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DR Congo's journey into chaos - BBC News

Video vocabulary

control

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US / kən'trəʊl /

UK / kənˈtrol /

A1
  • noun
  • A device designed to operate a machine
  • Participant in experiment that is left untouched
  • Act to dominate or command; make manageable
  • A law limiting the growth or spread of something
  • A place which overseas or manages e.g. a factory
  • verb
  • To direct or influence the behavior of something

face

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US / feɪs /

UK / fes /

A1
  • noun
  • Side or outer surface of something
  • An expression using mouth, nose, eyes etc.
  • Front part of the head where eyes, mouth etc. are
  • Characteristics you show in public
  • verb
  • To cover a surface with something like paint
  • To deal with a problem or responsibilities
  • To look toward; point in a certain direction

rebel

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US / 'rebl /

UK / rɪˈbɛl /

B1
  • noun
  • Person who fights against established government
  • Person who insists on doing things their way
  • verb
  • To fight against an established government/power
  • To resist and fight against existing authority

line

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US / laɪn /

UK / laɪn /

A1
  • noun
  • Border that divides two places or regions
  • Long crease in the skin, often from age
  • Mark that is long, straight and very thin
  • Row of words, letters or numbers that are written
  • Telephone connection
  • People waiting one behind the other; queue
  • Long thin wire, e.g. for electrical signal
  • verb
  • To put material along the inside of something

nation

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US / 'neɪʃn /

UK / ˈneʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Area or region controlled by a government and army

struggle

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US / 'strʌɡl /

UK / ˈstrʌɡəl /

A2
  • noun
  • Strong efforts made to do something difficult
  • verb
  • To try very hard to do something difficult

crime

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US / kraɪm /

UK / kraɪm /

A2
  • noun
  • Act that is believed to be a mistake or foolish
  • Act that is against the law; murder, theft etc.

die

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US / daɪ /

UK / daɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Cube with dots numbering 1-6 on it used in games
  • verb
  • To cease to function or work
  • (Of a thing) to stop being used or done
  • (Of a person) to stop living

protest

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US / 'prəʊtest /

UK / ˈproʊtɛst /

A2
  • noun
  • Forceful argument against something
  • Objection to something
  • verb
  • To argue against something in a forceful way
  • To express a strong objection or dislike

soil

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US / sɔɪl /

UK / sɔɪl /

B1
  • noun
  • Conditions in which something develops
  • Mix of natural material in which plants grow
  • Land of a certain country
  • verb
  • To get or become dirty

start

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US / stɑ:t /

UK / stɑrt /

A1
  • noun
  • First time or place that a thing exists; beginning
  • First opportunity to achieve something, e.g. a job
  • Sudden action or movement because you are scared
  • other
  • Beginning of something in place or time
  • verb
  • To do, be or happen for the first time; begin
  • To turn something on

door

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US / dɔ:(r) /

UK / dɔr,dor /

A1
  • noun
  • You walk through this when you go in a room

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

commodity

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US / kə'mɒdətɪ /

UK / kəˈmɑdɪti /

B1
  • noun
  • Something useful or valuable, usually for sale

sexual

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US / ˈsekʃuəl /

UK / ˈsɛkʃuəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Relating to men and women and their relationships
  • Of the physical activity that can produce babies

through

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US / θru: /

UK / θru /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • having finished using or doing something
  • adverb
  • From the beginning of something until the end
  • preposition
  • Over, in, across an entire thing or place
  • Allowing you to pass between, or to
  • By a particular way or process; by the use of

why

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US / waɪ /

UK / hwaɪ, waɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Question word to ask for a reason
  • exclamation
  • (Used to express surprise or approval)

worth

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US / wɜ:θ /

UK / wɚθ /

A2
  • other
  • the financial, practical or moral value of somebody/something
  • having a particular value, especially in money

border

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US / 'bɔ:də(r) /

UK / ˈbɔrdɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Outer part or edge of something
  • Line separating one country, state from another
  • verb
  • To be right next to another country or state
  • To form the edge of something
  • To form the edge of (road, etc.)

corrupt

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US / kə'rʌpt /

UK / kəˈrʌpt /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being damaged or spoiled
  • Misusing power, as by taking bribes, to get rich
  • verb
  • To persuade someone to act illegal or immorally
  • To cause to become damaged or spoiled
  • To lack integrity or be dishonest

under

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US / ˈʌndə(r) /

UK / ˈʌndɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In the same place as another thing, but lower
  • adverb
  • In a lower quantity or price than expected
  • preposition
  • According to the terms of an agreement or law
  • Managed or controlled by the authority of
  • Being of a lesser quality or amount than expected
  • Influenced or affected by something or someone
  • Less or lower in age, amount, size or number

vehicle

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US / ˈvi:əkl /

UK / ˈvi:hɪkl /

A2
  • noun
  • Machine (such as a car) used to carry things
  • Means of expressing, showing, or achieving

exploit

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US / ɪk'splɔɪt /

UK / ɪkˈsplɔɪt /

B1
  • noun
  • Personal journey or series of events
  • verb
  • To selfishly take advantage of or treat badly
  • To use something in a very effective manner

dictatorship

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US / ˌdɪkˈteɪtəʃɪp /

UK / dɪkˈtetɚˌʃɪp, ˈdɪkˌte- /

B1
  • noun
  • Form of government with an absolute rules
  • Country ruled by or as if by a dictator

such

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US / sʌtʃ /

UK / sʌtʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Being similar to
  • (Thing) as previously stated or referred to
  • adverb
  • (Used to emphasize the quality of an adjective)

rich

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US / rɪtʃ /

UK / rɪtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having a lot of money or valuable possessions
  • Containing a lot of exciting events or experiences and therefore very interesting
  • (of a color, sound, smell, etc.) Pleasantly deep or strong
  • If food is rich, it contains a large amount of oil, butter, eggs, or cream.

