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Russians slowly take ground around Ukrainian city of Bakhmut - BBC News

Video vocabulary

hallmark

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US / ˈhɔ:lmɑ:k /

UK / ˈhɔ:lmɑ:rk /

B2
  • noun
  • Quality that is typical or defines person or thing
  • Mark on gold/silver article stating purity

leave

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US / li:v /

UK / liv /

A1
  • noun
  • Permission to do something
  • Vacation time; time off work
  • verb
  • To go away from; depart
  • To gift property to someone after you die
  • To allow something to continue happening
  • To let something remain unused or available
  • To let something or someone remain somewhere

drone

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US / drəʊn /

UK / dron /

B2
  • noun
  • A remote controlled flying device
  • A continually dull or monotonous voice
  • Male bee
  • verb
  • To talk in a continually dull or monotonous voice

come

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US / kʌm /

UK / kʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To arrive at a place
  • (Of mail) to be delivered
  • To move toward someone; go with someone
  • To reach a certain point or state

think

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US / θɪŋk /

UK / θɪŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To have an idea about something without certainty
  • To have an idea, opinion or belief about something

two

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • number
  • 2

east

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US / i:st /

UK / i:st /

A1
  • noun
  • Direction where the sun rises
  • Geographic area including India, China, Japan etc.

radius

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US / ˈreɪdiəs /

UK / ˈrediəs /

B2
  • noun
  • Area around a certain point
  • Long bone on the thumb side of your lower arm
  • Line from the center to the edge of a circle

anything

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US / ˈeniθɪŋ /

UK / ˈɛniˌθɪŋ /

A1
  • pronoun
  • A thing of any kind

centre

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US / ˈsentə(r) /

UK / ˈsɛntɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Community place people go health or social reasons
  • Place in the middle of something
  • Person or thing that is attracting attention
  • verb
  • To place a focus on something

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

battle

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US / 'bætl /

UK / ˈbætl /

A2
  • noun
  • Military fight between armies
  • Working hard to stop something; struggle
  • verb
  • To fight or struggle against someone or something
  • To work hard to stop something; struggle

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

invasion

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US / ɪnˈveɪʒn /

UK / ɪnˈveʒən /

B1
  • noun
  • Entry into a place to cause harm

weather

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US / 'weðə(r) /

UK / ˈwɛðɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Whether it is raining, sunny, cold etc. outside
  • verb
  • To successfully deal with a difficult situation
  • To erode or become damaged due to the environment

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

area

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US / 'eərɪə /

UK / ˈɛriə /

A1
  • noun
  • Amount of measured space
  • A specific section or space; part of a region
  • A subject or field of study

capture

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US / 'kæptʃə(r) /

UK / ˈkæptʃɚ /

B1
  • verb
  • To attract and hold e.g. interest, attention
  • To record, tape, or film something
  • To catch and prevent from being free
  • To take control of a place or object by force

mortar

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US / ˈmɔ:tə(r) /

UK / ˈmɔ:rtə(r) /

B2
  • noun
  • Stone bowl for crushing substances with a pestle
  • Cement, sand, etc. mixture for bonding bricks, etc.
  • verb
  • To use a bonding cement to coat walls

ukrainian

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US / ju:'kreɪnɪən /

UK / ju:'kreɪnɪrn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of Ukraine
  • noun
  • Person from Ukraine

corner

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US / 'kɔ:nə(r) /

UK / ˈkɔrnɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Place where two lines, sides, corners etc. meet
  • Edges of something, e.g. eyes, boxing ring
  • verb
  • To force into a position impossible to escape from
  • To go around a bend in the road (often by driving)

wait

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US / weɪt /

UK / wet /

A1
  • verb
  • To delay or not do something until later
  • To spend time until an expected thing happens
  • To remain in a place until a thing happens

attack

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US / ə'tæk /

UK / əˈtæk /

A2
  • noun
  • Act intended to hurt someone physically, mentally
  • verb
  • To try to destroy, beat, or injure

route

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US / ru:t /

UK / rut, raʊt /

A2
  • noun
  • Way to get from one place to another place; path
  • Path or way that people often use
  • Method of achieving a certain result
  • verb
  • To send along a particular path or way

