1
  • adverb
  • Having happened or been done before this time

bring

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US / brɪŋ /

UK / brɪŋ /

A1
  • verb
  • To take or go with someone to a place

world

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US / wɜ:ld /

UK / wɜrld /

A1
  • noun
  • All the humans, events, activities on the earth
  • Political division due to some kind of similarity

few

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US / fju: /

UK / fju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Not many, a small number

whole

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US / həul /

UK / hol /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Complete or full; all of
  • Being in a good condition
  • noun
  • Complete amount or sum; total

change

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US / tʃeɪndʒ /

UK / tʃendʒ /

A1
  • noun
  • Exchange of one set of clothes for another
  • Money in the form of coins instead of paper
  • Money returned after giving too much
  • Act of making or becoming something else
  • verb
  • To exchange one set of clothes for another
  • To exchange one kind of money for another
  • To replace something with another thing
  • To make or become something else
  • To go from one train, bus, etc. and go to another

far

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US / fɑ:(r) /

UK / fɑr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A long way away
  • Being a long way away
  • adverb
  • To a large degree or extent

enough

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US / ɪˈnʌf /

UK / ɪˈnʌf /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Sufficient to answer the need
  • adverb
  • To a satisfactory degree
  • pronoun
  • Equal to what is needed; as much as required
  • Adequate number or amount

high

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US / haɪ /

UK / haɪ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Excited or relaxed from taking drugs
  • Being of excellent quality or excellent standards
  • Larger than usual in number, amount or degree
  • Holding an important or powerful position
  • With a sound close to the top of the musical scale
  • Rising upward a great distance
  • adverb
  • At or to a place far above the ground
  • At a great value, amount or price
  • In a way that shows a lot of wealth
  • noun
  • (Weather) area of increased pressure

its

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US / ɪts /

UK / ɪts /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to or belonging to ‘it’
  • determiner
  • Of something; belonging or related to something
  • other
  • Possessive form of “it”

become

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US / bɪ'kʌm /

UK / bɪˈkʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To begin to be; grow to be; develop into
  • To be suitable for a particular job or role

name

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US / neɪm /

UK / nem /

A1
  • noun
  • What something or someone is called
  • verb
  • To state what someone is called, e.g. John

believe

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US / bɪ'li:v /

UK / bɪˈliv /

A1
  • verb
  • To think or accept that something is true
  • To have a particular opinion about something

quite

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US / kwaɪt /

UK / kwaɪt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Not very; fairly
  • Very; In a complete or total manner

question

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US / 'kwestʃən /

UK / ˈkwɛstʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Issue or problems you are dealing with
  • What you ask about; issue
  • verb
  • To ask for or try to get information
  • To have or express concerns or uncertainty

definitely

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US / ˈdefɪnətli /

UK / ˈdefɪnətli /

A2
  • adverb
  • Without question; beyond doubt

open

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US / 'əʊpən /

UK / ˈopən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Available for use; accessible
  • Not being hidden; available for others to see
  • Being available for customers to enter or use
  • Allowing everyone to use or take part in
  • Not secret anymore
  • Not closed or shut
  • Willing to accept new ideas and thoughts
  • noun
  • Name for a tennis or golf competition
  • verb
  • To make accessible or able to be used, e.g. road
  • To start the activities or services of a business
  • To make a space or hole appear in something
  • To move or change so that it is no longer closed
  • To start something, e.g. a new business

sound

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US / saʊnd /

UK / saʊnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Sensible, dependable and reliable
  • Unbroken or undisturbed, as of sleep
  • Firm or solid in structure
  • Sane; not mentally ill
  • Clearly reasoned; involving sense, good judgment
  • noun
  • Unique quality that characterizes a style of music
  • Waves traveling in air or water that can be heard
  • verb
  • To seem or appear to be, from what was said
  • To say in a clear deliberate manner
  • To make a noise, e.g. to ring a bell

problem

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US / ˈprɒbləm /

UK / ˈprɑbləm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Causing trouble
  • noun
  • Something difficult to deal with or causes trouble
  • Question to show understanding of a math concept

care

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US / keə(r) /

UK / kɛr /

A1
  • noun
  • Treatment you receive for your health or safety
  • Something that a person worries about
  • verb
  • To feel interest, concern, or worry
  • To look after someone or something

create

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US / krɪ'eɪt /

UK / kriˈet /

A1
  • verb
  • To make, cause, or bring into existence

line

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US / laɪn /

UK / laɪn /

A1
  • noun
  • Border that divides two places or regions
  • Long crease in the skin, often from age
  • Mark that is long, straight and very thin
  • Row of words, letters or numbers that are written
  • Telephone connection
  • People waiting one behind the other; queue
  • Long thin wire, e.g. for electrical signal
  • verb
  • To put material along the inside of something

absolutely

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US / ˈæbsəlu:tli /

UK / ˈæbsəˌlutli, ˌæbsəˈlutli /

A2
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally; very

behind

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US / bɪˈhaɪnd /

UK / bɪˈhaɪnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a later or slower time than expected
  • Being in a losing position in a sporting event
  • Being in the past; old fashioned
  • adverb
  • Remaining
  • noun
  • The part of the body that one sits on
  • preposition
  • At or toward the back of someone or something
  • Supporting or helping someone

case

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US / keɪs /

UK / kes /

A1
  • noun
  • Container used to carry things, e.g. clothes
  • Set of facts about a crime
  • Set of facts about an event
  • Example or instance of something
  • verb
  • To find out about a place, as in planning to steal

night

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US / naɪt /

UK / naɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Working during the very early morning
  • noun
  • Time when sun does not shine

power

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US / 'paʊə(r) /

UK / ˈpaʊɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Legal or official right to perform certain actions
  • Ability to move forcefully and quickly
  • Energy of something (e.g. electricity or fuel)
  • Mathematical way to multiply a number
  • Condition of being in political control
  • Physical force, energy, and strength
  • verb
  • To give energy to something, e.g. by electricity
  • To move something forcefully and quickly

basically

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US / ˈbeɪsɪkli /

UK / ˈbesɪkəli,-kli /

A2
  • adverb
  • Used before you explain something simply, clearly

order

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US / 'ɔ:də(r) /

UK / ˈɔrdɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Religious or social group, as of nuns
  • Instructions to others to do what you want
  • State in which things are neat and organized
  • What you ask to buy, e.g. food in restaurant
  • Social or political control of an area
  • verb
  • To put things in a sequence, e.g. a, b, c
  • To give instructions to others to do what you want
  • To ask for something you want to buy, e.g. a meal

expect

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US / ɪk'spekt /

UK / ɪkˈspɛkt /

A1
  • verb
  • To believe something is probably going to happen

million

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US / ˈmɪljən /

UK / ˈmɪljən /

A1
  • number
  • 1,000,000

type

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US / taɪp /

UK / taɪp /

A1
  • noun
  • Printed letters or blocks used for printing them
  • Group of things or people sharing common features
  • verb
  • To identify something belonging to a group
  • To write by touching keys on a keyboard