rip

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US / rɪp /

UK / rɪp /

B1
  • noun
  • A long tear in something, e.g. a piece of cloth
  • verb
  • To tear or split roughly or cause to tear or split
  • To become torn, opened, or split apart forcefully
  • To remove or take by pulling it forcefully

aid

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US / eɪd /

UK / ed /

A2
  • noun
  • Action of giving help to others
  • Money or help given to those who need it
  • verb
  • To help others and provide things

joseph

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US / ˈdʒəuzif /

UK / ˈdʒozəf, -səf /

A1
  • noun
  • (New Testament) Husband of Mary and (in Christian belief)
  • other
  • Leader of the Nez Perce in their retreat from United States troops

never

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US / 'nevə(r) /

UK / ˈnɛvɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Not ever; not at any time

opposition

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US / ˌɒpəˈzɪʃn /

UK / ˌɑ:pəˈzɪʃn /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of disagreeing or trying to stop something
  • Group that you are fighting or competing against

suffering

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US / ˈsʌfərɪŋ /

UK / ˈsʌfərɪŋ, ˈsʌfrɪŋ /

A2
  • noun
  • Experience of pain, illness or injury
  • verb
  • To experience pain, illness, or injury

always

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US / 'ɔ:lweɪz /

UK / ˈɔlwez,-wɪz,-wiz /

A1
  • adverb
  • For a very long time
  • At all times; in every situation
  • For ever

describe

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US / dɪ'skraɪb /

UK / dɪˈskraɪb /

A1
  • verb
  • To tell the appearance, sound, smell of something

many

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US / 'menɪ /

UK / ˈmɛni /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer a large number of things

independence

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US / ˌɪndɪ'pendəns /

UK / ˌɪndɪˈpɛndəns /

A2
  • noun
  • Having the freedom to make your own decisions

plunder

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US / 'plʌndə(r) /

UK / ˈplʌndɚ /

C1
  • noun
  • Things taken violently or by force
  • verb
  • To take steal forcefully and unlawfully in wartime

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

divide

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US / dɪ'vaɪd /

UK / dɪˈvaɪd /

A2
  • verb
  • To split numbers by another number, e.g. 6 / 2 = 3
  • To separate something into equal pieces

million

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US / ˈmɪljən /

UK / ˈmɪljən /

A1
  • number
  • 1,000,000

violence

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US / ˈvaɪələns /

UK / ˈvaɪələns /

B1
  • noun
  • Strong physical force of nature
  • Use of physical force to harm someone

reality

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US / rɪ'ælətɪ /

UK / riˈælɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • What is true, as opposed to what is imagined

population

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US / ˌpɒpjuˈleɪʃn /

UK / ˌpɑpjəˈleʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Number of people who live in a country, area etc.

visit

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US / ˈvɪzɪt /

UK / ˈvɪzɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • Trip to a place for a time, usually for a reason
  • verb
  • To go to a place for a time, usually for a reason

story

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US / 'stɔ:rɪ /

UK / ˈstɔri, ˈstori /

A1
  • noun
  • One of many floors or levels in a building
  • Account or description of how something happened

new

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US / nju: /

UK / nu, nju /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not old, recently born, built or made
  • Being or doing something for the first time
  • Not felt, seen or known previously
  • Having been recently bought or obtained

soviet

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US / ˈsəuviət,ˈsɔviət /

UK / ˈsoviˌɛt, -ɪt, ˈsɑvi-, ˌsoviˈɛt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Of or relating to or characteristic of the former Soviet Union or its people
  • noun
  • Elected government council in a communist country

afraid

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US / əˈfreɪd /

UK / əˈfred /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Worried that something bad will happen; scared

corruption

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US / kəˈrʌpʃn /

UK / kəˈrʌpʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • State of being damaged or spoiled
  • Illegal, immoral dishonesty

white

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US / waɪt /

UK / hwaɪt, waɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Belonging to a race of people with light skin
  • Of the color of fresh snow and milk
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • Lightest color; The color of fresh snow.

day

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US / deɪ /

UK / de /

A1
  • noun
  • A period of 24 hours beginning at midnight
  • The period of time when it is light outside
  • Person's name

revenue

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US / 'revənju: /

UK / ˈrevənju /

A2
  • noun
  • Money that is made by or paid to a business
  • Money a government collects from its people

overthrow

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US / ˌəʊvəˈθrəʊ /

UK / ˌoʊvərˈθroʊ /

B2
  • noun
  • Act of throwing past a certain point or person
  • Forceful removal of a government from power
  • verb
  • To throw something past a certain point or person
  • To forcefully remove a government from power

union

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US / 'ju:nɪən /

UK / ˈjunjən /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of joining two or more things into one
  • Marriage
  • Organization of workers to look after their needs

crony

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US / ˈkrəʊni /

UK / ˈkroʊni /

A1
  • noun
  • One who associates with others, as for bad purpose

use

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US / ju:s /

UK / ju:s /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to employ something
  • Need to enable it to work
  • Permission to do something with something
  • Act of spending money
  • Operation of a machine for its function
  • verb
  • To have; to eat, drink, consume etc.
  • To need to operate or work
  • To operate a machine, e.g. a computer
  • To treat a person badly
  • To do something with, for a task or purpose

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

enter

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US / 'entə(r) /

UK / ˈɛntɚ /

A1
  • verb
  • To start a career or an education
  • To become a competitor in a contest
  • To add or type information in a computer
  • To go into a room, building etc.

