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Level-4 English Listening Practice | Improve Your English Speaking Skills

Video vocabulary

begin

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US / bɪ'ɡɪn /

UK / ˈbeɡɪn /

A1
  • verb
  • To do the first part of an action; to start

limited

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US / ˈlɪmɪtɪd /

UK / ˈlɪmɪtɪd /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of a company) with a limit of financial liability
  • With restrictions; not broad in scope
  • verb
  • To stop or prevent an increase past a point

such

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US / sʌtʃ /

UK / sʌtʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Being similar to
  • (Thing) as previously stated or referred to
  • adverb
  • (Used to emphasize the quality of an adjective)

never

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US / 'nevə(r) /

UK / ˈnɛvɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Not ever; not at any time

grow

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US / ɡrəʊ /

UK / ɡro /

A1
  • verb
  • To get bigger and more mature; make plants do this
  • To improve; to develop better skills over time
  • To develop and become bigger or taller over time

land

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US / lænd /

UK / lænd /

A1
  • noun
  • Region or country
  • Earth; the ground
  • verb
  • To arrive or cause a boat to arrive at the shore
  • To obtain or get something that you wanted
  • To (cause to) come down to the ground safely
  • To cause to arrive in a specific place or state

since

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US / sɪns /

UK / sɪns /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a point before the present time
  • conjunction
  • For this reason; because
  • preposition
  • From the time in the past that

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

remoteness

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US / rɪˈməʊtnəs /

UK / rɪˈmoʊtnəs /

A2
  • noun
  • Being far from people, places etc.

constant

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US / 'kɒnstənt /

UK / ˈkɑnstənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Happening frequently or without pause
  • noun
  • Thing that happens always or at a regular rate

few

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US / fju: /

UK / fju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Not many, a small number

music

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US / 'mju:zɪk /

UK / ˈmjuzɪk /

A1
  • noun
  • Sounds that are sung or played to give pleasure
  • Academic study of rhythms and sounds
  • Written symbols that represent musical sounds

much

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US / mʌtʃ /

UK / mʌtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very; to a high level or degree
  • adverb
  • A lot; large amount; a high degree of
  • Nearly; basically
  • On many occasions; often
  • noun
  • A large amount; a great quantity

ocean

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US / 'əʊʃn /

UK / ˈoʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Large body of salt water; a large sea

strong

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US / strɒŋ /

UK / strɔŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of tea or beer) dark or thick
  • Having big muscles; physically powerful

under

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US / ˈʌndə(r) /

UK / ˈʌndɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In the same place as another thing, but lower
  • adverb
  • In a lower quantity or price than expected
  • preposition
  • According to the terms of an agreement or law
  • Managed or controlled by the authority of
  • Being of a lesser quality or amount than expected
  • Influenced or affected by something or someone
  • Less or lower in age, amount, size or number

destroy

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US / dɪ'strɔɪ /

UK / dɪˈstrɔɪ /

A2
  • verb
  • To damage so badly that something no longer exists
  • To defeat someone or something easily
  • To kill a sick or unwanted animal

tribe

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US / traɪb /

UK / traɪb /

B1
  • noun
  • Racial group united by language, religion, customs

green

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US / gri:n /

UK / ɡrin /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Color of young leaves
  • Covered with vegetation, e.g. grass
  • Concerned about protecting the environment
  • The color of young leaves
  • Lacking in experience/knowledge due to being young
  • Being not fully grown or ripe, as in fruit
  • noun
  • Large grassy area
  • used as a part of a name of a place (UK)

irish

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US / ˈaɪrɪʃ /

UK / ˈaɪrɪʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of Ireland

protestant

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US / 'prɒtɪstənt /

UK / 'prɑ:tɪstənt /

C2
  • adjecitve
  • Of branch of Christianity that is not Catholicism
  • noun
  • Person believing in Protestantism

struggle

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US / 'strʌɡl /

UK / ˈstrʌɡəl /

A2
  • noun
  • Strong efforts made to do something difficult
  • verb
  • To try very hard to do something difficult

vast

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US / vɑ:st /

UK / væst /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being very large in size or amount