grow

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US / ɡrəʊ /

UK / ɡro /

A1
  • verb
  • To get bigger and more mature; make plants do this
  • To improve; to develop better skills over time
  • To develop and become bigger or taller over time

support

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US / səˈpɔ:t /

UK / səˈpɔrt, -ˈport /

A1
  • noun
  • Assistance or advice given to someone
  • Evidence that helps prove something is true
  • A thing to hold up or prevent from falling down
  • verb
  • To give assistance or advice to someone
  • To help prove or show that something is true
  • To hold up or prevent from falling down

cut

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US / kʌt /

UK / kʌt /

A1
  • noun
  • Act/instance of reducing the size or amount of
  • Small opening made using a sharp object, knife
  • A wound on someone's skin caused by a sharp object
  • verb
  • To reduce the size or amount of something
  • To use knife or scissors to divide, open surfaces

water

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US / 'wɔ:tə(r) /

UK / ˈwɔtɚ, ˈwɑtɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Clear liquid that forms the seas, rivers and rain
  • Large area such as an ocean or sea
  • verb
  • (Of the eyes) to produce tears
  • (Mouth) to become wet at the thought of nice food
  • To pour liquids onto a plant to keep it alive

perfect

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US / 'pɜ:fɪkt /

UK / ˈpɚfɪkt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • So good it cannot be improved
  • verb
  • To do something so well, it cannot be done better

low

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US / ləʊ /

UK / lo /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having a small quantity, supply, or amount
  • Being unhappy or unpleasant in attitude
  • Not high; being near the ground, or bottom
  • (Of a voice, sound) being soft; quiet
  • noun
  • Situation of not having a lot of something

car

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US / kɑ:(r) /

UK / kɑr /

A1
  • noun
  • A vehicle with wheels and engine to carry people

answer

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US / 'ɑ:nsə(r) /

UK / ˈænsɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Reply to a question someone asks
  • Solution to a problem or test question
  • verb
  • To reply to a question someone asks
  • To solve a test question or a problem

young

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US / jʌŋ /

UK / jʌŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • At an early stage of existence; not mature
  • Being recently created or started
  • noun
  • Babies in a group or family of animals

realize

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US / 'ri:əlaɪz /

UK / ˈriəˌlaɪz /

A1
  • verb
  • To become aware of or understand mentally

area

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US / 'eərɪə /

UK / ˈɛriə /

A1
  • noun
  • Amount of measured space
  • A specific section or space; part of a region
  • A subject or field of study

system

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US / 'sɪstəm /

UK / ˈsɪstəm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Working in an organized, logical way
  • noun
  • Set of organized, planned ideas that work together

future

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US / ˈfju:tʃə(r) /

UK / ˈfjutʃɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Time that is to come after the present

issue

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US / 'ɪʃu: /

UK / ˈɪʃu /

A2
  • noun
  • Important topic discussed, debated or argued over
  • Single edition of a magazine
  • verb
  • To make something available to be used or sold
  • To deliver a statement, etc. in an official manner

food

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US / fu:d /

UK / fud /

A1
  • noun
  • What people and animals eat to live
  • Things taken in by plants to maintain life
  • A particular style or type of cooking, e.g. Asian

short

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US / ʃɔ:t /

UK / ʃɔrt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Measuring a small distance
  • Happening for a small amount of time
  • Unfriendly or rude
  • adverb
  • Less than what is needed
  • Suddenly stopping what you are saying or doing
  • noun
  • Burning out of an electric current
  • verb
  • (Of electric circuit) to spark because faulty

term

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US / tɜ:m /

UK / tɚm /

A1
  • noun
  • Conditions applying to an agreement, contract
  • Length of time something is expected to happen
  • Fixed period of weeks for learning at school
  • The (precise) name given to something
  • verb
  • To call; give a name to

excited

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US / ɪkˈsaɪtɪd /

UK / ɪkˈsaɪtɪd /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Happy, interested or eager; enthusiastic
  • verb
  • To make something or someone become more active
  • To make someone feel happy, interested or eager

foot

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US / fʊt /

UK / fʊt /

A1
  • noun
  • Base of something such as a mountain or vase
  • Length of 12 inches or about 25 cm
  • Lowest part of the leg we use to stand on

touch

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US / tʌtʃ /

UK / tʌtʃ /

A1
  • noun
  • Certain way of doing that makes something special
  • A small amount of something
  • Feeling of a surface
  • verb
  • To affect feelings, especially by causing sympathy
  • To be next to each other with no space between
  • To get involved with (used in negative)
  • To feel an object with your fingers, etc.

human

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US / 'hju:mən /

UK / ˈhjumən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning or characteristic of people
  • noun
  • A person; a man, woman or child

space

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US / speɪs /

UK / spes /

A1
  • noun
  • Empty area kept for a specific reason, like a car
  • Empty area with nothing in it
  • Area in the sky where the stars are
  • Area between written words on a page
  • verb
  • To make a certain distance or time between

middle

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US / 'mɪdl /

UK / ˈmidl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Equal distance from extremes
  • noun
  • Place that is halfway between two things

deep

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US / di:p /

UK / dip /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Complex and important
  • Extreme or intense
  • Going far down from the surface
  • Low in pitch, as a sound
  • adverb
  • At a certain distance beneath the surface

fly

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US / flaɪ /

UK / flai /

A1
  • noun
  • Common flying insect, sometimes blue in color
  • Opening with fold of cloth hiding zipper on pants
  • verb
  • To move in the wind, e.g. a flag
  • To move at a high speed
  • To travel in a plane, helicopter, balloon etc.
  • To pilot people or items by plane
  • To travel through the air using wings

spot

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US / spɒt /

UK / spɑt /

A2
  • noun
  • A certain place or area
  • A difficult time; awkward situation
  • Place or ranking on a list
  • A small amount of (substance help hard work etc.)
  • Mark caused by a drop of liquid, food, etc.
  • verb
  • To see someone or something by chance

hundred

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US / 'hʌndrəd /

UK / ˈhʌndrɪd /

A1
  • number
  • 100

offer

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US / 'ɒfə(r) /

UK / ˈɔfɚ, ˈɑfɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Price you say you are willing to pay for something
  • Act of making a thing available to be accepted
  • verb
  • To suggest a price you are willing to pay
  • To give the opportunity to accept something
  • To say you are willing to do something
  • To give or say something as an act of worship

land

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US / lænd /

UK / lænd /

A1
  • noun
  • Region or country
  • Earth; the ground
  • verb
  • To arrive or cause a boat to arrive at the shore
  • To obtain or get something that you wanted
  • To (cause to) come down to the ground safely
  • To cause to arrive in a specific place or state

opportunity

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US / ˌɒpə'tju:nətɪ /

UK / ˌɑpɚˈtunɪti, -ˈtju- /

A2
  • noun
  • Time, situation when a thing might be done; chance

provide

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US / prə'vaɪd /

UK / prəˈvaɪd /

A1
  • verb
  • To make available; to supply for use
  • To make certain something will happen or be done
  • To offer or give something that is wanted, needed