ammunition

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US / ˌæmjuˈnɪʃn /

UK / ˌæmjəˈnɪʃən /

B2
  • noun
  • Supply of bullets, etc. that are fired from guns

here

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • adverb
  • In this place; at this location, position or time

position

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US / pəˈzɪʃn /

UK / pəˈzɪʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's opinion or attitude about something
  • Specific location where someone or something is
  • Where you play or your role on a sports team
  • Person's job or status level
  • Set of conditions affecting what you can (not) do
  • verb
  • To put in a particular location or direction

strategy

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US / 'strætədʒɪ /

UK / ˈstrætədʒi /

A2
  • noun
  • Careful plan or method for achieving a goal
  • other
  • Branch of military dealing with command

try

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US / traɪ /

UK / traɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of putting the ball over the rugby goal line
  • verb
  • To make an effort, to attempt to do something
  • To examine someone or something in a court of law
  • To test to see if it is good or you like it
  • To make a person go through hardship; test
  • To examine something to see if it works

day

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US / deɪ /

UK / de /

A1
  • noun
  • A period of 24 hours beginning at midnight
  • The period of time when it is light outside
  • Person's name

strike

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US / straɪk /

UK / straɪk /

A2
  • noun
  • A punch or hit
  • Fact of not hitting the ball when playing baseball
  • Refusal to work to get more pay, protest something
  • verb
  • To hit something
  • To suddenly become (e.g. rich)
  • To have an idea occur to you

man

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US / mæn /

UK / mæn /

A1
  • noun
  • Humans in general, including male and female
  • An adult male human being
  • Male who acts in a masculine way; not like a woman
  • verb
  • To control or operate (a machine); be in charge of
  • To operate a machine (a boat, etc.)

stand

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US / stænd /

UK / stænd /

A1
  • noun
  • Effort to fight against something
  • Piece of furniture; device to hold or support
  • Place in a stadium where spectators watch
  • Table where things are sold at a fair or market
  • verb
  • To be a candidate in an election
  • To be able to accept someone, something; bear
  • To last for a long time
  • To be upright; not be sitting or lying down
  • To place something in a particular position; place
  • To be (as stated)
  • To still be valid
  • To have an opinion about something

might

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US / maɪt /

UK / maɪt /

A1
  • other
  • Used to politely request an action
  • Used to express that something could happen
  • Power, strength, force or influence

seek

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US / si:k /

UK / sik /

A2
  • verb
  • To ask someone for help
  • To search for; try to find or do; look for
  • To try to achieve something

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

below

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US / bɪ'ləʊ /

UK / bɪˈlo /

A1
  • preposition
  • In a lower position, place, or level

encircle

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US / ɪnˈsɜ:kl /

UK / ɪnˈsɜ:rkl /

B1
  • verb
  • To surround on all sides

order

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US / 'ɔ:də(r) /

UK / ˈɔrdɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Religious or social group, as of nuns
  • Instructions to others to do what you want
  • State in which things are neat and organized
  • What you ask to buy, e.g. food in restaurant
  • Social or political control of an area
  • verb
  • To put things in a sequence, e.g. a, b, c
  • To give instructions to others to do what you want
  • To ask for something you want to buy, e.g. a meal

run

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US / rʌn /

UK / rʌn /

A1
  • noun
  • Journey between two places made by ship or car
  • Series of similar things or successes and failures
  • Act of running; exercise of running
  • verb
  • To depart or travel according to a schedule
  • To cause an animal to move in a certain direction
  • (Of an engine) to be operating
  • To start or use a computer program
  • To flow in a certain direction, like a liquid
  • To manage or operate a business
  • To operate or drive something
  • (Of a road) to go from one place to another
  • To move your legs faster than walking

russian

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US / ˈrʌʃn /

UK / ˈrʌʃn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of Russia
  • noun
  • Person from Russia