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

evict

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US / ɪˈvɪkt /

UK / ɪˈvɪkt /

B2
  • verb
  • To force someone to leave their home/other place

nowadays

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US / ˈnaʊədeɪz /

UK / ˈnaʊəˌdez /

A2
  • adverb
  • At the present time; now

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

tenant

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US / ˈtenənt /

UK / ˈtɛnənt /

B1
  • noun
  • Someone who rents a place from the owner

attack

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US / ə'tæk /

UK / əˈtæk /

A2
  • noun
  • Act intended to hurt someone physically, mentally
  • verb
  • To try to destroy, beat, or injure

exodus

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US / ˈeksədəs /

UK / ˈeksədəs /

B2
  • other
  • Going out or forth in a large group

sell

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US / sel /

UK / sɛl /

A1
  • verb
  • To exchange something for money
  • To persuade people to do, like or agree

area

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US / 'eərɪə /

UK / ˈɛriə /

A1
  • noun
  • Amount of measured space
  • A specific section or space; part of a region
  • A subject or field of study

market

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US / ˈmɑ:kɪt /

UK / ˈmɑ:rkɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • Need or demand for a particular product or service
  • Area or region where a certain product is sold
  • Public event where people sell goods on tables
  • Institution where stocks are bought and sold
  • verb
  • To publicize products to get you to buy; advertise

army

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US / 'ɑ:mɪ /

UK / ˈɑrmi /

A2
  • noun
  • Large group of soldiers organized to fight in wars

conquer

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US / 'kɒŋkə(r) /

UK / ˈkɑŋkɚ /

B2
  • verb
  • To take possession of (land, city) with an army
  • To beat something difficult, e.g. a fear; overcome

try

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US / traɪ /

UK / traɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of putting the ball over the rugby goal line
  • verb
  • To make an effort, to attempt to do something
  • To examine someone or something in a court of law
  • To test to see if it is good or you like it
  • To make a person go through hardship; test
  • To examine something to see if it works

hundreds

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US / 'hʌndrədz /

UK / 'hʌndrədz /

A1
  • number
  • 100s

population

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US / ˌpɒpjuˈleɪʃn /

UK / ˌpɑpjəˈleʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Number of people who live in a country, area etc.

day

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US / deɪ /

UK / de /

A1
  • noun
  • A period of 24 hours beginning at midnight
  • The period of time when it is light outside
  • Person's name

develop

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US / dɪ'veləp /

UK / dɪˈvɛləp /

A1
  • verb
  • To explain something in steps and in detail
  • To create or think of something
  • To grow bigger, more complex, or more advanced
  • To make a photograph from film

after

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US / 'ɑ:ftə(r) /

UK / ˈæftɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Later than another time, or behind something
  • conjunction
  • Following something before
  • preposition
  • When an event happened or time has passed

always

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US / 'ɔ:lweɪz /

UK / ˈɔlwez,-wɪz,-wiz /

A1
  • adverb
  • For a very long time
  • At all times; in every situation
  • For ever

itself

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US / ɪtˈself /

UK / ɪtˈsɛlf /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Referring to it

independence

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US / ˌɪndɪ'pendəns /

UK / ˌɪndɪˈpɛndəns /

A2
  • noun
  • Having the freedom to make your own decisions

many

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US / 'menɪ /

UK / ˈmɛni /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer a large number of things

thousand

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US / ˈθaʊznd /

UK / ˈθaʊzənd /

A1
  • number
  • Number 1,000

north

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US / nɔ:θ /

UK / nɔ:rθ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Coming from the opposite direction to the south
  • noun
  • Direction to your left when facing the rising sun

reagan

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US / ˈreɪgən /

UK / ˈreɪgən /

A1

advantage

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US / əd'vɑ:ntɪdʒ /

UK / ædˈvæntɪdʒ /

A2
  • noun
  • Thing making the chance of success higher
  • A positive point about something

farmer

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US / ˈfɑ:mə(r) /

UK / ˈfɑ:rmə(r) /

A1
  • noun
  • Person who operates a farm

food

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US / fu:d /

UK / fud /

A1
  • noun
  • What people and animals eat to live
  • Things taken in by plants to maintain life
  • A particular style or type of cooking, e.g. Asian