likely

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US / 'laɪklɪ /

UK / ˈlaɪkli /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • With a good chance that a thing will really happen
  • Seeming suitable or good for a particular purpose

increase

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US / ɪn'kri:s /

UK / ɪnˈkris /

A1
  • noun
  • Fact of increasing; amount something grows by
  • verb
  • To make or become larger in size or amount

compare

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US / kəm'peə(r) /

UK / kəmˈpɛr /

A1
  • verb
  • To consider how similar and different things are

massive

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US / ˈmæsɪv /

UK / ˈmæsɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Very big; large; too big

ton

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US / tʌn /

UK / tʌn /

A2
  • noun
  • Unit of weight; 907 kilograms (US); 1016 (UK)

nearly

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US / ˈniəli /

UK / ˈnɪrli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Not completely; almost

develop

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US / dɪ'veləp /

UK / dɪˈvɛləp /

A1
  • verb
  • To explain something in steps and in detail
  • To create or think of something
  • To grow bigger, more complex, or more advanced
  • To make a photograph from film

study

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US / 'stʌdɪ /

UK / ˈstʌdi /

A1
  • noun
  • Room that a person studies or reads in
  • Piece of research
  • Topic or subject you research or learn about
  • verb
  • To focus on learning something usually at school

particular

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US / pəˈtɪkjələ(r) /

UK / pɚˈtɪkjəlɚ, pəˈtɪk- /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • One specific (one)
  • Having firm ideas about what is desirable
  • Being special or more than is typical

energy

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US / 'enədʒɪ /

UK / ˈɛnədʒi /

A2
  • noun
  • Physical or mental strength

easily

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US / ˈi:zəli /

UK / ˈizəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Clearly; without doubt; certainly
  • Without difficulty

general

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US / 'dʒenrəl /

UK / ˈdʒɛnərəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Widespread, normal or usual
  • noun
  • Top ranked officer in the army

improve

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US / ɪm'pru:v /

UK / ɪmˈpruv /

A1
  • verb
  • To make, or become, something better

bed

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US / bed /

UK / bɛd /

A1
  • noun
  • Flat bottom surface of a lake, ocean etc.
  • A piece of furniture that people sleep on
  • An area on which other things are put
  • Area of ground to grow vegetables or flowers
  • verb
  • To have sex with someone
  • To plant, fix, or attach something firmly to

field

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US / fi:ld /

UK / fild /

A1
  • noun
  • Area of study, such as physics or biology
  • Piece of land used to grow crops/raise animals
  • Open area of land, especially without buildings
  • Grassed area where you play some sports
  • verb
  • To respond to something or answer a question
  • To catch or stop a ball during a game

market

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US / ˈmɑ:kɪt /

UK / ˈmɑ:rkɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • Need or demand for a particular product or service
  • Area or region where a certain product is sold
  • Public event where people sell goods on tables
  • Institution where stocks are bought and sold
  • verb
  • To publicize products to get you to buy; advertise

terrible

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US / ˈterəbl /

UK / ˈtɛrəbəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very bad; horrible

attempt

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US / ə'tempt /

UK / əˈtɛmpt /

A2
  • noun
  • Effort made to try to do or accomplish something
  • verb
  • To try to do something challenging or difficult

giant

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US / 'dʒaɪənt /

UK / ˈdʒaɪənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very large, or much bigger than other things
  • noun
  • Tall, large, and powerful human-like creatures
  • Very successful, powerful person or organization

produce

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US / prə'dju:s /

UK / prəˈdus, -ˈdjus, pro- /

A1
  • noun
  • Fresh foods such as fruits and vegetables
  • verb
  • To grow something naturally
  • To make something appear
  • To manufacture something using machines
  • To control the making a movie or television show

exciting

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US / ɪkˈsaɪtɪŋ /

UK / ɪkˈsaɪtɪŋ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Creating interest, happiness or pleasurable fear
  • verb
  • To cause a reaction; make active
  • To make someone feel happy, interested or eager

approach

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US / ə'prəʊtʃ /

UK / əˈprəʊtʃ /

A2
  • noun
  • Means of reaching a place, often a road or path
  • Request of someone with a specific goal in mind
  • Specific way to handle a project, task, problem
  • verb
  • To get close to reaching something or somewhere
  • To request someone to do something specific

cook

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US / kʊk /

UK / kʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • A person who prepares food
  • Person's name
  • verb
  • To heat food until it is ready to eat

unless

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US / ənˈles /

UK / ʌnˈlɛs /

A2
  • conjunction
  • Negative of 'if'

potential

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US / pəˈtenʃl /

UK / pəˈtɛnʃəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Capable of happening or becoming reality

degree

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US / dɪˈgri: /

UK / dɪˈɡri /

A2
  • noun
  • Amount or extent of something
  • Unit for measuring temperature or angles
  • Qualification received after completing university

basic

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US / 'beɪsɪk /

UK / ˈbesɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • At the most important or easiest (beginner) level

introduce

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US / ˌɪntrəˈdju:s /

UK / ˌɪntrəˈdus, -ˈdjus /

A1
  • verb
  • To open an essay to set the scene
  • To guide or explain something, e.g. a town
  • To begin the use of a new thing or practice
  • To make someone known to another by name
  • To insert or put something inside another thing

mix

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US / mɪks /

UK / mɪks /

A2
  • noun
  • A combination of more than two things
  • verb
  • To combine two or more things to make one
  • To meet and get along with others, e.g. at a party

warm

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US / wɔ:m /

UK / wɔrm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Friendly, sincere and kind to others
  • Being friendly or sincere
  • Slightly hot; not very hot
  • verb
  • To become more friendly or to like something
  • To make something hotter

necessarily

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US / ˌnesəˈserəli /

UK / ˌnɛsɪˈsɛrəli, -ˈsɛr- /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a way that is needed/required/is unavoidable

fresh

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US / freʃ /

UK / frɛʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Clean; not used or dirty
  • Remaining clear, as in a person's memory
  • Newly made or gathered
  • (Water) not salty, usually from a lake or a river

research

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US / rɪ'sɜ:tʃ /

UK / rɪˈsɚtʃ, ˈriˌsɚtʃ /

A2
  • noun
  • Study done to discover new ideas and facts
  • Work done to find or discover knowledge
  • verb
  • To study in order to discover new ideas and facts

overall

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US / ˌəʊvər'ɔ:l /

UK / ˈovɚˌrɔl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Viewed as a whole; in general, not as details

plenty

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US / 'plentɪ /

UK / ˈplɛnti /

A2
  • pronoun
  • When there is not too little of something; a lot

source

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US / sɔ:s /

UK / sɔrs, sors /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Produces or provides what is wanted or needed
  • noun
  • Piece of information; a person giving information
  • Place from which something necessary comes
  • verb
  • To get, e.g. a raw material, from somewhere

ourselves

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US / ɑ:ˈselvz /

UK / aʊrˈsɛlvz, ɑr- /

A2
  • pronoun
  • (Showing speaker is affected by their own action)