irony

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US / 'aɪrənɪ /

UK / ˈaɪrəni, ˈaɪə- /

B2
  • noun
  • Quality of being funny because it is the opposite

king

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US / kɪŋ /

UK / kɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • Person considered the best or top at something
  • Playing card with the image of a king on it
  • Key piece in the game of chess
  • Royal male ruler of a country
  • Person's name

war

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US / wɔ:(r) /

UK / wɔr /

A2
  • noun
  • Situation where armies fight each other

brutal

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US / 'bru:tl /

UK / ˈbrutl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Extremely violent or mean

africa

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US / 'æfrɪkə /

UK / ˈæfrɪkə /

A1
  • noun
  • Continent between the Atlantic and Indian oceans

video

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US / 'vɪdɪəʊ /

UK / ˈvɪdiˌo /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of a moving film, with sound
  • noun
  • Recording capturing action with sound
  • verb
  • To make a moving film of, with sound

want

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US / wɔnt /

UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

our

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to us

size

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US / saɪz /

UK / saɪz /

A1
  • noun
  • How big or small a thing is
  • Standard measurements for clothing, shoes
  • verb
  • To make something to fit a particular measurement
  • To organize or group from small to large

warlord

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US / 'wɔ:lɔ:d /

UK / ˈwɔrˌlɔrd /

C2
  • noun
  • Military leader having civil power, as during war

boom

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US / bu:m /

UK / bum /

B1
  • noun
  • Very fast increase in growth or popularity
  • A very loud and deep sound
  • verb
  • To experience a rapid increase in growth
  • To make a very loud and deep sound

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

give

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US / ɡɪv /

UK / ɡɪv /

A1
  • noun
  • Degree of flexibility in something, a material
  • verb
  • To hand over or present something to someone
  • To cause someone to have or experience something

single

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US / 'sɪŋɡl /

UK / ˈsɪŋɡəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being one only, without others
  • Only; merely
  • Not married or in a relationship
  • noun
  • One run in cricket or a hit baseball
  • An individual song from a CD or album
  • Person who is not married or in a relationship

businessman

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US / ˈbɪznəsmæn /

UK / ˈbɪznɪsˌmæn /

A2
  • noun
  • A man who works in business

child

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US / tʃaɪld /

UK / tʃaɪld /

A1
  • noun
  • A very young person, between about 2 and 15

same

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US / seɪm /

UK / sem /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in quality and amount
  • Identical; not different
  • Not changing; constant

against

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US / əˈgenst /

UK / əˈɡenst /

A1
  • preposition
  • In physical contact with, as for support; next to
  • In opposition to; disagreeing with

leader

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US / ˈli:də(r) /

UK / ˈlidɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Person who is in charge of a group or task
  • Person or group who is currently winning

support

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US / səˈpɔ:t /

UK / səˈpɔrt, -ˈport /

A1
  • noun
  • Assistance or advice given to someone
  • Evidence that helps prove something is true
  • A thing to hold up or prevent from falling down
  • verb
  • To give assistance or advice to someone
  • To help prove or show that something is true
  • To hold up or prevent from falling down

bury

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US / 'berɪ /

UK / ˈbɛri /

B1
  • verb
  • To put something into the ground and cover it

copper

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US / 'kɒpə(r) /

UK / ˈkɑpɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Reddish-brown metal used in cables or wires

jet

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US / dʒet /

UK / dʒɛt /

B1
  • noun
  • Stream of liquid/gas shooting out of small opening
  • (Of liquid, gas) to shoot out of a small opening
  • A pipe that water or gas goes through
  • Hard, black, usually shiny stone
  • verb
  • (Of liquid, gas) to shoot out of a small opening
  • To travel on a jet plane

really

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US / ˈri:əli /

UK / ˈriəˌli, ˈrili /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to stress something that is said; definitely
  • In a true or accurate manner
  • Very

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

end

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US / end /

UK / ɛnd /

A1
  • noun
  • The point where a process or activity stops
  • A point that marks the limit of something; finish
  • Goal or desired result
  • The tip, edge or limit of something
  • verb
  • To be the last part of something

belgian

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US / 'beldʒən /

UK / ˈbɛldʒən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of Belgium

gold

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US / gəʊld /

UK / goʊld /

A2
  • noun
  • Soft yellow metal that is very valuable
  • Person's name
  • adjecitve
  • Dark yellow color often seen in sunsets

know

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US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

often

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US / ˈɔfən /

UK / ˈɔfən,ˈɑfən,ˈɔftən,ˈɑf- /

A1
  • adverb
  • Many times; frequently; on many occasions

suffer

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US / 'sʌfə(r) /

UK / ˈsʌfɚ /

A2
  • verb
  • To experience pain, illness, or injury

before

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US / bɪˈfɔ:(r) /

UK / bɪˈfɔr,-ˈfor /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a time earlier than the present; previously
  • conjunction
  • In advance of something happening
  • preposition
  • In front of someone or something

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

western

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US / ˈwestən /

UK / ˈwestərn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Movies often about cowboys in the American West
  • Coming from, found in, or facing towards the west

blow

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US / bləʊ /

UK / blo /

A2
  • noun
  • Something that causes you difficulty or sadness
  • Act of making air come out of your mouth
  • A hit or strike from an object
  • verb
  • To move something using air
  • To make air come quickly out of your mouth
  • To clear something by forcing air through it

hand

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US / hænd /

UK / hænd /

A1
  • noun
  • Cards given to a player in a card game
  • Piece of a clock that points to the time
  • Someone who performs physical tasks or work
  • Body part at the end of a person's arm
  • Help for someone performing a particular action
  • Condition of having power or influence
  • Member of the crew of a ship
  • verb
  • To give something to someone personally

next

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US / nekst /

UK / nɛkst /

A1
  • adverb
  • The one that follows another in time or order
  • At a time or place directly after the present one
  • noun
  • The one that follows after
  • adjecitve
  • Immediately after the previous one
  • First occurrence after the present one

government

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US / ˈgʌvənmənt /

UK / ˈɡʌvənmənt /

A1
  • noun
  • Group of people and system that rule a nation

his

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US / hɪz /

UK / hɪz /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Something belonging to a male person

social

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US / ˈsəuʃəl /

UK / ˈsoʃəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Involving activity with people, e.g. in free time
  • Liking being with other people; friendly
  • Living together and depending on each other

sponsor

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US / ˈspɒnsə(r) /

UK / ˈspɑ:nsə(r) /

B1
  • noun
  • Person that supports the passage of a new law
  • Person giving money for someone's education
  • verb
  • To support the passage of a new law
  • To help someone succeed by giving them money
  • To pay for an event, usually as an advertisement

tech

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US / tek /

UK / tɛk /

A2
  • noun
  • Shortened form of 'technology' or 'technician'