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

liberate

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US / 'lɪbəreɪt /

UK / ˈlɪbəˌret /

B2
  • verb
  • To free someone or something that was captured

nearly

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US / ˈniəli /

UK / ˈnɪrli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Not completely; almost

oliver

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US / ˈɔlivə /

UK / ˈɑləvɚ /

A1
  • proper noun
  • The companion of Roland in the Chanson de Roland.

ship

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US / ʃɪp /

UK / ʃɪp /

A1
  • noun
  • Large boat
  • verb
  • To transport goods by boat, truck or plane

against

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US / əˈgenst /

UK / əˈɡenst /

A1
  • preposition
  • In physical contact with, as for support; next to
  • In opposition to; disagreeing with

differ

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US / 'dɪfə(r) /

UK / ˈdɪfɚ /

B1
  • verb
  • To be different; to be not like others

march

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US / mɑ:tʃ /

UK / mɑ:rtʃ /

A1
  • noun
  • Walk by a group of soldiers who walk in time
  • 3rd month of the year
  • Music played for soldiers to walk in time to
  • Progress towards a future time or place
  • Public walk by a group to demand change
  • verb
  • To force someone to walk somewhere
  • (Soldiers) to walk in time with others
  • To walk as a group to demand some kind of change
  • To walk somewhere quickly often in an angry manner

english

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US / ˈɪŋglɪʃ /

UK / ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of England
  • noun
  • Language of the UK, USA, Nigeria and elsewhere
  • Person's name

mainland

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US / 'meɪnlænd /

UK / ˈmenˌlænd, -lənd /

B2
  • noun
  • Main land mass of a country or continent

want

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US / wɔnt /

UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

become

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US / bɪ'kʌm /

UK / bɪˈkʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To begin to be; grow to be; develop into
  • To be suitable for a particular job or role

first

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US / fɜ:st /

UK / fɚst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 1st; Coming before all others in time or place
  • noun
  • Something that has not happened before
  • Position of the winner of a competition

president

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US / ˈprezɪdənt /

UK / ˈprɛzɪdənt,-ˌdɛnt /

A2
  • noun
  • Person in charge of a country, or organization

great

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US / ɡreɪt /

UK / ɡret /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very large in size
  • Very important
  • Very good; fantastic; wonderful
  • adverb
  • Very good; better than before
  • noun
  • Successful and well-admired person

christian

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US / ˈkrɪstʃən /

UK / ˈkrɪstʃən /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Based on the teachings of Jesus
  • noun
  • Person believing in the teachings of Jesus Christ

county

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US / ˈkaʊnti /

UK / ˈkaʊnti /

A2
  • noun
  • Administrative region within a country or a state

during

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US / ˈdjʊərɪŋ /

UK / ˈdʊrɪŋ, ˈdjʊr- /

A1
  • preposition
  • At some point in the course of an event or thing

include

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US / ɪnˈklu:d /

UK / ɪnˈklud /

A1
  • verb
  • To make someone, something part of a group

preserve

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US / prɪˈzɜ:v /

UK / prɪˈzɜ:rv /

B1
  • noun
  • Protected area of land with plants and animals
  • verb
  • To cook food so it can be kept for long periods
  • To protect something from harm, loss or damage
  • To keep or maintain unchanged or perfect

then

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US / ðen /

UK / ðɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • A time that is not now
  • Following another thing in time or arrangement
  • Following on reasonably from what was just stated
  • At that time, not now