global

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US / ˈgləʊbl /

UK / ˈgloʊbl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning, involving, affecting all of something
  • Of, affecting, or involving the entire world

replace

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US / rɪ'pleɪs /

UK / rɪˈples /

A2
  • verb
  • To use instead of something else
  • To return an item to its original location

partner

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US / 'pɑ:tnə(r) /

UK / ˈpɑrtnɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • One you have a business/personal relationship with
  • Someone you have personal relationship with
  • verb
  • To join with others for work or other activity

industry

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US / 'ɪndəstrɪ /

UK / ˈɪndəstri /

A1
  • noun
  • Hard work; being busy working
  • Factories or businesses that make certain products

limit

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US / 'lɪmɪt /

UK / ˈlɪmɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Point beyond which it is not possible to go
  • verb
  • To stop or prevent an increase past a point

solution

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US / səˈlu:ʃn /

UK / səˈluʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Mix of a liquid and a solid or a gas
  • Way to solve or deal with a problem

solve

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US / sɒlv /

UK / sɑ:lv /

A2
  • verb
  • To figure out a way to handle a difficult problem

significant

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US / sɪgˈnɪfɪkənt /

UK / sɪɡˈnɪfɪkənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Large enough to be noticed or have an effect
  • Having meaning; important; noticeable
  • (Statistics) being clearly different

gas

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US / ɡæs /

UK / ɡæs /

A2
  • noun
  • Elements in our air, like oxygen or nitrogen
  • Fuel used for cooking, heating houses etc.
  • Liquid you put in your car to drive the engine
  • Air produced by stomach during digestion of food
  • verb
  • To kill or disable someone with poisoned air

ship

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US / ʃɪp /

UK / ʃɪp /

A1
  • noun
  • Large boat
  • verb
  • To transport goods by boat, truck or plane

plant

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US / plɑ:nt /

UK / plænt /

A2
  • noun
  • Factory or a place where things are made
  • Living thing with leaves and roots growing in soil
  • verb
  • To firmly position something (in the ground)
  • To put seeds, flowers, trees in the ground

barely

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US / ˈbɛəli /

UK / ˈbɛrli /

A2
  • adverb
  • Only just; just possible

oil

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US / ɔɪl /

UK / ɔɪl /

A2
  • noun
  • A liquid used for frying foods
  • Thick, black liquid in the ground used as fuel
  • verb
  • To add a liquid for frying foods
  • To put liquid in a machine so it will run smoothly

scientist

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US / ˈsaɪəntɪst /

UK / ˈsaɪəntɪst /

A2
  • noun
  • Person who is trained in a science

battery

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US / ˈbætri /

UK / ˈbætəri /

B1
  • noun
  • Portable device that stores electricity
  • Large group of similar things functioning together

plane

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US / pleɪn /

UK / plen /

A1
  • noun
  • An airplane
  • Flat or level surface
  • Sharp tool for smoothing or shaving wood
  • verb
  • To make wood smooth with a shaving tool

resource

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US / riˈsɔ:s /

UK / ˈriˌsɔrs, -ˌsors, -ˌzɔrs, -ˌzors, rɪˈsɔrs, -ˈsors, /

A2
  • noun
  • Something that can be used profitably; asset
  • An essential supply of something
  • Resourcefulness; ability to deal with problems
  • verb
  • To obtain (e.g. oil, gas) from its source

expand

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US / ɪk'spænd /

UK / ɪkˈspænd /

A2
  • verb
  • To make something larger in size, number, amount

century

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US / 'sentʃərɪ /

UK / ˈsɛntʃəri /

A1
  • noun
  • Period of 100 years

vehicle

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US / ˈvi:əkl /

UK / ˈvi:hɪkl /

A2
  • noun
  • Machine (such as a car) used to carry things
  • Means of expressing, showing, or achieving

flight

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US / flaɪt /

UK / flaɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of leaving a place, usually to escape danger
  • Trip by plane, helicopter etc.

attach

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US / ə'tætʃ /

UK / əˈtætʃ /

A2
  • verb
  • To be associated or connected with

empty

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US / 'emptɪ /

UK / ˈɛmpti /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Containing nothing; with no contents
  • Without emotions, feelings, meaning or force
  • noun
  • Item, e.g. a bottle, whose contents have been used
  • verb
  • To remove the contents from something

america

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US / ə'merɪkə /

UK / əˈmɛrɪkə /

A1
  • noun
  • The United States of America; North America and/or South America

responsible

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US / rɪ'spɒnsəbl /

UK / rɪˈspɑnsəbəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being the cause of something that has occurred
  • Having the duty of dealing with something
  • Able to be trusted to do what needs to be done

fuel

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US / 'fju:əl /

UK / ˈfjuəl /

A2
  • noun
  • Material used to produce heat or power when burned
  • verb
  • To give power to (a mob, anger, etc.); incite
  • To provide gas or petrol for something

truck

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US / trʌk /

UK / trʌk /

A2
  • noun
  • Homegrown vegetables and fruit for sale
  • Large vehicle suitable for transporting things
  • Simple frame with wheels for moving things; cart
  • verb
  • To transport something on a lorry, van

basis

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US / ˈbeɪsɪs /

UK / ˈbesɪs /

A2
  • noun
  • Main ingredient or part of something
  • Starting situation, fact, idea to develop from

length

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US / leŋθ /

UK / leŋθ /

A2
  • noun
  • Distance from one end of a pool to the other
  • Measurement of distance or of time

establish

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US / ɪˈstæblɪʃ /

UK / ɪˈstæblɪʃ /

A2
  • verb
  • To set or create something to last for a long time
  • To use facts, evidence to show truth or clarity

officer

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US / ˈɒfɪsə(r) /

UK / ˈɔ:fɪsə(r) /

B1
  • noun
  • Person of high position in an organization
  • Person of high position in the military

ocean

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US / 'əʊʃn /

UK / ˈoʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Large body of salt water; a large sea

tank

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US / tæŋk /

UK / tæŋk /

B1
  • noun
  • Container for holding liquid or gas
  • Military vehicle that can go over rough areas
  • verb
  • To fail completely or badly
  • To deliberately lose a game or contest

bank

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US / bæŋk /

UK / bæŋk /

A1
  • noun
  • A financial institution that keeps or lends money
  • The side of a river
  • A row of things in lines (e.g. computers)
  • verb
  • To put or keep your money in a bank
  • To turn a plane when flying; (of a plane) to turn

department

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US / dɪˈpɑ:tmənt /

UK / dɪˈpɑ:rtmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Division of a larger part or organization

university

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US / ˌju:nɪ'vɜ:sətɪ /

UK / ˌjunɪˈvɜrsəti /

A1
  • noun
  • High-level educational institution; college

sugar

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US / ˈʃʊgə(r) /

UK / ˈʃʊɡɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Substance which the body stores or uses for energy
  • Amount of sugar contained in a small spoon
  • Used to address someone you like or love
  • White sweet substance used to make foods sweeter
  • verb
  • To add, put on, or mix a food or drink with sugar