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

break

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US / breɪk /

UK / brek /

A1
  • noun
  • Time you stop an activity before continuing
  • End of a relationship
  • An escape from a place such as a jail
  • (Lucky) advantage or benefit from something
  • Find a solution or answer to a problem or crime
  • Change in the weather
  • verb
  • To create a new record e.g. running the 100m dash
  • To form a crack in something
  • To burst or become damaged
  • To end a relationship
  • To escape from a place such as a jail
  • To train a wild animal e.g. a horse
  • To separate into pieces by force, or by dropping
  • To act against a law, rule, or promise
  • To become known suddenly, as in the news
  • To not do what you promised e.g. not keep promises
  • To solve a crime, or answer a problem
  • To stop functioning properly
  • To suddenly start, open or commence
  • To change in pitch suddenly, as in a voice
  • To fall on the shore, as in waves
  • To begin or change suddenly; the dawn or weather
  • To defeat by causing the person to lose their will

draw

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US / drɔ: /

UK / drɔ /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that attracts people to visit a place
  • A lottery or prize
  • Result of a game, contest where the score is equal
  • verb
  • To attract attention to someone or something
  • To get closer to or approach something or someone
  • To influence a person's involvement in something
  • To move an object by pulling
  • To create an image using pen or pencil and paper
  • To take one thing out of a container, etc.
  • (Of 2 teams) to finish a game with the same score

decade

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US / ˈdekeɪd /

UK / ˈdɛkˌed, dɛˈked /

B1
  • noun
  • Period of 10 years

greedy

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US / 'ɡri:dɪ /

UK / ˈɡridi /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Wanting to have more of something than you need

history

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US / 'hɪstrɪ /

UK / ˈhɪstəri /

A2
  • noun
  • Established pattern or record
  • Study of past events as an academic subject

organize

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US / ˈɔ:gənaɪz /

UK / ˈɔ:rgənaɪz /

A1
  • verb
  • To arrange and plan things, e.g. a party

away

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US / ə'weɪ /

UK / əˈwe /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not present
  • adverb
  • Disappear completely
  • Doing something with a lot of energy
  • Not here; far from here; in a different direction
  • To a different area, location

era

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US / 'ɪərə /

UK / 'ɪrə /

B1
  • noun
  • Period characterized by particular events, people

estimate

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US / 'estɪmət /

UK / ˈɛstəˌmet /

A2
  • noun
  • Guess or calculation of cost, size or value
  • verb
  • To guess or calculate the cost, size or value of

group

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US / ɡru:p /

UK / ɡrup /

A1
  • noun
  • Two or more musicians who play music together
  • Number of people or things gathered together
  • verb
  • To combine or collect objects or people together

unexpected

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US / ˌʌnɪkˈspektɪd /

UK / ˌʌnɪkˈspektɪd /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Surprising because it was not expected

world

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US / wɜ:ld /

UK / wɜrld /

A1
  • noun
  • All the humans, events, activities on the earth
  • Political division due to some kind of similarity

elite

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US / iˈliːt /

UK / iˈliːt /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Belonging to the richest, most powerful, best-educated, or best-trained group in a society
  • noun
  • The richest, most powerful, best-educated, or best-trained group in a society

spark

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US / spɑ:k /

UK / spɑrk /

B1
  • noun
  • Small piece of burning material produced by fire
  • Tiny, brief bit of light caused by electric energy
  • First small part of an idea or feeling
  • verb
  • To make tiny, brief bits of light
  • To start something new; To set in motion, activate

mining

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US / ˈmaɪnɪŋ /

UK / ˈmaɪnɪŋ /

B2
  • noun
  • Act of digging to get coal, gold, silver etc.
  • verb
  • To place a bomb in the ground or the sea
  • To dig into the earth or sea to obtain minerals

wealth

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US / welθ /

UK / wɛlθ /

A2
  • noun
  • Amount of money or possessions you own, e.g. large
  • Great quantity, amount, or number of something

impunity

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US / ɪmˈpju:nəti /

UK / ɪmˈpjunɪti /

C1
  • noun
  • Freedom from punishment or consequences of action

numerous

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US / ˈnju:mərəs /

UK / ˈnumərəs, ˈnju- /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Existing in large numbers

territory

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US / 'terətrɪ /

UK / ˈtɛrɪˌtɔri, -ˌtori /

B1
  • noun
  • Area of land defended by an animal
  • Area of particular knowledge or experience
  • Area owned or controlled by a government, person
  • Area of land with a specific defining feature

abuse

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US / ə'bju:s /

UK / əˈbjuz /

A2
  • noun
  • Improper/dishonest/excessive use of something
  • Insulting someone, e.g. by swearing at them
  • verb
  • To mistreat or be cruel towards someone
  • To use in an inappropriate or excessive way
  • To use something wrongly or dishonestly
  • To insult someone or swear at them

mineral

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US / 'mɪnərəl /

UK / ˈmɪnərəl /

B1
  • noun
  • Substance naturally formed in the ground

billion

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US / ˈbɪljən /

UK / ˈbɪljən /

A2
  • noun
  • Number 1,000,000,000

electric

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US / ɪˈlektrɪk /

UK / ɪˈlɛktrɪk /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Creating a feeling of excitement
  • Using electricity

sleep

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US / sli:p /

UK / slip /

A1
  • noun
  • Substance in a person's eyes after waking up
  • Period of time during which a person is asleep
  • verb
  • To have enough beds for
  • To rest your body in bed, as at night time