empire

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US / ˈempaɪə(r) /

UK / ˈɛmˌpaɪr /

B1
  • noun
  • Group of countries controlled by one government

right

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US / raɪt /

UK / raɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Correct or true
  • The south side of you looking at the rising sun
  • adverb
  • Exactly in a place or time
  • Being appropriate for a particular event
  • In a straight or direct manner
  • noun
  • Something you are legally or morally allowed to do
  • Ideal of what is just and good
  • Political view based on conservatism
  • verb
  • To fix something previously wrong or unjust
  • To make upright, as a boat that has turned over

irishman

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US / ˈaiəriʃmən /

UK / ˈaɪrɪʃmən /

A1
  • noun
  • Man from Ireland

infect

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US / ɪn'fekt /

UK / ɪnˈfɛkt /

B1
  • verb
  • To introduce a computer virus to
  • To give a disease, bacteria or virus to
  • To make people feel the same emotion you are

own

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US / əʊn /

UK / on /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Belong to oneself
  • determiner
  • Yours, his, hers, etc.; not belonging to another
  • pronoun
  • (Something) belong to myself
  • verb
  • To have something as your property

prominent

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US / ˈprɒmɪnənt /

UK / ˈprɑmənənt /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being important or well known
  • Being easily noticeable
  • Sticking out beyond something

stay

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US / steɪ /

UK / ste /

A1
  • noun
  • Legal order to stop or delay an action
  • Strong rope or wire that supports a ship's mast
  • Period of time spent living in or visiting a place
  • verb
  • To keep trying without giving up
  • To remain in the same place and not move away
  • To spend time visiting a place or someone's home

again

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US / ə'ɡen /

UK / əˈɡɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • One more time, once more

blight

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US / blaɪt /

UK / blaɪt /

B2
  • noun
  • Plant disease which can weaken and kill the plant
  • Something that causes damage or unhappiness
  • other
  • To spoil or damage something

people

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US / 'pi:pl /

UK / ˈpipəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Persons sharing culture, country, background, etc.
  • Men, Women, Children

prefer

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US / prɪˈfɜ:(r) /

UK / prɪˈfɚ /

A1
  • verb
  • To like something better than something else

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

beer

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US / bɪə(r) /

UK / bɪr /

A2
  • noun
  • Alcoholic drink that is made from wheat or grains

conflict

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US / 'kɒnflɪkt /

UK / ˈkɑnˌflɪkt /

A2
  • noun
  • Argument or struggle between two or more parties
  • verb
  • To have opposite ideas; to disagree; To not match

finally

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US / ˈfaɪnəli /

UK / ˈfaɪnəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • used especially at the beginning of a sentence to introduce the last point or idea
  • After a long time or some difficulty

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

homeland

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US / ˈhəʊmlænd /

UK / ˈhoʊmlænd /

C1
  • noun
  • Country where you were born

rebellion

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US / rɪ'beljən /

UK / rɪˈbɛljən /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of conflicting with someone in authority
  • Resisting and fighting against existing authority

early

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US / ˈɜ:li /

UK / ˈɜ:rli /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or appearing before
  • adverb
  • Coming/happening before others in a time sequence
  • Happening sooner than expected

ireland

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US / 'aɪələnd /

UK / 'aɪrlənd /

A1
  • noun
  • An island comprising the republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

industry

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US / 'ɪndəstrɪ /

UK / ˈɪndəstri /

A1
  • noun
  • Hard work; being busy working
  • Factories or businesses that make certain products

majority

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US / mə'dʒɒrətɪ /

UK / məˈdʒɔrɪti, -ˈdʒɑr- /

B1
  • noun
  • Amount that is more than half of a group

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

culture

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US / 'kʌltʃə(r) /

UK / ˈkʌltʃɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Beliefs and customs of a particular group

poor

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US / pʊə(r) /

UK / pʊr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Inferior; below the normal standard
  • Deserving of pity or sympathy
  • Without money; not rich