estimate

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US / 'estɪmət /

UK / ˈɛstəˌmet /

A2
  • noun
  • Guess or calculation of cost, size or value
  • verb
  • To guess or calculate the cost, size or value of

naturally

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US / ˈnætʃrəli /

UK / ˈnætʃərəli, ˈnætʃrə- /

A2
  • adverb
  • In the expected or usual way
  • Without the aid of someone or something

depth

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US / depθ /

UK / dɛpθ /

A2
  • noun
  • Distance below a surface

native

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US / ˈneɪtɪv /

UK / ˈnetɪv /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Caused by natural ability; innate
  • noun
  • Someone from or born in a specific country
  • Original inhabitant, e.g. before others
  • Person speaking a language from birth

meter

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US / ˈmi:tə(r) /

UK / ˈmitɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of length equal to 100 cm or about 39 inches
  • Device for measuring things e.g. gas
  • Device to put money into to rent a parking place
  • Rhythm of a poem
  • verb
  • To measure water, etc. when it has to be paid for

contribute

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US / kən'trɪbju:t /

UK / kənˈtrɪbjut /

A2
  • verb
  • To be a factor in causing something to happen
  • To donate, give (money) or help to something
  • To write articles for a magazine or newspaper

climate

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US / ˈklaɪmət /

UK / ˈklaɪmɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Typical weather conditions in a particular place

chief

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US / tʃi:f /

UK / tʃif /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • The one highest in authority or importance
  • noun
  • Leader of a race or group of people
  • The one highest in authority or importance

liquid

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US / ˈlɪkwɪd /

UK / ˈlɪkwɪd /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • (Of wealth) being able to be spent as cash
  • In a state of being uncertain
  • Moving in a flowing manner, like water or oil
  • noun
  • Something that is similar to the state of water

application

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US / ˌæplɪˈkeɪʃn /

UK / ˌæplɪˈkeʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Software program, e.g. for smart phone
  • Process of spreading a substance over a surface
  • The specific use of a machine, idea, or discovery
  • Request for job, building permission etc.

investment

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US / ɪnˈvestmənt /

UK / ɪnˈvɛstmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Something purchased hoping its value will increase
  • Act of giving time, energy to see a future reward

phase

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US / feɪz /

UK / fez /

A2
  • noun
  • Different stages of the moon from new to full
  • Distinct part or step in a process
  • One stage of a process or series of stages
  • verb
  • To make happen in a gradual ordered way

seed

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US / si:d /

UK / sid /

B1
  • noun
  • A person's children; offspring
  • Part of a plant used to grow more on them
  • Source of a feeling or thought
  • Top-ranked person in a competition, e.g. in tennis
  • verb
  • (Of plants) to produce seeds for the future
  • To produce seeds, as a plant
  • To remove the center part from a fruit or vegetable
  • To be the source of a feeling or thought
  • To plant seeds in the ground

researcher

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US / rɪ'sɜ:tʃə(r) /

UK / rɪˈsətʃɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Someone who works to find new facts and ideas

farm

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US / fɑ:m /

UK / fɑ:rm /

A1
  • noun
  • Land used for growing crops or raising animals
  • verb
  • To use land for raising plants or animals for food

absorb

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US / əb'sɔ:b /

UK / əbˈsɔrb, -ˈzɔrb /

B1
  • verb
  • To take up all attention / energy of something
  • To take in a liquid; soak up

carbon

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US / 'kɑ:bən /

UK / ˈkɑrbən /

B1
  • noun
  • Chemical element with an atomic number of 6

bind

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US / baɪnd /

UK / baɪnd /

A2
  • verb
  • To cover a wound, as with a bandage
  • To put pages and a cover together to create a book
  • To be limited by a law, agreement, or contract
  • To join people who share something into a group
  • To wrap something with rope

technical

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US / ˈteknɪkl /

UK / ˈtɛknɪkəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Complex; difficult to understand
  • Of practical use of machine/science in industry

jet

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US / dʒet /

UK / dʒɛt /

B1
  • noun
  • Stream of liquid/gas shooting out of small opening
  • (Of liquid, gas) to shoot out of a small opening
  • A pipe that water or gas goes through
  • Hard, black, usually shiny stone
  • verb
  • (Of liquid, gas) to shoot out of a small opening
  • To travel on a jet plane

transport

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US / ˈtrænspɔ:t /

UK / ˈtrænspɔ:rt /

A2
  • noun
  • Very strong uncontrollable emotion, e.g. delight
  • Vehicle used to take soldiers to other places
  • verb
  • To carry things from one place to another
  • To cause to feel you are in a previous time

facility

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US / fəˈsɪləti /

UK / fəˈsɪlɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • Piece of equipment or buildings with a special use
  • Skill to do something with ease

broad

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US / brɔ:d /

UK / brɔd /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • General; not detailed
  • Wide; from the shorter two sides to the other

tremendous

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US / trəˈmendəs /

UK / trɪˈmɛndəs /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Very good or very impressive

professor

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US / prəˈfesə(r) /

UK / prəˈfɛsɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Teacher who teaches at a college or university

worldwide

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US / ˈwɜ:ldwaɪd /

UK / ˈwɚldˈwaɪd /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Spanning or extending throughout the entire world
  • adverb

vacation

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US / vəˈkeɪʃn /

UK / veˈkeʃən, və- /

A1
  • noun
  • Time off work used for relaxation or travel
  • verb
  • To take or spend time on holiday

propose

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US / prə'pəʊz /

UK / prəˈpoz /

A2
  • verb
  • To make an offer of marriage
  • To offer or put forward an idea for consideration

southern

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US / ˈsʌðən /

UK / ˈsʌðərn /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a region in the south
  • Being in or toward the south

crop

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US / krɒp /

UK / krɑp /

B1
  • noun
  • Plants grown on a farm for food, e.g. corn or rice
  • Section of short, thick hair
  • verb
  • To cut something to a shorter length or size

mainstream

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US / ˈmeɪnstri:m /

UK / ˈmenˌstrim /

C2
  • adjecitve
  • considered normal, and having or using ideas, beliefs, etc. that are accepted by most people
  • noun
  • Prevailing current of thought

thrive

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US / θraɪv /

UK / θraɪv /

B2
  • verb
  • To be or become healthy or successful

convenient

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US / kənˈvi:niənt /

UK / kənˈvinjənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Allowing you to do something with less trouble

neutral

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US / ˈnju:trəl /

UK / ˈnu:trəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Something with pH value of 7
  • Having no positive or negative electrical charge
  • Not supporting either side in a war, etc.
  • Not taking either side in a debate; not involved
  • noun
  • Color that is dull and not bright, such as gray
  • The rest position for gears in a car or vehicle
  • Person/country not supporting a side in a war, etc.

