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This weird trick will help you summon an army of worms - Kenny Coogan

Video vocabulary

flight

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US / flaɪt /

UK / flaɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of leaving a place, usually to escape danger
  • Trip by plane, helicopter etc.

mystery

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US / ˈmɪstri /

UK / ˈmɪstəri /

A2
  • noun
  • Quality of being strange and not understood
  • Book, play, or film about solving a strange crime
  • Something that is not known

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

wooden

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US / ˈwʊdn /

UK / ˈwʊdn /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • (Of acting) without natural emotion; unconvincing
  • Made of wood

set

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US / set /

UK / sɛt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Prepared for something; ready
  • noun
  • Complete group of something
  • Place where a television show or movie is filmed
  • Group of games in a tennis match
  • Device that receives radio or television signals
  • verb
  • To make a clock state or ring at a particular time
  • To decide upon or choose something
  • To make something ready for use (e.g. table)
  • To decide on a price for something
  • To become hard (of glue, concrete etc.)
  • To be located in a specific place or time
  • To put (e.g. a vase) down carefully in a place
  • To put someone in a certain condition or state
  • (Of the sun) to go lower than the horizon

soil

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US / sɔɪl /

UK / sɔɪl /

B1
  • noun
  • Conditions in which something develops
  • Mix of natural material in which plants grow
  • Land of a certain country
  • verb
  • To get or become dirty

test

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US / test /

UK / test /

A1
  • noun
  • A medical examination
  • Action to establish the truth or nature of
  • Examination; questions to measure knowledge
  • verb
  • To be given a medical examination
  • To try to establish the truth or nature of
  • To ask a series of questions to measure knowledge

vegetable

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US / ˈvedʒtəbl /

UK / ˈvɛdʒtəbəl, ˈvɛdʒɪtə- /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Made from plants such as tomato, lettuce, carrots
  • noun
  • Plant that is raised and eaten as food

within

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US / wɪˈðɪn /

UK / wɪðˈɪn, wɪθ- /

A1
  • adverb
  • Inside the limits of an area, time or range
  • preposition
  • From the inside of something

middle

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US / 'mɪdl /

UK / ˈmidl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Equal distance from extremes
  • noun
  • Place that is halfway between two things

send

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US / send /

UK / sɛnd /

A1
  • verb
  • To cause to behave or respond in a particular way
  • To cause mail or packages to go to another place
  • To move something quickly in a particular way
  • To give information or greetings to someone

begin

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US / bɪ'ɡɪn /

UK / ˈbeɡɪn /

A1
  • verb
  • To do the first part of an action; to start

exploit

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US / ɪk'splɔɪt /

UK / ɪkˈsplɔɪt /

B1
  • noun
  • Personal journey or series of events
  • verb
  • To selfishly take advantage of or treat badly
  • To use something in a very effective manner

predator

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US / 'predətə(r) /

UK / ˈprɛdətɚ, -ˌtɔr /

B1
  • noun
  • An animal that hunts and kills other animals
  • Person preying on the weak to gain advantage

sound

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US / saʊnd /

UK / saʊnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Sensible, dependable and reliable
  • Unbroken or undisturbed, as of sleep
  • Firm or solid in structure
  • Sane; not mentally ill
  • Clearly reasoned; involving sense, good judgment
  • noun
  • Unique quality that characterizes a style of music
  • Waves traveling in air or water that can be heard
  • verb
  • To seem or appear to be, from what was said
  • To say in a clear deliberate manner
  • To make a noise, e.g. to ring a bell

water

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US / 'wɔ:tə(r) /

UK / ˈwɔtɚ, ˈwɑtɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Clear liquid that forms the seas, rivers and rain
  • Large area such as an ocean or sea
  • verb
  • (Of the eyes) to produce tears
  • (Mouth) to become wet at the thought of nice food
  • To pour liquids onto a plant to keep it alive

earth

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US / ɜ:θ /

UK / ɚθ /

A1
  • noun
  • Wire connecting an electrical device to the ground
  • The planet we live on
  • Soil in which we grow plants

evolve

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US / ɪ'vɒlv /

UK / ɪˈvɑlv /

B1
  • verb
  • To develop certain features
  • To develop or change slowly over time
  • To slowly change or develop into something better

individual

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US / ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒuəl /

UK / ˌɪndəˈvɪdʒuəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Made for use by one single person
  • Having a distinct manner different from others
  • noun
  • Single person, looked at separately from others

wing

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US / wɪŋ /

UK / wɪŋ /

A2
  • noun
  • Part of an animal's body that is used for flying
  • One of the two parts on the side of a plane, bird
  • verb
  • To fly to a place

frequency

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US / 'fri:kwənsɪ /

UK / ˈfrikwənsi /

B1
  • noun
  • Number of repetitions of (radio or sound) wave
  • How often something happens