until

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US / ənˈtɪl /

UK / ʌnˈtɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Up to; to a time when something happens
  • preposition
  • Before (a specific time)

far

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US / fɑ:(r) /

UK / fɑr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A long way away
  • Being a long way away
  • adverb
  • To a large degree or extent

kennedy

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US / ˈkenɪdi: /

UK / ˈkɛnɪdi /

A1
  • noun
  • A large airport on Long Island to the east of New York City

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

invade

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US / ɪnˈveɪd /

UK / ɪnˈved /

B1
  • verb
  • To enter something causing a harmful result

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

over

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US / 'əʊvə(r) /

UK / ˈovɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Finished; no longer happening
  • Towards the ground/away from a standing position
  • noun
  • A set of six consecutive balls bowled in cricket
  • other
  • Finished
  • preposition
  • Showing the relation when a thing is above another
  • On or covering something
  • Above or across something
  • More than you need
  • From one side to the other
  • In the direction of; toward

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

america

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US / ə'merɪkə /

UK / əˈmɛrɪkə /

A1
  • noun
  • The United States of America; North America and/or South America

common

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US / 'kɒmən /

UK / ˈkɑmən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Shared; Belonging to or used by everyone
  • Typical, normal; not unusual
  • noun
  • Area in a city or town that is open to everyone
  • Field near a village owned by the local community

everyone

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US / ˈevriwʌn /

UK / ˈɛvriˌwʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Every person; everybody

its

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US / ɪts /

UK / ɪts /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to or belonging to ‘it’
  • determiner
  • Of something; belonging or related to something
  • other
  • Possessive form of “it”

country

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US / ˈkʌntri /

UK / ˈkʌntri /

A1
  • noun
  • An area of land that is controlled by a government
  • Open land that is away from towns and cities

pay

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US / peɪ /

UK / pe /

A1
  • noun
  • Money you receive from your job, work, etc.
  • verb
  • To give money for goods or work done
  • To give (attention, respect, etc.) to
  • To be punished or suffer for something you did
  • To make (a visit) to a person or place

british

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US / ˈbrɪtɪʃ /

UK / ˈbrɪtɪʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of British

vote

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US / vəʊt /

UK / vot /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of deciding who to choose in an election
  • verb
  • To make a choice for or against, as in an election

atlantic

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US / æt'læntɪk /

UK / ætˈlæntɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Of the ocean between Africa and the Americas

result

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US / rɪ'zʌlt /

UK / rɪˈzʌlt /

A2
  • noun
  • Something produced through tests or experiments
  • Final score of a competition, election or game
  • verb
  • To be the outcome of other causes and effects

prosperity

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US / prɒ'sperətɪ /

UK / prɑˈspɛrɪti /

B1
  • noun
  • State of being financially/economically successful
  • State of growing and being healthy

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

bring

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US / brɪŋ /

UK / brɪŋ /

A1
  • verb
  • To take or go with someone to a place

take

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US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
  • verb
  • To accept something that is offered
  • To use a method of traveling, e.g. a bus or train
  • To use a camera to make (a photo)
  • To pick up something and go away with it
  • To study a subject in school
  • To attempt to pass (an exam)
  • To require a certain amount of time, money, space

main

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US / meɪn /

UK / men /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Most important; most often used

movement

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US / ˈmu:vmənt /

UK / ˈmuvmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Part of a piece of classical music
  • Group with a shared interest or goal
  • Group sharing the same idea to change society, art
  • Action you do when exercising, e.g. in a gym
  • Part of a piece of music

between

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US / bɪˈtwi:n /

UK / bɪˈtwin /

A1
  • preposition
  • From one person, thing, or place, to another
  • In the space that separates two objects
  • Among two or more people who share something

catholic

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US / ˈkæθlɪk /

UK / ˈkæθəlɪk, ˈkæθlɪk /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • One of many Christian belief systems
  • noun
  • Person believing in the Catholic church