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

due

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US / dju: /

UK / du, dju /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • When something is required or expected
  • Owed to a person as a right
  • noun
  • Something you deserve; something you can expect

death

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US / deθ /

UK / dɛθ /

A2
  • noun
  • When someone dies; the end of life

install

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US / ɪnˈstɔ:l /

UK / ɪnˈstɔl /

A2
  • verb
  • To set up equipment so that it is ready to use
  • To place someone officially in a job position

way

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US / weɪ /

UK / we /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to emphasize the amount of something
  • noun
  • Particular aspect of something being thought about
  • One of various choices that could be made
  • Particular existing condition or state
  • (Often long) distance or length of time
  • How something is done
  • Route to go to a place
  • Small street
  • Usual behavior, emotions or habits of someone

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

election

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US / ɪ'lekʃn /

UK / ɪˈlɛkʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Process of choosing someone by voting

engine

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US / 'endʒɪn /

UK / ˈɛndʒɪn /

A2
  • noun
  • Machine that changes energy into mechanical motion
  • The part of a train that pulls railway cars

christmas

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US / ˈkrɪsməs /

UK / ˈkrɪsməs /

A2
  • noun
  • Christian holiday celebrated on December 24-26

its

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US / ɪts /

UK / ɪts /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to or belonging to ‘it’
  • determiner
  • Of something; belonging or related to something
  • other
  • Possessive form of “it”

rwanda

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US / rʊ'ændə /

UK / rʊ'ændə /

A1
  • other
  • A landlocked republic in central Africa; formerly a German colony

african

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US / ˈæfrɪkən /

UK / ˈæfrɪkən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of Africa
  • noun
  • Person from Africa

allege

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US / əˈledʒ /

UK / əˈlɛdʒ /

B1
  • verb
  • To state without proof

belgium

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US / 'beldʒəm /

UK / 'beldʒəm /

A1
  • noun
  • A monarchy in northwestern Europe; headquarters for the European Union and for the North Atlantic Tr

country

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US / ˈkʌntri /

UK / ˈkʌntri /

A1
  • noun
  • An area of land that is controlled by a government
  • Open land that is away from towns and cities

cobalt

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US / 'kəʊbɔ:lt /

UK / ˈkoˌbɔlt /

A1
  • noun
  • Hard, shiny, silver-white metal

human

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US / 'hju:mən /

UK / ˈhjumən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning or characteristic of people
  • noun
  • A person; a man, woman or child

political

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US / pəˈlɪtɪkl /

UK / pəˈlɪtɪkəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being active or interested in government matters
  • Diplomatic
  • Of the system of elections and government
  • Concerning government or public affairs
  • Involved in getting of power/influence in a group

stay

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US / steɪ /

UK / ste /

A1
  • noun
  • Legal order to stop or delay an action
  • Strong rope or wire that supports a ship's mast
  • Period of time spent living in or visiting a place
  • verb
  • To keep trying without giving up
  • To remain in the same place and not move away
  • To spend time visiting a place or someone's home

each

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US / i:tʃ /

UK / itʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Every one of two or more things
  • pronoun
  • Per one person or thing

fight

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US / faɪt /

UK / faɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • An argument or quarrel
  • Act of trying to hurt someone by hitting them
  • A struggle to do a difficult task
  • verb
  • To argue or quarrel with someone about something
  • To try to hurt someone by hitting them
  • To struggle to do a difficult task

example

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US / ɪgˈzɑ:mpl /

UK / ɪɡˈzæmpəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Thing, person which represents a category

congo

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US / ˈkɔŋɡəu /

UK / ˈkɑŋɡo /

A1
  • other
  • A major African river (one of the world's longest); flows through Congo into the South Atlantic
  • A republic in central Africa; achieved independence from Belgium in
  • A republic in west-central Africa; achieved independence from France in

happen

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US / 'hæpən /

UK / ˈhæpən /

A1
  • verb
  • To take place or occur

inspire

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US / ɪn'spaɪə(r) /

UK / ɪnˈspaɪr /

B1
  • verb
  • To give someone an idea to do or make something
  • To make someone feel a certain emotion

nominate

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US / 'nɒmɪneɪt /

UK / ˈnɑməˌnet /

B2
  • verb
  • To choose someone to fill a certain position

empire

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US / ˈempaɪə(r) /

UK / ˈɛmˌpaɪr /

B1
  • noun
  • Group of countries controlled by one government

coltan

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US / /

UK / /

A1
  • noun
  • A dull metallic mineral composed of columbite and tantalite, and refined to produce tantalum.

misrule

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US / ˌmɪsˈruːl /

UK / ˌmɪsˈruːl /

B1
  • noun
  • Government that is inefficient or dishonest

right

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US / raɪt /

UK / raɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Correct or true
  • The south side of you looking at the rising sun
  • adverb
  • Exactly in a place or time
  • Being appropriate for a particular event
  • In a straight or direct manner
  • noun
  • Something you are legally or morally allowed to do
  • Ideal of what is just and good
  • Political view based on conservatism
  • verb
  • To fix something previously wrong or unjust
  • To make upright, as a boat that has turned over

conspire

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US / kənˈspaɪə(r) /

UK / kənˈspaɪr /

B2
  • verb
  • To secretly plan with others to commit a crime

force

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US / fɔ:s /

UK / fɔrs, fors /

A1
  • noun
  • Group of persons trained for military action; army
  • Pressure; attraction
  • The use of physical strength/violence to persuade
  • verb
  • To use physical strength or violence to persuade