airplane

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US / ˈeəpleɪn /

UK / ˈɛrˌplen /

B1
  • noun
  • A machine that flies through the air

variation

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US / ˌveəriˈeɪʃn /

UK / ˌvɛriˈeʃən, ˈvær- /

A2
  • noun
  • Something almost the same as another but different
  • Music played with a different tune from another

environmental

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US / ɪnˌvaɪrənˈmentl /

UK / ɛnˌvaɪrənˈmɛntl:, -ˌvaɪən /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of the natural world of plants and animals

drone

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US / drəʊn /

UK / dron /

B2
  • noun
  • A remote controlled flying device
  • A continually dull or monotonous voice
  • Male bee
  • verb
  • To talk in a continually dull or monotonous voice

california

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US / ˌkælɪ'fɔ:njə, -'fɔ:ni:ə /

UK / ˌkælɪ'fɔ:rnjəˌ -'fɔ:rni:ə /

A1
  • noun
  • A state in the western United States on the Pacific; the rd largest state; known for earthquakes

japan

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US / dʒəˈpæn /

UK / dʒəˈpæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A string of more than islands to the east of Asia
  • Lacquer with a durable glossy black finish, originally from the orient
  • Lacquerware decorated and varnished in the Japanese manner with a glossy durable black lacquer
  • verb
  • Coat with a lacquer, as done in Japan

corn

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US / kɔ:n /

UK / kɔrn /

B1
  • noun
  • Small, painful hard spot on the foot
  • Plant with many yellow seeds used as food

soil

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US / sɔɪl /

UK / sɔɪl /

B1
  • noun
  • Conditions in which something develops
  • Mix of natural material in which plants grow
  • Land of a certain country
  • verb
  • To get or become dirty

staple

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US / ˈsteɪpl /

UK / ˈstepəl /

B2
  • noun
  • Main food of a particular community
  • A basic food that is eaten all the time
  • Primary product of a place or company
  • verb
  • To pin together using a machine and bent wire

aircraft

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US / ˈɛəkrɑ:ft /

UK / ˈɛrˌkræft /

C2
  • noun
  • Vehicle that can fly

substitute

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US / 'sʌbstɪtju:t /

UK / ˈsʌbstɪˌtut, -ˌtjut /

B2
  • noun
  • A person or thing acting in place of another
  • verb
  • To perform the tasks instead of someone else
  • To replace one person or thing for another

harvest

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US / ˈhɑ:vɪst /

UK / ˈhɑ:rvɪst /

B1
  • noun
  • Gathering crops from the fields; the crops
  • The time of year to bring crops in from the fields
  • verb
  • To gather ripe crops in from the fields

anchor

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US / 'æŋkə(r) /

UK / ˈæŋkɚ /

B2
  • noun
  • Metal hook on a rope used to stop boats moving
  • Person who presents a news program on TV
  • verb
  • To lower an anchor to hold a boat or ship in place

transportation

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US / ˌtrænspɔ:ˈteɪʃn /

UK / ˌtrænspɔ:rˈteɪʃn /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of moving people or goods between places

marine

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US / mə'ri:n /

UK / məˈrin /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Of the ocean or ocean plants and animals
  • Concerning sailing or doing business by sea
  • noun
  • Soldier trained to serve on land and sea

brian

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US / ˈbraɪən /

UK / ˈbraɪən /

A1

sunlight

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US / ˈsʌnlaɪt /

UK / ˈsʌnˌlaɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Rays of light coming from the sun

fossil

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US / 'fɒsl /

UK / ˈfɑsəl /

B1
  • noun
  • Plant or animal that became rock after many years

lower

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US / 'ləʊə(r) /

UK / ˈlaʊɚ, laʊr /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • In a position more near the bottom
  • verb
  • To move something downward to the ground

airline

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US / ˈeəlaɪn /

UK / ˈerlaɪn /

A2
  • noun
  • Company that flies passengers in its planes

emission

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US / iˈmɪʃn /

UK / ɪˈmɪʃən /

B2
  • noun
  • A substance (e.g. gas) released into the air

conventional

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US / kən'venʃənl /

UK / kənˈvɛnʃənəl /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Following the common attitudes and practices

density

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US / ˈdensəti /

UK / ˈdɛnsɪti /

C1
  • noun
  • Degree to which an area is filled or covered

shipping

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US / ˈʃɪpɪŋ /

UK / ˈʃɪpɪŋ /

B1
  • noun
  • Business of transporting goods or orders to places
  • verb
  • To transport goods by boat, truck or plane

nutrient

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US / ˈnju:triənt /

UK / ˈnutriənt /

B1
  • noun
  • A chemical living things needs to be healthy

farming

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US / ˈfɑ:miŋ /

UK / ˈfɑrmɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of growing crops or raising animals
  • verb
  • To use land for raising plants or animals for food

bathe

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US / beɪð /

UK / beð /

B1
  • verb
  • To be covered completely in something, e.g. light
  • To swim at the beach or in a river
  • To wash yourself or others in a bath

abstract

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US / 'æbstrækt /

UK / ˈæbˌstrækt /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning something that doesn't exist physically
  • noun
  • Passage of text from an article or book
  • Something that doesn't exist physically
  • Short summary of an academic article
  • verb
  • To take out or remove a part of
  • To summarize an academic article

efficiently

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US / ɪ'fɪʃntlɪ /

UK / ɪˈfɪʃəntlɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a way that does not create waste

globally

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US / 'ɡləʊbəlɪ /

UK / 'ɡloʊbəlɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • Throughout the world

laboratory

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US / lə'bɒrətrɪ /

UK / ˈlæbrəˌtɔri, -ˌtori /

B1
  • noun
  • A place to do scientific experiments

biology

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US / baɪˈɒlədʒi /

UK / baɪˈɑlədʒi /

A2
  • noun
  • The study of living things

patent

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US / ˈpætnt /

UK / ˈpætnt /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • (E.g. of a lie) clear and obvious what it is
  • noun
  • Legal protection for inventions or ideas
  • verb
  • To obtain legal protection for inventions or ideas

tow

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US / təʊ /

UK / to /

B2
  • noun
  • Pulling another vehicle; being pulled thus
  • verb
  • To pull a vehicle with ropes using another vehicle

abundance

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US / əˈbʌndəns /

UK / əˈbʌndəns /

B2
  • noun
  • Quantity that is very large or more than enough

diesel

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US / ˈdi:zl /

UK / ˈdizəl, -səl /

B1
  • noun
  • Heavy mineral oil used for power engines

reuse

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US / ˌri:'ju:z /

UK / riˈjuz /

B1
  • verb
  • To use something again

rethink

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US / ˌri:ˈθɪŋk /

UK / riˈθɪŋk /

A2
  • verb
  • To reconsider or think again about something

greenhouse

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US / 'ɡri:nhaʊs /

UK / ˈɡrinˌhaʊs /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Greenhouse gas that makes the Earth get warmer
  • noun
  • Glass building used for growing plants

supplement

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US / 'sʌplɪmənt /

UK / ˈsʌpləmənt /

B1
  • noun
  • Added extra to support or make something complete
  • Vitamins, etc. added to diet for health reasons
  • Additional section, e.g. of a newspaper
  • verb
  • To add extra to support or make something complete