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

very

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US / 'verɪ /

UK / ˈvɛri /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a large degree or amount
  • adverb
  • A lot; much; many
  • Used to stress or emphasize a noun

crop

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US / krɒp /

UK / krɑp /

B1
  • noun
  • Plants grown on a farm for food, e.g. corn or rice
  • Section of short, thick hair
  • verb
  • To cut something to a shorter length or size

increase

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US / ɪn'kri:s /

UK / ɪnˈkris /

A1
  • noun
  • Fact of increasing; amount something grows by
  • verb
  • To make or become larger in size or amount

history

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US / 'hɪstrɪ /

UK / ˈhɪstəri /

A2
  • noun
  • Established pattern or record
  • Study of past events as an academic subject

roman

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US / rɔmə /

UK / roˈmɑŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A resident of modern Rome
  • other
  • A typeface used in ancient Roman inscriptions
  • An inhabitant of the ancient Roman Empire
  • Characteristic of the modern type that most directly represents the type used in ancient Roman inscr
  • Of or relating to or supporting Romanism
  • Relating to or characteristic of people of Rome

away

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US / ə'weɪ /

UK / əˈwe /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not present
  • adverb
  • Disappear completely
  • Doing something with a lot of energy
  • Not here; far from here; in a different direction
  • To a different area, location

group

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US / ɡru:p /

UK / ɡrup /

A1
  • noun
  • Two or more musicians who play music together
  • Number of people or things gathered together
  • verb
  • To combine or collect objects or people together

hundred

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US / 'hʌndrəd /

UK / ˈhʌndrɪd /

A1
  • number
  • 100

world

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US / wɜ:ld /

UK / wɜrld /

A1
  • noun
  • All the humans, events, activities on the earth
  • Political division due to some kind of similarity

classical

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US / ˈklæsɪkl /

UK / ˈklæsɪkəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture of ancient Greece or Rome
  • (Of music) serious and traditional in form
  • Concerning ideas considered to be traditional

century

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US / 'sentʃərɪ /

UK / ˈsɛntʃəri /

A1
  • noun
  • Period of 100 years

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

island

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US / ˈaɪlənd /

UK / ˈaɪlənd /

A1
  • noun
  • Area of land that is surrounded by water

presence

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US / ˈprezns /

UK / ˈprɛzəns /

A2
  • noun
  • The same place or area that a person is
  • Ability to reach a market, group of people etc.
  • Something not physically seen but felt to be there
  • Feeling a person gives by being noticeable

canada

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US / 'kænədə /

UK / ˈkænədə /

A1
  • proper noun
  • A country in northern North America, the second largest country in the world; population 35,900,000

could

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US / kəd /

UK / kʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Past form of 'can' to mean have ability
  • Used to ask for something politely, or to offer

know

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US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

wear

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US / weə(r) /

UK / wer /

A1
  • noun
  • Clothing designed for a purpose e.g. skiing
  • Damage from continual use over a long period
  • verb
  • To have clothes, glasses, shoes etc. on your body
  • To display an expression or emotion on the face
  • To become weaker or damaged from continued use

settler

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US / ˈsetlə(r) /

UK / ˈsɛtlɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Person going to live in an uninhabited region

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

cromwell

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US / ˈpɪvətl /

UK / ˈpɪvətl /

A1

end

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US / end /

UK / ɛnd /

A1
  • noun
  • The point where a process or activity stops
  • A point that marks the limit of something; finish
  • Goal or desired result
  • The tip, edge or limit of something
  • verb
  • To be the last part of something

fall

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US / fɔ:l /

UK / fɔl /

A1
  • noun
  • Season after summer and before winter; Autumn
  • A drop in amount; decrease
  • Dropping from a standing position to the ground
  • verb
  • To drop in amount; to decrease
  • To come down from a higher position suddenly
  • To go from standing to the ground, by accident

england

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US / 'ɪŋɡlənd /

UK / ˈɪŋɡlənd /

A1
  • proper noun
  • A European country that forms the largest and most southern part of Great Britain and of the United

landlord

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US / ˈlændlɔ:d /

UK / ˈlændlɔ:rd /

B1
  • noun
  • Someone who owns and rents a place to people

bad

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US / bæd /

UK / bæd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not good; wrong
  • Lacking in good morals; evil
  • No longer fresh; spoiled