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

abroad

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US / əˈbrɔ:d /

UK / əˈbrɔd /

A2
  • adverb
  • In or to a foreign country

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

movement

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US / ˈmu:vmənt /

UK / ˈmuvmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Part of a piece of classical music
  • Group with a shared interest or goal
  • Group sharing the same idea to change society, art
  • Action you do when exercising, e.g. in a gym
  • Part of a piece of music

fast

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US / fɑ:st /

UK / fæst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In a way that is difficult to move or change
  • Moving or able to move quickly
  • Showing time that is later than the actual time
  • adverb
  • With a great deal of speed
  • noun
  • Period of time when a person chooses not to eat
  • verb
  • To refuse food for a long time

its

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US / ɪts /

UK / ɪts /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to or belonging to ‘it’
  • determiner
  • Of something; belonging or related to something
  • other
  • Possessive form of “it”

who

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US / hu: /

UK / hu /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Which person
  • Used to introduce information about people

take

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US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
  • verb
  • To accept something that is offered
  • To use a method of traveling, e.g. a bus or train
  • To use a camera to make (a photo)
  • To pick up something and go away with it
  • To study a subject in school
  • To attempt to pass (an exam)
  • To require a certain amount of time, money, space

believe

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US / bɪ'li:v /

UK / bɪˈliv /

A1
  • verb
  • To think or accept that something is true
  • To have a particular opinion about something

kilometre

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US / ˈkɪləmi:tə(r) /

UK / ˈkɪləmiːtər /

A1
  • noun
  • A metric unit of length equal to 1000 metres

miss

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US / mɪs /

UK / mɪs /

A1
  • noun
  • Action of not hitting something or someone
  • Form of address to unmarried girl or woman
  • verb
  • To be absent
  • To fail to hit something e.g. a ball
  • To do without something
  • To fail to see or sense something
  • To fail to understand someone's message
  • To be too late to ride on something e.g. train
  • To feel you want to see someone who is not there

approach

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US / ə'prəʊtʃ /

UK / əˈprəʊtʃ /

A2
  • noun
  • Means of reaching a place, often a road or path
  • Request of someone with a specific goal in mind
  • Specific way to handle a project, task, problem
  • verb
  • To get close to reaching something or somewhere
  • To request someone to do something specific

hold

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US / həʊld /

UK / hold /

A1
  • noun
  • Section of a ship or plane used for storing things
  • Influence or power held over someone
  • Place of support for hands or feet when climbing
  • verb
  • To agree to keep something for someone
  • To have the capacity to support/contain something
  • To control an area and protect it from attack
  • To not allow someone to leave a place
  • To cause an event to happen at a place or time
  • To use hands or arms to carry or keep something
  • To have a specific quality or property
  • To keep an image, belief or feeling in your mind
  • To have or own something
  • To wait before being able to talk on the phone
  • To limit the movement of someone in a sport

military

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US / 'mɪlətrɪ /

UK / ˈmɪlɪˌtɛri /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the army or navy
  • noun
  • Army or armed forces

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

very

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US / 'verɪ /

UK / ˈvɛri /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a large degree or amount
  • adverb
  • A lot; much; many
  • Used to stress or emphasize a noun

brigade

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US / brɪ'ɡeɪd /

UK / brɪˈɡeɪd /

B2
  • noun
  • Official group who give help or rescue

gain

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US / ɡeɪn /

UK / ɡen /

A2
  • noun
  • An increase in something, such as weight
  • verb
  • To increase in something, such as weight
  • To get something wanted, needed or valued

old

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US / əʊld /

UK / old /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having existed for a long time, not young or new
  • Age of a person since birth

work

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US / wɜ:k /

UK / wɚk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Activity completed in order to make money
  • noun
  • The product of some artistic or literary endeavor
  • Everything created by an author, artist, musician
  • Activity you do in order to make money
  • Place of employment
  • Final product or result of a some labor or effort
  • verb
  • To bring into a specific state of success
  • To be functioning properly, e.g. a car
  • To do your job in your company or workplace
  • To make an effort to do something
  • To operate a machine or device