family

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US / 'fæməlɪ /

UK / ˈfæmli /

A1
  • noun
  • Close group of people or organizations
  • A group of people who are related through blood
  • Group of related plants or animals

peacemaker

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US / ˈpi:smeɪkə(r) /

UK / ˈpisˌmekɚ /

C2
  • noun
  • Someone who tries to end a war or argument

search

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US / sɜ:tʃ /

UK / sɜ:rtʃ /

A2
  • noun
  • Examination of person to find something
  • Action to find an answer to a problem
  • Action of trying to find someone or something
  • verb
  • To examine a person's clothing to find something
  • To look for an answer or explanation to a problem
  • To look carefully for someone or something

uranium

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US / juˈreɪniəm /

UK / jʊˈreniəm /

A1
  • noun
  • Radioactive element used for nuclear energy/weapon

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

current

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US / 'kʌrənt /

UK / ˈkɚrənt, ˈkʌr- /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or being in the present time
  • noun
  • Electricity flowing through wires
  • Movement of water in a river, or air in the sky

even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

different

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US / ˈdɪfrənt /

UK / ˈdɪfrənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not of the same kind; unlike other things

people

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US / 'pi:pl /

UK / ˈpipəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Persons sharing culture, country, background, etc.
  • Men, Women, Children

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

cause

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US / kɔ:z /

UK / kɔz /

A2
  • noun
  • Belief, goal or organization that people support
  • Reason for
  • verb
  • To make something happen; create effect or result

place

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US / pleɪs /

UK / ples /

A1
  • noun
  • Particular location, area or region
  • verb
  • To put someone in a particular type of situation
  • To put something in a certain location or position

uganda

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US / jʊ(:)'ɡændə /

UK / jʊ'ɡændə /

A1
  • other
  • A landlocked republic in eastern Africa; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in

first

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US / fɜ:st /

UK / fɚst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 1st; Coming before all others in time or place
  • noun
  • Something that has not happened before
  • Position of the winner of a competition

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

medium

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US / 'mi:dɪəm /

UK / ˈmidiəm /

A2
  • noun
  • Method of expressing ideas or feelings
  • Something available in a middle size or condition
  • Person who claims to communicate with the dead

president

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US / ˈprezɪdənt /

UK / ˈprɛzɪdənt,-ˌdɛnt /

A2
  • noun
  • Person in charge of a country, or organization

autocratic

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US / ˌɔ:tə'krætɪk /

UK / ˌɔ:tə'krætɪk /

C1
  • adjecitve
  • Ruling with absolute power; ignoring others' ideas

great

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US / ɡreɪt /

UK / ɡret /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very large in size
  • Very important
  • Very good; fantastic; wonderful
  • adverb
  • Very good; better than before
  • noun
  • Successful and well-admired person

nine

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US / naɪn /

UK / naɪn /

A1
  • number
  • 9

two

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • number
  • 2

genocide

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US / ˈdʒenəsaɪd /

UK / ˈdʒɛnəˌsaɪd /

B2
  • noun
  • Deliberate destruction of a group of people

where

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US / hwɛə /

UK / hwɛr, wɛr /

A1
  • conjunction
  • At or in the place which
  • In whatever place
  • pronoun
  • Word you use to ask the location of something

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

ancient

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US / 'eɪnʃənt /

UK / ˈenʃənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very old; having lived a very long time ago

europe

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US / ˈjʊərəp /

UK / ˈjʊrəp /

A1
  • noun
  • A continent including Germany, France and Spain
  • other
  • The second smallest continent (actually a vast peninsula of Eurasia); the British use 'Europe' to re

diamond

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US / 'daɪəmənd /

UK / ˈdaɪəmənd, ˈdaɪmənd /

A2
  • noun
  • Very hard colorless stone used in jewelry

over

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US / 'əʊvə(r) /

UK / ˈovɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Finished; no longer happening
  • Towards the ground/away from a standing position
  • noun
  • A set of six consecutive balls bowled in cricket
  • other
  • Finished
  • preposition
  • Showing the relation when a thing is above another
  • On or covering something
  • Above or across something
  • More than you need
  • From one side to the other
  • In the direction of; toward

resource

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US / riˈsɔ:s /

UK / ˈriˌsɔrs, -ˌsors, -ˌzɔrs, -ˌzors, rɪˈsɔrs, -ˈsors, /

A2
  • noun
  • Something that can be used profitably; asset
  • An essential supply of something
  • Resourcefulness; ability to deal with problems
  • verb
  • To obtain (e.g. oil, gas) from its source

unscrupulous

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US / ʌnˈskru:pjələs /

UK / ʌnˈskrupjələs /

C2
  • adjecitve
  • Lacking scruples/principles; stopping at nothing

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

back

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US / bæk /

UK / bæk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Farthest from the front e.g. in a classroom
  • adverb
  • Have returned to a place you were before
  • noun
  • The part of a chair that the upper body leans upon
  • Location at the rear of something
  • The reverse of side something
  • Area on the rear of your body
  • verb
  • To bet money on something
  • To go backwards in a car
  • To support and encourage someone or some cause

hope

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US / həʊp /

UK / hop /

A1
  • noun
  • When you wish something will happen; what you wish
  • verb
  • To expect and want something to happen

money

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US / 'mʌnɪ /

UK / ˈmʌni /

A1
  • noun
  • Coins or notes we use to pay for things

strain

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US / streɪn /

UK / stren /

B2
  • noun
  • Injury to a muscle, leg etc. through overuse
  • Type or variation of a disease or bacillus
  • verb
  • To remove the water from (food) using a colander
  • To injure a muscle, leg etc. by using it too much

poor

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US / pʊə(r) /

UK / pʊr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Inferior; below the normal standard
  • Deserving of pity or sympathy
  • Without money; not rich

any

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US / 'enɪ /

UK / ˈɛni /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One, or some, no matter which
  • pronoun
  • One (thing) of many; some

come

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US / kʌm /

UK / kʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To arrive at a place
  • (Of mail) to be delivered
  • To move toward someone; go with someone
  • To reach a certain point or state