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

through

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US / θru: /

UK / θru /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • having finished using or doing something
  • adverb
  • From the beginning of something until the end
  • preposition
  • Over, in, across an entire thing or place
  • Allowing you to pass between, or to
  • By a particular way or process; by the use of

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

vibe

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US / vaɪb /

UK / vaɪb /

C1
  • noun
  • Distinct emotional aura experienced instinctively

worth

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US / wɜ:θ /

UK / wɚθ /

A2
  • other
  • the financial, practical or moral value of somebody/something
  • having a particular value, especially in money

why

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US / waɪ /

UK / hwaɪ, waɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Question word to ask for a reason
  • exclamation
  • (Used to express surprise or approval)

control

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US / kən'trəʊl /

UK / kənˈtrol /

A1
  • noun
  • A device designed to operate a machine
  • Participant in experiment that is left untouched
  • Act to dominate or command; make manageable
  • A law limiting the growth or spread of something
  • A place which overseas or manages e.g. a factory
  • verb
  • To direct or influence the behavior of something

hour

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • noun
  • 60 minutes
  • Particular time of the day
  • Fixed, regularly occurring time

inquiry

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US / ɪn'kwaɪərɪ /

UK / ɪnˈkwaɪri, ˈɪnˌkwaɪri, ˈɪnkwəri, ˈɪŋ- /

B1
  • noun
  • Process of seeking information
  • Official examination to get information

those

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US / ðəʊz /

UK / ðoz /

A1
  • determiner
  • The people or things we are talking about
  • pronoun
  • The objects far from the speaker

burrow

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US / ˈbʌrəʊ /

UK / ˈbɜ:roʊ /

B1
  • noun
  • Hole in the ground dug by an animal for protection
  • verb
  • To dig a hole in the ground for protection

observation

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US / ˌɒbzəˈveɪʃn /

UK / ˌɑbzɚˈveʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Remark or comment on something you noticed
  • Practice of performing actions required by rules

hold

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US / həʊld /

UK / hold /

A1
  • noun
  • Section of a ship or plane used for storing things
  • Influence or power held over someone
  • Place of support for hands or feet when climbing
  • verb
  • To agree to keep something for someone
  • To have the capacity to support/contain something
  • To control an area and protect it from attack
  • To not allow someone to leave a place
  • To cause an event to happen at a place or time
  • To use hands or arms to carry or keep something
  • To have a specific quality or property
  • To keep an image, belief or feeling in your mind
  • To have or own something
  • To wait before being able to talk on the phone
  • To limit the movement of someone in a sport

result

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US / rɪ'zʌlt /

UK / rɪˈzʌlt /

A2
  • noun
  • Something produced through tests or experiments
  • Final score of a competition, election or game
  • verb
  • To be the outcome of other causes and effects

trance

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US / trɑ:ns /

UK / træns /

B2
  • noun
  • Daydreaming state; unaware state

british

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US / ˈbrɪtɪʃ /

UK / ˈbrɪtɪʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of British

crawl

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US / krɔ:l /

UK / krɔl /

B1
  • noun
  • Very slow progress (e.g. traffic)
  • Swimming by moving your arms forward then back
  • verb
  • To move very slowly or cautiously
  • To move along with the body close to the ground
  • To walk like an insect

fill

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US / fɪl /

UK / fɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of filling; amount used to make something full
  • verb
  • To make something full
  • To move into all parts of an area
  • To repair a surface by adding a substance to it
  • To use (time); to do something during

stake

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US / steɪk /

UK / stek /

B1
  • noun
  • Share/interest in the success of a business, etc.
  • Money bet in a game that can be won or lost
  • The share you have in a company
  • Post stuck in the ground you can tie things to
  • verb
  • To bet or wager on an outcome
  • To risk something important by taking a risk

work

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US / wɜ:k /

UK / wɚk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Activity completed in order to make money
  • noun
  • The product of some artistic or literary endeavor
  • Everything created by an author, artist, musician
  • Activity you do in order to make money
  • Place of employment
  • Final product or result of a some labor or effort
  • verb
  • To bring into a specific state of success
  • To be functioning properly, e.g. a car
  • To do your job in your company or workplace
  • To make an effort to do something
  • To operate a machine or device

believe

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US / bɪ'li:v /

UK / bɪˈliv /

A1
  • verb
  • To think or accept that something is true
  • To have a particular opinion about something

bewitch

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US / bɪˈwɪtʃ /

UK / bɪˈwɪtʃ /

C2
  • verb
  • To cause to fall under your control, as by magic

human

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US / 'hju:mən /

UK / ˈhjumən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning or characteristic of people
  • noun
  • A person; a man, woman or child

prey

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US / preɪ /

UK / pre /

B1
  • noun
  • The victim of another person's aggression
  • other
  • The victim of another person's aggression
  • verb
  • To hunt (other animals) in order to eat them
  • To cause another to be a victim