heart

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US / hɑ:t /

UK / hɑrt /

A1
  • noun
  • A feeling of care for others; compassion
  • Courage, confidence, and emotional strength
  • Be cheerfully encouraging
  • Most essential, important, or central part
  • Referring to a promise or something important
  • State or feelings of affection or deep love
  • Core part of a vegetable, e.g. a lettuce
  • The part of the body that pumps blood
  • Place where emotions are believed to be felt
  • A shape that represents love

move

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US / mu:v /

UK / muv /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of moving a playing piece in chess, etc.
  • An action; doing something
  • Step taken to achieve a goal
  • verb
  • To cause someone to have certain emotions
  • To cause something to change to a different place
  • To change where people live or a business operates
  • To take action to do or achieve something

milestone

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US / ˈmaɪlstəʊn /

UK / ˈmaɪlstoʊn /

C2
  • noun
  • Significant event in your life (or in a project)

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

way

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US / weɪ /

UK / we /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to emphasize the amount of something
  • noun
  • Particular aspect of something being thought about
  • One of various choices that could be made
  • Particular existing condition or state
  • (Often long) distance or length of time
  • How something is done
  • Route to go to a place
  • Small street
  • Usual behavior, emotions or habits of someone

yes

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US / jes /

UK / jɛs /

A1
  • adverb
  • Way to say you agree or will do something

troop

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US / tru:p /

UK / trup /

B1
  • noun
  • Group of people
  • Group of mammals or birds
  • A group of soldiers
  • verb
  • To walk past in a group or large number
  • To move or gather in a crowd

news

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US / nju:z /

UK / nu:z /

A1
  • noun
  • Broadcast on radio or TV about recent events
  • Information about recent events

question

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US / 'kwestʃən /

UK / ˈkwɛstʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Issue or problems you are dealing with
  • What you ask about; issue
  • verb
  • To ask for or try to get information
  • To have or express concerns or uncertainty

street

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US / stri:t /

UK / strit /

A1
  • noun
  • Road in a city with buildings and places to walk

defend

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US / dɪ'fend /

UK / dɪˈfɛnd /

B1
  • verb
  • To protect and explain your position in court
  • To protect against an attack
  • To try to prevent another team from scoring

commander

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US / kəˈmɑ:ndə(r) /

UK / kəˈmændə(r) /

B1
  • noun
  • Person with authority who commands or controls

destroy

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US / dɪ'strɔɪ /

UK / dɪˈstrɔɪ /

A2
  • verb
  • To damage so badly that something no longer exists
  • To defeat someone or something easily
  • To kill a sick or unwanted animal

head

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US / hed /

UK / hɛd /

A1
  • noun
  • Counter for the number of cattle
  • Natural mental ability or intelligence
  • Leader or person with the greatest authority
  • Mind; mental ability; mental state
  • Side of a coin with a head on it
  • Top part of your body with eyes and a mouth
  • Starting point of something, e.g. a river
  • verb
  • To hit a ball with your head in a game
  • To be first or at the front or top (e.g. a list)
  • To travel or move toward a particular place; To go in a particular direction
  • To become the leader of something
  • To lead or be responsible for something

send

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US / send /

UK / sɛnd /

A1
  • verb
  • To cause to behave or respond in a particular way
  • To cause mail or packages to go to another place
  • To move something quickly in a particular way
  • To give information or greetings to someone

coordinate

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US / kəʊ'ɔ:dɪneɪt /

UK / ko'ɔrdəˈnet /

B1
  • noun
  • Point on a map defining a location e.g. 135N, 34W
  • verb
  • To match styles or colors that go well together
  • To cause body parts to move smoothly together
  • To make plans to meet a shared goal
  • To bring order and organization to something

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

spend

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US / spend /

UK / spɛnd /

A2
  • verb
  • To use money to pay for something
  • To use time in order to do something
  • To use up something completely