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

rebellion

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US / rɪ'beljən /

UK / rɪˈbɛljən /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of conflicting with someone in authority
  • Resisting and fighting against existing authority

beyond

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US / bɪ'jɒnd /

UK / biˈɑnd, bɪˈjɑnd /

A2
  • adverb
  • On or to the farther side
  • In addition to
  • preposition
  • Later in time than
  • Out of the limits of

east

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US / i:st /

UK / i:st /

A1
  • noun
  • Direction where the sun rises
  • Geographic area including India, China, Japan etc.

finally

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US / ˈfaɪnəli /

UK / ˈfaɪnəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • used especially at the beginning of a sentence to introduce the last point or idea
  • After a long time or some difficulty

keep

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US / ki:p /

UK / kip /

A1
  • noun
  • Large, strong tower in the middle of a castle
  • Money spent on you so you can live in a place
  • verb
  • To continue doing something; not to stop
  • To stop balls going in a goal in sports
  • To not give back or return something
  • (Of food) to not spoil or not rot
  • To take possession of something to own, e.g. a pet
  • To have and continue to hold something
  • To do something that you have promised or agreed
  • To stay in a certain place or condition
  • To maintain the rules

predatory

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US / 'predətrɪ /

UK / ˈprɛdəˌtɔri, -ˌtori /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Preying on the weak to gain an advantage

something

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US / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

UK / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In some degree or measure
  • noun
  • a person or thing of some value or consequence
  • pronoun
  • Thing that is not yet known or named
  • Approximately

below

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US / bɪ'ləʊ /

UK / bɪˈlo /

A1
  • preposition
  • In a lower position, place, or level

demand

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US / dɪ'mɑ:nd /

UK / dɪˈmænd /

A2
  • noun
  • Desire customers have to buy product, service
  • A strong request for someone to do something
  • verb
  • To strongly request someone to do something

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

run

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US / rʌn /

UK / rʌn /

A1
  • noun
  • Journey between two places made by ship or car
  • Series of similar things or successes and failures
  • Act of running; exercise of running
  • verb
  • To depart or travel according to a schedule
  • To cause an animal to move in a certain direction
  • (Of an engine) to be operating
  • To start or use a computer program
  • To flow in a certain direction, like a liquid
  • To manage or operate a business
  • To operate or drive something
  • (Of a road) to go from one place to another
  • To move your legs faster than walking

steal

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US / sti:l /

UK / stil /

A1
  • noun
  • A bargain; something bought very cheaply
  • Act of taking the ball or a base from another
  • verb
  • To move quietly or secretly to or from a place
  • To secretly take something that belongs to another

man

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US / mæn /

UK / mæn /

A1
  • noun
  • Humans in general, including male and female
  • An adult male human being
  • Male who acts in a masculine way; not like a woman
  • verb
  • To control or operate (a machine); be in charge of
  • To operate a machine (a boat, etc.)

half

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US / hɑ:f /

UK / hæf, hɑf /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not complete
  • adverb
  • Partly; somewhat
  • noun
  • One of two equal periods of game time in a sport
  • The part you get when one is divided into two;

poverty

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US / ˈpɔvəti /

UK / ˈpɑvəti /

B1
  • noun
  • State of being poor
  • Lack of something necessary

state

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US / steɪt /

UK / stet /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning region within a country
  • noun
  • Region within a country, with its own government
  • Situation or condition something is in
  • verb
  • To say; declare as fact

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

phone

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US / fəʊn /

UK / foʊn /

A2
  • noun
  • Machine used to talk to someone who is far away
  • verb
  • To talk to someone using a telephone

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

power

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US / 'paʊə(r) /

UK / ˈpaʊɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Legal or official right to perform certain actions
  • Ability to move forcefully and quickly
  • Energy of something (e.g. electricity or fuel)
  • Mathematical way to multiply a number
  • Condition of being in political control
  • Physical force, energy, and strength
  • verb
  • To give energy to something, e.g. by electricity
  • To move something forcefully and quickly

than

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US / ðən /

UK / ðən /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to compare two things that are not equal

across

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US / əˈkrɔs /

UK / əˈkrɔs,əˈkrɑs /

A1
  • adverb
  • Distance from one side to another
  • (Go) from one side to the other of something

leopold

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US / nɪm /

UK / nɪm /

A1

mobile

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US / 'məʊbaɪl /

UK / ˈmoʊbl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Able to be moved or able to move
  • noun
  • Personal phone you take with you wherever you go

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

word

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US / wɜ:d /

UK / wɚd /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of language that has a meaning
  • Promise
  • Short remark or piece of information
  • verb
  • To express something by choosing particular words

constitution

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US / ˌkɔnstiˈtju:ʃən /

UK / ˌkɑnstɪˈtuʃən, -ˈtju- /

B1
  • noun
  • Statement of fundamental principles of a country
  • Condition of your health
  • Different parts that make something

follow

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US / ˈfɔləu /

UK / ˈfɑlo /

A1
  • verb
  • To come after someone; be guided by someone
  • To support someone, e.g. singer or comedian
  • To be the logical result of something
  • To happen after something else happens
  • To believe a set of values or a moral teacher
  • To understand something happening or being said

continent

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US / ˈkɒntɪnənt /

UK / ˈkɑntənənt /

B1
  • noun
  • Very large piece of land, e.g. Africa or Asia

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

live

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US / lɪv /

UK / liv /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being broadcast as events happen, not recorded
  • Carrying electric current; able to give a shock
  • Glowing because burning; hot
  • Not yet killed (for food)
  • adverb
  • (Music, drama) as it is performed
  • verb
  • To be alive
  • To experience a particular type of life
  • To make your home in a house or town