asia

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US / ˈeɪʒə /

UK / ˈeɪʒə /

A1
  • noun
  • Largest continent with Europe on the west to form Eurasia
  • other
  • Nations of the Asian continent collectively

adequate

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US / ˈædɪkwət /

UK / ˈædɪkwɪt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Enough; good enough for what is needed

dent

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US / dent /

UK / dɛnt /

B2
  • noun
  • Place on a car, etc. where it has been pushed in
  • verb
  • To make a depression on a (metal) surface

congratulate

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US / kən'grætjʊˌleɪt /

UK / kənˈɡrætʃəˌlet, -ˈɡrædʒ-, kəŋ- /

B2
  • verb
  • To say 'well done' to if a good thing happened

submarine

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US / ˌsʌbməˈri:n /

UK / ˈsʌbməˌrin, ˌsʌbməˈrin /

B2
  • noun
  • Ship that travels above and below the sea

agriculture

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US / ˈægrɪkʌltʃə(r) /

UK / ˈæɡrɪˌkʌltʃɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • The science of farming

contributor

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US / kənˈtrɪbjətə(r) /

UK / kən'trɪbjʊtə /

A2
  • noun
  • Someone who gives money to cause, charity

agricultural

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US / ˌæɡrɪ'kʌltʃərəl /

UK / ˌæɡrɪ'kʌltʃərəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning farming, or the land

abundant

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US / əˈbʌndənt /

UK / əˈbʌndənt /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Being in very great supply; plentiful

crude

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US / kru:d /

UK / krud /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Lacking manners or finesse; rude

molecular

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US / mə'lekjələ(r) /

UK / məˈlɛkjəlɚ /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • About or caused by molecules

aviation

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US / ˌeɪviˈeɪʃn /

UK / ˌeviˈeʃən,ˌævi- /

B2
  • noun
  • Science or practice of flying aircraft

northeast

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US / 'nɔ:θ'i:st /

UK / nɔrθˈist, nɔrˈist /

C2
  • noun
  • Location in the northeastern part of an area

drawback

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US / ˈdrɔ:bæk /

UK / ˈdrɔˌbæk /

B2
  • noun
  • A disadvantage or problem

meanwhile

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US / ˈmi:nwaɪl /

UK / ˈminˌhwaɪl, -ˌwaɪl /

A2
  • adverb
  • At or during the same time; in the meantime
  • noun
  • Period of time while something else is happening

ferment

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US / 'fɜ:ment /

UK / fɚˈmɛnt /

B2
  • verb
  • To go through a chemical change to make alcohol

feasible

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US / ˈfi:zəbl /

UK / ˈfizəbəl /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Possible; that you can believe will work/succeed

genome

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US / ˈdʒi:nəʊm /

UK / ˈdʒi:noʊm /

B2
  • noun
  • Complete set of genetic material in an organism

fertilizer

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US / ˈfɜ:təlaɪzə(r) /

UK / ˈfɚtlˌaɪzɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Substance added to soil to help plants grow

algae

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US / ˈældʒi: /

UK / ˈældʒi /

B2
  • noun
  • Green organisms that live in still water

propulsion

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US / prəˈpʌlʃn /

UK / prəˈpʌlʃən /

C1
  • noun
  • Forward movement often under power

pesticide

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US / ˈpestɪsaɪd /

UK / ˈpɛstɪˌsaɪd /

B2
  • noun
  • A chemical substance used to kill pests

terrestrial

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US / tə'restrɪəl /

UK / təˈrɛstriəl /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the earth; not of, in the air or space
  • noun
  • Person who lives on earth; not an alien
  • other
  • Concerning the earth; not of, in the air or space

irritation

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US / ˌɪrɪ'teɪʃn /

UK / ˌɪrɪˈteʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Feeling or state of being annoyed or upset
  • Something that disturbs, angers, or upsets someone
  • Feeling of pain and soreness on a part of the body

petroleum

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US / pə'trəʊlɪəm /

UK / pəˈtroliəm /

B2
  • noun
  • Oil found in the ground used to make fuel

domesticate

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US / də'mestɪkeɪt /

UK / dəˈmɛstɪˌket /

C1
  • verb
  • To train an animal as a pet or to do work; tame
  • To breed a plant to be used or consumed by humans
  • To train to behave appropriately inside a home

computation

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US / ˌkɒmpjuˈteɪʃn /

UK / ˌkɑmpjʊˈteʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of calculating; method of computing

sergei

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US / sɜːˈgeɪ /

UK / sərˈgeɪ /

A1

breeder

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US / ˈbri:də(r) /

UK / ˈbridɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Person who breeds animals

kelp

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US / kelp /

UK / kɛlp /

C2
  • noun
  • Large brown seaweed with fluted leathery fronds

cindy

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US / ˈsɪndə(r) /

UK / ˈsɪndɚ /

A1

ethanol

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US / ˈeθənɒl /

UK / ˈeθənoʊl /

A1
  • noun
  • Alcohol especially when it is used as a fuel

methanol

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US / ˈmeθənɒl /

UK / ˈmeθənɔːl /

C1
  • noun
  • Light flammable poisonous liquid alcohol

biofuel

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US / ˈbaɪəʊfjuːəl /

UK / ˈbaɪoʊfjuːəl /

C2
  • noun
  • Fuel created from plants, etc.

usc

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US / /

UK / /

A1
  • abbreviation
  • USC is an acronym

alta

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US / ˈɑltə /

UK / /

A1
  • abbreviation
  • Alberta.