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

everybody

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US / ˈevribɒdi /

UK / ˈɛvriˌbɑdi, -ˌbʌdi /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Every person; everyone

land

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US / lænd /

UK / lænd /

A1
  • noun
  • Region or country
  • Earth; the ground
  • verb
  • To arrive or cause a boat to arrive at the shore
  • To obtain or get something that you wanted
  • To (cause to) come down to the ground safely
  • To cause to arrive in a specific place or state

constant

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US / 'kɒnstənt /

UK / ˈkɑnstənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Happening frequently or without pause
  • noun
  • Thing that happens always or at a regular rate

stay

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US / steɪ /

UK / ste /

A1
  • noun
  • Legal order to stop or delay an action
  • Strong rope or wire that supports a ship's mast
  • Period of time spent living in or visiting a place
  • verb
  • To keep trying without giving up
  • To remain in the same place and not move away
  • To spend time visiting a place or someone's home

tell

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US / tel /

UK / tɛl /

A1
  • verb
  • To (strongly) advise a person to do something
  • To be able to guess
  • To say or communicate information to someone
  • To inform, but without speaking; indicate
  • To have a negative effect on someone
  • To order someone to do something; command
  • To recognize something based on certain signs
  • To report something to an authority
  • To explain something or teach someone something

first

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US / fɜ:st /

UK / fɚst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 1st; Coming before all others in time or place
  • noun
  • Something that has not happened before
  • Position of the winner of a competition

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

hard

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US / hɑ:d /

UK / hɑː(r)d /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Difficult to do; difficult to understand
  • (Of facts) not able to be misunderstood; clear
  • (Of alcohol) strong
  • Involving or requiring lots of work, effort, care
  • Being full of pain, trouble, and problems
  • Strong
  • (Of edge) clear; sharp
  • Difficult to bend, break or cut; solid
  • adverb
  • With lots of force, power, or impact

president

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US / ˈprezɪdənt /

UK / ˈprɛzɪdənt,-ˌdɛnt /

A2
  • noun
  • Person in charge of a country, or organization

warfare

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US / ˈwɔ:fɛə /

UK / ˈwɔrˌfɛr /

B2
  • noun
  • Methods used by those fighting in a war
  • Long, sometimes violent struggle between groups

win

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US / wɪn /

UK / wɪn /

A1
  • noun
  • Success in beating the other team or competitors
  • Success in a game or contest
  • verb
  • To get something as a prize because of a success
  • To gain something you want because of your efforts
  • To succeed in a game or contest

city

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US / 'sɪtɪ /

UK / ˈsɪti /

A1
  • noun
  • Area with many buildings, roads and people

fight

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US / faɪt /

UK / faɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • An argument or quarrel
  • Act of trying to hurt someone by hitting them
  • A struggle to do a difficult task
  • verb
  • To argue or quarrel with someone about something
  • To try to hurt someone by hitting them
  • To struggle to do a difficult task

ground

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US / graʊnd /

UK / ɡraʊnd /

A1
  • noun
  • Connection of electrical equipment to earth
  • Place where people play particular sports
  • Solid surface of the earth that we stand on
  • verb
  • To break (coffee, etc.) into tiny bits with machine
  • To make loud jarring noise by pressing hard
  • To make sharp or smooth through friction
  • To press together with force making a sound
  • To punish someone by not allowing them to go out
  • To hit the bottom
  • (Of boat) to hit the bottom so it cannot move
  • To prevent a plane from taking off
  • To place the ball over the goal line in rugby

absolutely

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US / ˈæbsəlu:tli /

UK / ˈæbsəˌlutli, ˌæbsəˈlutli /

A2
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally; very

suddenly

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US / ˈsʌdənli /

UK / ˈsʌdn:lɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In an unexpected or very quick manner

resistance

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US / rɪ'zɪstəns /

UK / rɪˈzɪstəns /

A2
  • noun
  • Force that stops or slows movement of something
  • Refusal to accept something new or different

she

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US / ʃɪ /

UK / ʃi /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Female person or animal mentioned before
  • (Refers to female person mentioned before)

ukraine

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US / ju:'kreɪn /

UK / ju:'kreɪn /

A1
  • other
  • A republic in southeastern Europe; formerly a European soviet; the center of the original Russian st