pave

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US / peɪv /

UK / pev /

B1
  • verb
  • To build a hard even surface for traveling on

uphill

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US / ˌʌpˈhɪl /

UK / ˈʌpˌhɪl /

C2
  • adjecitve
  • From lower ground to higher ground

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

woman

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US / ˈwʊmən /

UK / ˈwʊmən /

A1
  • noun
  • Adult female human being

big

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US / bɪɡ /

UK / bɪɡ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Popular
  • Serious
  • Large

natural

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US / ˈnætʃərəl /

UK / ˈnætʃərəl, ˈnætʃrəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being as one would expect; being usual or normal
  • Not made by humans; without human intervention

murder

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US / 'mɜ:də(r) /

UK / ˈmɚdɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Something that is difficult or painful to do
  • Crime of deliberately killing a person
  • verb
  • To intentionally kill a person
  • To spoil, ruin something by doing it poorly

rate

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US / reɪt /

UK / ret /

A1
  • noun
  • Current price or cost of something
  • Speed or frequency of events over time
  • verb
  • To assess something or consider its qualities

receive

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US / rɪ'si:v /

UK / rɪˈsiv /

A1
  • verb
  • To get something someone has given or sent to you
  • To allow someone to become a member (of a club)
  • To welcome someone as a guest into your home
  • To respond to (e.g. news) in a particular way

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

cia

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US / ˌsiː aɪ ˈeɪ /

UK / ˌsiː aɪ ˈeɪ /

A1
  • abbreviation
  • Central Intelligence Agency.

term

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US / tɜ:m /

UK / tɚm /

A1
  • noun
  • Conditions applying to an agreement, contract
  • Length of time something is expected to happen
  • Fixed period of weeks for learning at school
  • The (precise) name given to something
  • verb
  • To call; give a name to

three

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US / θri: /

UK / θri /

A1
  • number
  • Number 3

tragedy

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US / 'trædʒədɪ /

UK / ˈtrædʒɪdi /

B1
  • noun
  • Play that has a sad ending with many deaths
  • Very sad event that usually involves death
  • Subtitles section
  • What do you really need to know about Congo?
  • It's the greatest single example in history of how predatory elites rip off millions of people and get away with it.
  • Congo Is one of the most mineral-rich countries in the world.
  • It's got gold, diamonds, copper, uranium, cobalt and coltan, which you use every day.
  • It's in mobile phones, laptops, even jet engines.
  • There's estimated to be more than $24 trillion worth of mineral wealth under Congo soil.
  • So why are its people some of the poorest in the world?
  • It starts with the story of a great crime.
  • Back in 1885, a king in search of an empire created a state the size of Western Europe.
  • King Leopold of Belgium drew borders through ancient kingdoms, forcing 450 different ethnic groups into a new state.
  • Leopold's plunder of the natural resources caused as many as 10 million deaths.
  • It sparked the world's first human rights campaign, which forced the king to hand over the country to the Belgian state.
  • But Congo remained a place where the white man dominated and exploited.
  • Enter a new hope for Africa.
  • We have known the irony, the insults, the blows we suffered in the morning.
  • The independence leader, Patrice Lumumba, inspired millions across the continent.
  • But the West saw Lumumba as an enemy.
  • The Belgians supported a rebellion against the new government in the mineral-rich east of the country.
  • And when Lumumba appealed to the Soviet Union for help, the Belgians conspired with the CIA to murder him.
  • It Paved the way for the three decades-long rule of President Mobutu.
  • They didn't come any greedier in Africa.
  • It's estimated he stole around half of the $12 billion his country received in aid.
  • The West helped to keep him in power.
  • A people and a country finally breaking under the strain of 26 years of autocratic and brutal dictatorship.
  • But Mobutu's era ended in the most unexpected of ways.
  • Genocide in Rwanda, the country next door, saw millions flee into Congo.
  • War followed them.
  • Rwanda and Uganda sponsored a rebellion that overthrew Mobutu and installed the Kabila family in power.
  • In a decade of war, more than 5 million people are estimated to have died.
  • As nine African nations and numerous rebel groups fought each other.
  • For territory, for control of Congo's riches.
  • Warlords dominated swathes of the country.
  • The word used to describe you is warlord.
  • Not peacemaker, warlord.
  • It always, always comes back to the money.
  • We're going to make some history together today.
  • With the tech boom of the new millennium, Congolese coltan was in high demand.
  • As there is a new commodity that we all want for our mobile phones or for our electric vehicles, the reality often is that Congo has it.
  • And so we start to see the unscrupulous businessmen and women.
  • We start to see the corrupt leaders.
  • Human rights groups allege that around $750 million in mining revenues has been stolen under the rule of President Joseph Kabila and his cronies.
  • Congo is a country where more than 70% of the population lives below the poverty line.
  • Where women suffer some of the highest rates of sexual violence in the world.
  • And human rights can often be abused with impunity.
  • This soil on which we sleep is the same soil where we buried our children.
  • Such suffering isn't the natural condition of these people.
  • It's man-made.
  • And that is the tragedy of Congo.
  • The current President Joseph Kabila has stayed in power beyond the two terms allowed to him under the constitution.
  • But something new and big has been happening in Congo.
  • They're protesting.
  • They're organizing.
  • They're using social media in a way we've never seen before.
  • Are you afraid of the state?
  • No, never.
  • Elections are due at Christmas.
  • But Joseph Kabila isn't giving up his influence.
  • A protégé has been nominated to run for president.
  • And the political opposition is divided.
  • Youthful idealism will face an uphill struggle against corruption and misrule.
  • For more UN videos visit www.un.org