airbus

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US / 'eəbʌs /

UK / 'erbʌs /

C2
  • noun
  • Jet airliner build by the Airbus Group

feedstock

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US / 'fi:dstɒk /

UK / 'fi:dstɒk /

C2
  • noun
  • Raw material required for some industrial process

wilcox

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US / ˈwɪlkɑks /

UK / /

A1

bioenergy

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US / bi':əʊnədʒɪ /

UK / bi':oʊnədʒɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Renewable energy produced by living organisms.
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • Could giant kelp power our planes? - BBC News
    Global warming has been a long-standing issue that many young people are not fully aware of. As a result, there is a pressing need to replace oil and gas as primary sources of energy. If we fail to make this transition, global warming will continue to have devastating effects on our planet. Although I still want to enjoy the convenience of traveling by car, ordering goods, and taking vacations by plane, it is crucial that we find sustainable alternatives to petroleum. The aviation industry is a significant contributor to climate change, accounting for almost 2.5% of greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. While this may seem like an abstract figure, the carbon intensity of flying makes it one of the most environmentally damaging activities.
    However, it is not flying itself that is the problem. The main concern lies in the type of fuels used by planes, primarily fossil fuels. This has sparked interest in exploring alternative options, such as algae fuel. Many believe that algae could be the solution to reducing the airline industry's impact on climate change. In order to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius by the end of this century, we must fundamentally rethink how we power our planes.
    The Alta C facility, in collaboration with the University of Southern California, is at the forefront of researching the kelp genome and developing different variations of kelp. They aim to grow kelp as a feedstock for carbon-neutral fuel production. Brian Wilcox, the Chief Technical Officer of Marine Bioenergy, has extensive experience in this field, having worked at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for 38 years. His company specializes in creating systems for farming kelp in the open ocean.
    Contrary to popular belief, kelp does not naturally grow in the vast open ocean. It requires nutrients and a surface to attach itself to. To overcome this, open ocean farms employ the use of long lines towed by drone submarines. These farms take advantage of the abundant sunlight and uninhabited space in the open ocean.
    The potential of kelp as an alternative energy source for aviation is indeed exciting. By harnessing the power of kelp, we have the opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the aviation industry significantly. However, further research and development are necessary to ensure the scalability and viability of this solution. The journey towards sustainable aviation is underway, and kelp may play a pivotal role in powering our planes in the future.
  • Subtitles section
  • A lot of young people don't realize that global warming has been a terrible issue for a very long time.
  • We need to replace oil and gas as a source of energy.
  • If we don't do it, global warming will take care of us, unless we take care of global warming.
  • I want to still take vacations in my car, and I still want to order things and get on planes, but I also want the petroleum to be replaced, and the question is, how are we going to do that?
  • The airline industry is a fast-growing contributor to climate change.
  • Globally, aviation is responsible for nearly 2.5% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions.
  • 2.5% sounds quite abstract, but on a minute-to-minute basis, it's one of the most carbon-intensive things that you can do.
  • It's not necessarily flying that's the problem, it's the type of fuels that planes use.
  • Fossil fuels.
  • Some people think algae could be the solution.
  • If we're really going to limit climate change to 1.5 degrees C by the end of this century, we are going to need to rethink how we power our planes.
  • Well, we're here at the Alta C facility, where our USC partners from the University of Southern California are doing the research on the kelp genome, and they're creating different variations of kelps.
  • And we are attempting to grow kelp as a feedstock to make fuels that are carbon neutral.
  • My name is Brian Wilcox, and I worked at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for 38 years.
  • Today, I am the Chief Technical Officer of Marine Bioenergy, and we create systems for farming kelp in the middle of the ocean.
  • Kelp doesn't naturally grow out there in the open ocean.
  • It needs nutrients, and it needs a place to attach its anchor.
  • So the open ocean farms will tow long lines behind drone submarines.
  • That's exciting.
  • There's plenty of sunlight out there and plenty of empty space.
  • The drone submarines take the kelp down at night to the deep water, and kelp absorbs the nutrients that are in the deep water, and they're very abundant.
  • My name is Cindy Wilcox.
  • I'm with Marine Bioenergy.
  • I'm a co-founder.
  • We're working to grow millions of tons of kelp.
  • This facility is developed to try to do research on different ocean-related issues, and we found it a very convenient spot for domesticating giant kelp.
  • So you see giant kelps right over there.
  • The depth here is about 40 feet.
  • So those are quite big plants doing very well here.
  • My name is Sergei Nuzhdin.
  • I work for University of Southern California, professor in molecular computation and marine environmental biology.
  • We are domesticating kelp to make it into a perfect biofuel crop with support of Department of Energy.
  • Kelp is very good for biofuels in general because it can be made in great abundance.
  • Today, all feedstocks are grown on land, so that could be corn for making corn ethanol.
  • We absolutely congratulate the corn people.
  • They've shown us the way.
  • They're helping us replace our fuels with corn ethanol, and that's great, but we're not going to be able to replace all the fuel with food crops because it's taking too much land, too much fresh water.
  • So by growing kelp, where we don't need land, we don't need fresh water, it gives us a whole other resource.
  • Researchers estimate we need about 0.5% of the world's oceans to grow enough algae to power all our long-haul vehicles and flights worldwide.
  • Kelp has very broad applications.
  • Kelp can be used for producing of methanol, and methanol can replace diesel fuel.
  • Kelp can be used for human food.
  • To sugar kelp, this is what in Asia and in Northeast America, they use as staple food.
  • This is what we want to introduce into our seed bank to be able to use as human food.
  • One of the areas that really needs liquid fuels is long-haul transportation.
  • Right now, airplanes are being fueled by reused cooking oil, but it turns out it's barely touching the problem.
  • So we need feedstocks to support aviation, to support long-haul shipping, trucks, and the kelp can really come in and help support those industries.
  • Batteries are not adequate to do long-range jet transport and very likely will never be able to do because the energy density in a battery just isn't high enough compared to a liquid fuel.
  • So a liquid fuel is a tremendous thing, not only for jets, but also ships and trucks and so on.
  • Kelp offers a way to do that because you can ferment kelp easily into ethanol, basically a crude oil substitute.
  • All of those are quite feasible with kelp, but no one has been growing enough kelp to make a significant dent in the market.
  • And we propose to grow so much kelp that we can replace all the oil used for not only airplanes, but also ships and trucks.
  • So what would it take to grow enough algae to power our planes?
  • Kelp can grow, you know, one to two feet a day.
  • In our case, we expect to harvest it when it gets to 20 meters of length.
  • So 20 meters is like 70 feet long and it grows that long in 90 days and then you cut it back and then it grows again.
  • So our patented approach is to take the kelp down every night and bathe them in the nutrient-rich water.
  • It's only a few hundred meters down, so you don't have to go very far to get to these nutrients and then we bring them back.
  • And so in the first phase of our government-funded study, we did that and we showed that the kelp thrives more than the kelp in the native kelp beds.
  • We established tank systems in which kelp can grow efficiently.
  • If we use kelps as fertilizer to soils, we will be able to increase carbon irritation in the soil that might contribute to solving global warming problems.
  • Well, our biggest drawback right now is that there's very little investment in this field and people are getting excited about the investment opportunities in marine farming in general and kelp in particular.
  • But it takes a long time for people to come to realize that they need to move from terrestrial agriculture to ocean-based agriculture in order to solve the world's problem of not having enough feedstock.
  • Kelp could definitely become a mainstream fuel source.
  • There's plenty of space in the ocean and right now we're only replacing about 20% of the petroleum.
  • We've still got 80% to go and we need a massive area to grow feedstocks and the oceans provide that massive area.
  • Kelp takes no fresh water, no agricultural land, no pesticides.
  • We're very excited about it.
  • It can help supplement the fuel industry for hundreds of years to come.
  • So there's lots of opportunity.
  • I do believe that kelp has a future and I do see a space for ourselves as breeders, as genomicists and basic scientists to help our world to domesticate kelp and use it for improving our lives.
  • I just believe that it will happen and I want to be a part of it.
  • Some parts of the aviation industry are already seeing the potential of algae-based fuel.
  • Airbus showed that it could fly its aircraft using algae back in 2010 and now it's working on different ways to grow its algae.
  • Meanwhile, Japan is looking to expand its use of algae biofuels by mixing it with used cooking oil or with conventional jet fuel to lower its overall emissions.
  • But replacing fossil fuels with algae isn't going to be enough to cut aviation's emissions.
  • In the short term, rethinking where and how much we fly is bound to be part of the answer too.