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

second

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US / 'sekənd /

UK / ˈsɛkənd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 2nd; the one following first
  • noun
  • Unit of time; one sixtieth of a minute
  • Short period of time that you wait for someone
  • (Do) soon

threat

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US / θret /

UK / θrɛt /

A2
  • noun
  • Warning of probable trouble
  • A warning that you may be harmed

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

down

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US / daʊn /

UK / daʊn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being sad, sick, or unhappy
  • Not operating, working, or functioning as expected
  • adverb
  • In a sitting or lying position
  • Towards or on the ground, floor, or bottom
  • Written or copied onto a piece of paper or book
  • noun
  • A period of play in American Football
  • The soft, smooth hairs that cover a bird's body
  • preposition
  • Along something's path, course, or direction
  • Going from a higher position to a lower position
  • verb
  • To eat or drink very quickly and without stopping

fire

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US / 'faɪə(r) /

UK / faɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Heat and the flame produced when burning
  • Intense energy for or about something
  • verb
  • To apply heat to something to make it hard
  • To make a person leave their job; dismiss
  • To shoot a gun or weapon
  • To launch something into the sky, e.g. a rocket
  • To start working on something e.g. a project

step

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US / step /

UK / stɛp /

A1
  • noun
  • Movement done as part of a particular dance
  • Distance covered by one movement of a leg; stride
  • One part or stage in a process
  • Sound made by the feet while walking; footstep
  • Flat horizontal piece that forms stairs
  • verb
  • To raise and moving the foot to put it down

then

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US / ðen /

UK / ðɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • A time that is not now
  • Following another thing in time or arrangement
  • Following on reasonably from what was just stated
  • At that time, not now

kremlin

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US / 'kremlɪn /

UK / 'kremlɪn /

A1
  • other
  • Citadel of a Russian town
  • Citadel of Moscow, housing the offices of the Russian government

lack

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US / læk /

UK / læk /

A2
  • noun
  • The state of not having or not having enough of
  • A shortage of something
  • verb
  • To not have, or not have enough, of something

low

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US / ləʊ /

UK / lo /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having a small quantity, supply, or amount
  • Being unhappy or unpleasant in attitude
  • Not high; being near the ground, or bottom
  • (Of a voice, sound) being soft; quiet
  • noun
  • Situation of not having a lot of something

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

hear

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • verb
  • To be aware of sound; to perceive with the ear
  • To be told or find out information or facts
  • To consider or listen to a court case

loss

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US / lɒs /

UK / lɔ:s /

A2
  • noun
  • Friend, family, or other loved person's death
  • Decrease or decline in quantity or amount
  • Experience or state of failing to have or keep
  • A situation when you lose a game
  • Process of failing to have or keep something
  • Difficulty or trouble caused by someone's leaving
  • Situation when more money is spent than is earned

manage

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US / ˈmænɪdʒ /

UK / ˈmænɪdʒ /

A1
  • verb
  • To survive hardships and difficulties; to cope
  • To run or operate a business by directing others

away

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US / ə'weɪ /

UK / əˈwe /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not present
  • adverb
  • Disappear completely
  • Doing something with a lot of energy
  • Not here; far from here; in a different direction
  • To a different area, location

month

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US / mʌnθ /

UK / mʌnθ /

A1
  • noun
  • One of 12 28-31 day periods in the year

young

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US / jʌŋ /

UK / jʌŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • At an early stage of existence; not mature
  • Being recently created or started
  • noun
  • Babies in a group or family of animals

behind

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US / bɪˈhaɪnd /

UK / bɪˈhaɪnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a later or slower time than expected
  • Being in a losing position in a sporting event
  • Being in the past; old fashioned
  • adverb
  • Remaining
  • noun
  • The part of the body that one sits on
  • preposition
  • At or toward the back of someone or something
  • Supporting or helping someone

urban

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US / 'ɜ:bən /

UK / ˈɚbən /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a city; located in a city

clear

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US / klɪə(r) /

UK / klɪr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Empty; without anything in it or on it
  • Being certain and without doubt
  • Being without any streaks, spots, or cracks
  • Easy to understand; well-explained; obvious
  • adverb
  • Completely; entirely; through the whole of
  • Away from; free from
  • verb
  • To recover from or remove a problem
  • To get rid of the entire contents of
  • To give permission for something to happen
  • To make a place or surface empty by removing
  • To prove that someone is not guilty or to blame