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

starve

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US / stɑ:v /

UK / stɑ:rv /

B1
  • verb
  • To (cause to) be hungry or go without food
  • To need or desire very strongly
  • Not to give someone what they need, e.g. attention
  • To (cause to) die from lack of food

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

dance

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US / dɑ:ns /

UK / dæns /

A1
  • noun
  • A series of steps and movements in time to music
  • A social event with dancing while music is playing
  • verb
  • To move your body rhythmically to music

john

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US / dʒɔn /

UK / dʒɑn /

A1
  • noun
  • A toilet.
  • A prostitute's client.
  • proper noun
  • (1165–1216), son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine; king of England 1199–1216; known as John Lack
  • The name of six kings of Portugal.

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

ronald

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US / ˈrɒnəld /

UK / ˈrɑnəld /

A1

relative

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US / ˈrelətɪv /

UK / ˈrɛlətɪv /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Measured or considered in comparison to another
  • (Grammar) referring to words that appear earlier
  • noun
  • Members of the family
  • Humans or animals sharing the same family history

turn

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US / tɜ:n /

UK / tɚn /

A1
  • noun
  • Place where changing of direction happens
  • Your time or chance to perform a duty
  • Your chance to play or do in say a game
  • Unexpected change, as in the weather
  • verb
  • To become (a particular age)
  • To become a different quality, color, etc.
  • To change the direction of something, e.g. a car
  • To move in an opposite direction or position
  • To shape metal with a spinning tool

attempt

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US / ə'tempt /

UK / əˈtɛmpt /

A2
  • noun
  • Effort made to try to do or accomplish something
  • verb
  • To try to do something challenging or difficult

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

continent

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US / ˈkɒntɪnənt /

UK / ˈkɑntənənt /

B1
  • noun
  • Very large piece of land, e.g. Africa or Asia

live

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US / lɪv /

UK / liv /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being broadcast as events happen, not recorded
  • Carrying electric current; able to give a shock
  • Glowing because burning; hot
  • Not yet killed (for food)
  • adverb
  • (Music, drama) as it is performed
  • verb
  • To be alive
  • To experience a particular type of life
  • To make your home in a house or town

rent

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US / rent /

UK / rɛnt /

A2
  • verb
  • To give the use of something in return for payment
  • To cut a piece of cloth by tearing it

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

half

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US / hɑ:f /

UK / hæf, hɑf /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not complete
  • adverb
  • Partly; somewhat
  • noun
  • One of two equal periods of game time in a sport
  • The part you get when one is divided into two;

state

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US / steɪt /

UK / stet /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning region within a country
  • noun
  • Region within a country, with its own government
  • Situation or condition something is in
  • verb
  • To say; declare as fact

follow

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US / ˈfɔləu /

UK / ˈfɑlo /

A1
  • verb
  • To come after someone; be guided by someone
  • To support someone, e.g. singer or comedian
  • To be the logical result of something
  • To happen after something else happens
  • To believe a set of values or a moral teacher
  • To understand something happening or being said
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • Ireland, located in the Atlantic Ocean west of Britain, has a unique history shaped by its remoteness from the mainland. Unlike many other European countries, Ireland was never conquered by the Romans or other early empires. This isolation contributed to the preservation of Christian and classical culture on the island.
    However, Ireland's peaceful existence came to an end when it was invaded by various groups. In the 800s and 900s, the Norsemen, also known as Vikings, launched attacks on Ireland. Then, in the 1100s, the English arrived and established their presence on the island.
    The English-Irish conflict escalated in the 1500s when the English adopted Protestantism while the Irish remained Catholic. This religious divide paved the way for further tensions. In the 1600s, Oliver Cromwell, an English leader, attempted to convert Ireland to Protestantism by expelling Catholics and introducing Protestant settlers. Subsequently, Irish Catholics faced numerous restrictions and limited rights in their own country.
    Land ownership was a critical issue in Ireland during this time. The Catholic Irish were not allowed to own land, leaving them as poor tenant farmers who had to pay rent to English landlords. Their reliance on potatoes as the main food crop exacerbated their vulnerability. When the potato crop was infected by blight in the 1840s, a devastating famine struck, resulting in the starvation of thousands and mass evictions due to inability to pay rent.
    As a result of these harsh conditions, hundreds of thousands of Irish people emigrated, with many choosing North America as their destination. The Catholic Irish predominantly went to the United States due to its independence from British influence, while Protestant Irish immigrants often settled in Canada. The Irish diaspora greatly influenced North American culture, leaving a lasting impact on various aspects of society.
    Notable figures of Irish descent in the United States include Presidents John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan, highlighting the significant contributions made by Irish-Americans to American history and politics. Ireland's history of resilience and forced migration has left an indelible mark on its people and their influence worldwide.
  • Subtitles section
  • Ireland is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, just west of Britain.
  • For much of its history, it has been an advantage to Ireland to be far from the mainland.
  • The Romans or the other early empires never conquered Ireland.
  • It was the remoteness of Ireland that helped preserve much of Christian and classical culture.
  • After the fall of the Roman Empire, wandering tribes destroyed much of what remained on the continent.
  • Finally, it was Ireland's turn to be invaded.
  • First, the Norsemen or Vikings attacked during the 800s and 900s.
  • Then in the 1100s, the English invaded Ireland.
  • Since that time, there has always been an English presence in Ireland.
  • The conflict between the English and the Irish grew worse in the 1500s.
  • Then the English became Protestant, and the Irish remained Catholic.
  • In the 1600s, Oliver Cromwell tried to make Ireland Protestant by driving out the Catholics and bringing in Protestant settlers.
  • In the centuries following, Irish Catholics had very few rights in their own country.
  • The Catholic Irish were not allowed to vote until 1829.
  • Since Irish Catholics were not allowed to own land, they were poor tenant farmers.
  • They paid rent to the English landlords.
  • The main food crop in the 1840s was potatoes.
  • When these became infected by blight, thousands of Irishmen starved.
  • Many others were evicted from their dwellings because they couldn't pay the rent.
  • Hundreds of thousands of Irish took ship for North America.
  • The Catholic Irish preferred to go to the United States because Canada was under British influence.
  • However, many Protestant Irish went to Canada.
  • The influence of the Irish on North American culture has been very great in many areas.
  • Prominent Irish Americans include Presidents John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan.
  • Meanwhile, in Ireland itself, a strong independence movement developed.
  • A rebellion against England in 1916 began a struggle that resulted in independence for most of Ireland.
  • Some Protestant areas in Northern Ireland preferred to stay with England.
  • Republican groups such as the Irish Republican Army wanted to liberate the North from British rule.
  • Nowadays, conflict between Protestants and Catholics is limited to these northern counties.
  • Constant attempts are being made to bring the conflict there to an end.
  • Meanwhile, the Irish Republic of Ayr has become prosperous again.
  • It can sell its agricultural products to the European Common Market.
  • Irish beer and whiskey are sold all over the world.
  • Ireland is also becoming known for its high-tech industries.
  • Because of this relative prosperity, the population is increasing again after a century and a half of decline.
  • The Irish differ from other people because the vast majority of Irishmen live away from their homeland.
  • However, this exodus from Ireland has helped to spread Irish music, culture, and products around the world.
  • On St. Patrick's Day, March 17th, nearly everyone becomes Irish for the day.
  • Then there is a great party with Celtic music, Irish dancing, green beer, and the wearing of the green.