before

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US / bɪˈfɔ:(r) /

UK / bɪˈfɔr,-ˈfor /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a time earlier than the present; previously
  • conjunction
  • In advance of something happening
  • preposition
  • In front of someone or something

careful

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US / ˈkeəfl /

UK / ˈkerfl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Trying not to make mistakes; working slowly

cover

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US / 'kʌvə(r) /

UK / ˈkʌvɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • A different version of another song
  • Bed sheets; blankets
  • (Police or military) protection from attack
  • Amount of money to be paid in an insurance claim
  • Thing you put over something to close or hide it
  • Front and back part of a book or magazine
  • Shelter built to protect from the natural elements
  • verb
  • To record a different version of another song
  • To include as part of its area
  • To put something over something to hide it
  • To discuss a subject in a talk or meeting
  • To form a layer over something so it is hidden
  • To have sufficient funds to pay for something
  • To include something within an agreed limit
  • To report news on TV, radio or in a newspaper
  • (Police or military) to protect from attack
  • To travel a certain distance in a given time
  • To wrap something with something, such as a cloth

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

plan

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US / plæn /

UK / plæn /

A1
  • noun
  • Drawing of how something should be done or made

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

putin

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US / /

UK / /

A1
  • noun
  • An act or the right of putting the ball into a scrum.

yet

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US / jet /

UK / jɛt /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a later time (used after ‘not’)
  • (Used to emphasize that thing is, will be greater)
  • Eventually; at a future time
  • Until now; up to the present
  • conjunction
  • Adding to what has been said, often as a contrast

round

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US / raʊnd /

UK / raʊnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in the shape of a circle or ball
  • Consisting of curved and not straight lines
  • Somewhat fat or curved in physical appearance
  • Being a whole number, not a fraction, decimal
  • adverb
  • From beginning to end (e.g. of the year)
  • noun
  • One of the three-minute periods in boxing
  • Drinks bought by one person for a group
  • Series regular visits, routes, or stops at places
  • Single shot or bullet fired from a gun
  • An object with a circular shape
  • One stage in a series of games, e.g. football
  • One's turn in a game such as cards
  • preposition
  • Going around
  • verb
  • To cause or make a circular or curved shape
  • To go or pass around the bend or corner
  • To change from a fraction to nearest whole number

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

good

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US / ɡʊd /

UK / ɡʊd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper, appropriate or right
  • (Of an amount) enough; plenty
  • Excellent; high quality
  • Acting well or properly; of moral character
  • In a positive or happy emotional state
  • noun
  • Advantage or benefit

single

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US / 'sɪŋɡl /

UK / ˈsɪŋɡəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being one only, without others
  • Only; merely
  • Not married or in a relationship
  • noun
  • One run in cricket or a hit baseball
  • An individual song from a CD or album
  • Person who is not married or in a relationship

jet

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US / dʒet /

UK / dʒɛt /

B1
  • noun
  • Stream of liquid/gas shooting out of small opening
  • (Of liquid, gas) to shoot out of a small opening
  • A pipe that water or gas goes through
  • Hard, black, usually shiny stone
  • verb
  • (Of liquid, gas) to shoot out of a small opening
  • To travel on a jet plane

really

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US / ˈri:əli /

UK / ˈriəˌli, ˈrili /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to stress something that is said; definitely
  • In a true or accurate manner
  • Very

stock

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US / stɒk /

UK / stɑk /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • (E.g. of a response) standard; usual; not original
  • noun
  • Animals such as cattle kept for breeding
  • Tasty liquid added to stews, soups etc.
  • Merchandise; goods kept by a business for sale
  • Piece of a business, bought in the form of shares
  • verb
  • To keep some of, as items for sale

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

tough

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US / tʌf /

UK / tʌf /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • (Of food) difficult to chew or bite through
  • Very difficult to do or deal with
  • Having strict standards
  • Being firm and not easily bent or broken
  • Being strong physically or mentally
  • Being difficult to persuade
  • Capable of violence

war

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US / wɔ:(r) /

UK / wɔr /

A2
  • noun
  • Situation where armies fight each other

resolute

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US / ˈrezəlu:t /

UK / ˈrɛzəˌlut /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Firm in purpose or belief

our

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to us

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

now

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US / naʊ /

UK / naʊ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At the present time or moment
  • Right away or in the next possible moment
  • Used to refer to something that just happened
  • Time between the present and a moment in the past
  • conjunction
  • Resulting from or because of something

operate

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US / ˈɒpəreɪt /

UK / ˈɑ:pəreɪt /

A1
  • verb
  • To control or handle something, such as a machine
  • To control or manage something such as a business
  • To be working or being used
  • To perform surgery on someone

south

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US / saʊθ /

UK / saʊθ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Direction to your right when facing the rising sun
  • Coming from the opposite direction from north
  • noun
  • The direction to your right of the rising sun
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • The Ukrainian city of Bakhmut has become a battleground, with Ukrainian troops from the 93rd Brigade defending the city against Russian forces. Despite the intense street fighting and the Russians gaining ground, the Ukrainian forces are still holding on. Bakhmut serves as a symbol of Ukrainian resistance, which President Putin has been trying to dismantle for months. The situation is dangerous, and any movement is potentially a target. The weather is clear, making it ideal for Russian drones to operate in the sky. The Russian positions are only two kilometers away, which brings the war alarmingly close. Despite the pressure, Ukrainian commanders and soldiers remain resolute, determined to hold onto the city. However, the lack of ammunition is a major battle for them. Old stock sent from abroad is unreliable, and the troops frequently find themselves running for cover due to missed fires. Adding to the chaos, Russian jets are also a constant threat. In the city center, the destruction caused by the Russian forces is evident. Buildings are constantly being shelled, and the Ukrainian forces face an uphill battle. Despite the challenges, the Ukrainian soldiers continue to believe in victory, although the duration of the conflict remains uncertain.
  • Subtitles section
  • Urban warfare in Bakhmut.
  • We see Ukrainian troops from the 93rd Brigade defending this battle-scarred city.
  • They still hold Bakhmut, but there's street fighting now in some areas and the Russians are gaining ground.
  • The city stands as a symbol of Ukrainian resistance.
  • President Putin has spent months trying to tear it down.
  • Our route is carefully planned.
  • Anything that moves here can be a target.
  • Time to stay low.
  • And move fast, single file.
  • But suddenly, just behind us, the war comes Closer.
  • On our way, a Russian shell landed very close behind us.
  • We have to be very careful about our movements.
  • It's a very clear day here, good weather for Russian drones that will be operating in the skies.
  • The nearest Russian positions are just two kilometres away.
  • We're taken below ground to commanders at the heart of the battle, like Ihor, who's resolute but in a tough corner.
  • They are trying to push us, he says, and to encircle us so we have to leave the city.
  • But it hasn't worked yet.
  • Of course, we have losses, but we are managing and holding on.
  • Above ground, they wait for orders, like the young men before them in wars gone by.
  • They get coordinates for an enemy position and rush to fire a 60mm mortar.
  • The second round doesn't fire.
  • Missed fire.
  • Sending the troops and us running for cover.
  • Everybody go to the cover.
  • Missed fire.
  • They tell us it was old stock sent from abroad.
  • Their other battle here is with lack of ammunition.
  • Then a threat above our heads.
  • Russian jets.
  • Do you hear it?
  • It's Russian jets on the attack radius.
  • In the city centre, the hallmark of Russia's war.
  • What it seeks to capture, it destroys.
  • We're just hearing constant shelling.
  • Do you still believe that Ukraine will win?
  • Yes, absolutely, yes.
  • But how long do you think that might take?
  • It's a really hard question.
  • We are not high-ranking military strategy, but we're trying to do the best to hold the city.
  • Just around the corner, the latest strike.
  • The Kremlin is stepping up its attacks in the east and south of Ukraine as a grim milestone approaches.
  • The first anniversary of Russia's invasion.
  • Orna Giren, BBC News, Bathmut.