tickle

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US / 'tɪkl /

UK / ˈtɪkəl /

B1
  • noun
  • Discomfort caused by something touching the skin
  • Discomfort in the throat before a person coughs
  • Touching someone lightly causing them to laugh
  • Slight adjustment of settings on a device
  • verb
  • To amuse or entertain someone
  • To touch someone lightly causing them to laugh
  • To slightly adjust settings on a device

its

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US / ɪts /

UK / ɪts /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to or belonging to ‘it’
  • determiner
  • Of something; belonging or related to something
  • other
  • Possessive form of “it”

produce

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US / prə'dju:s /

UK / prəˈdus, -ˈdjus, pro- /

A1
  • noun
  • Fresh foods such as fruits and vegetables
  • verb
  • To grow something naturally
  • To make something appear
  • To manufacture something using machines
  • To control the making a movie or television show

top

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US / tɒp /

UK / tɑp /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good or great; excellent
  • Being the most in degree or quality
  • noun
  • Item of clothing covering shoulders to waist, hips
  • A cover or lid
  • Part (e.g. road) that is the furthest away
  • Highest or upper part or point of something
  • Best or highest status or position
  • Flat upper surface or edge of an object
  • Child's toy that spins on its point
  • Upper section or leaves of fruits and vegetables
  • Winning in a sport or contest
  • verb
  • To be higher or larger than a specific value
  • To arrive at the highest point of something
  • To put a cover or layer or over something
  • To kill; murder
  • To hold the highest position on a list
  • To be more important, successful or better than
  • To beat someone or win at a game

evade

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US / ɪˈveɪd /

UK / ɪˈved /

B2
  • verb
  • To avoid being captured; avoid answering

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

yes

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US / jes /

UK / jɛs /

A1
  • adverb
  • Way to say you agree or will do something

pursue

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US / pə'sju: /

UK / pɚˈsu /

B1
  • verb
  • To follow and try to catch, or to reach a goal
  • To try to achieve or get something over time

risk

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US / rɪsk /

UK / rɪsk /

A1
  • noun
  • Actions that cause potential problems
  • verb
  • To do something potentially dangerous or foolish

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

take

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US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
  • verb
  • To accept something that is offered
  • To use a method of traveling, e.g. a bus or train
  • To use a camera to make (a photo)
  • To pick up something and go away with it
  • To study a subject in school
  • To attempt to pass (an exam)
  • To require a certain amount of time, money, space

avoid

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US / ə'vɔɪd /

UK / əˈvɔɪd /

A2
  • verb
  • To prevent from happening
  • To stay away from

adaptation

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US / ˌædæpˈteɪʃn /

UK / ˌædæpˈteʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Music, movie or play, changed to a new form
  • Changing to a new form; thing that is changed

book

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US / bʊk /

UK / bʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • Thing made of pages with writing on that you read
  • verb
  • (Police) to officially record someone's crimes
  • To reserve (hotel room, etc.) in advance
  • To produce a red or yellow card to a soccer player

rat

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US / ræt /

UK / ræt /

B1
  • noun
  • Long-tailed rodent similar to/bigger than a mouse
  • Person who is not loyal and reveals secrets

testing

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US / ˈtestɪŋ /

UK / ˈtestɪŋ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be given a medical examination
  • To try to establish the truth or nature of
  • To ask a series of questions to measure knowledge

tremble

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US / 'trembl /

UK / ˈtrɛmbəl /

B1
  • verb
  • To shake a little, as due to an earthquake
  • To shake slightly because you are afraid/excited

usually

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US / ˈju:ʒuəli /

UK / ˈjuːʒuəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Normally; regularly

weight

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US / weɪt /

UK / wet /

A2
  • noun
  • How heavy something is
  • Metal object to measure how heavy something is
  • Importance, power, and influence person, thing has
  • A source of worry, sadness, or emotional stress

record

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US / 'rekɔ:d /

UK / ˈrekərd /

A1
  • noun
  • Highest or most extreme level achieved
  • Round plastic disc on which music has been stored
  • History of a person's past actions or achievements
  • verb
  • To indicate a temperature, speed, etc.; register
  • To write down or say what happened
  • To put music, sounds onto a device to store it

maybe

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US / ˈmeɪbi /

UK / ˈmebi /

A1
  • adverb
  • Possibly but not certainly; perhaps

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

bury

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US / 'berɪ /

UK / ˈbɛri /

B1
  • verb
  • To put something into the ground and cover it

croak

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US / krəʊk /

UK / krok /

C1
  • verb
  • To make a rough sound from the throat, like a frog

earthworm

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US / ˈɜ:θˌwɜ:m /

UK / ˈə:θˌwə:m /

C2
  • noun
  • Worm that burrows into and helps aerate soil

fork

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US / fɔ:k /

UK / fɔ:rk /

A2
  • noun
  • Place where a road, tree divides into two branches
  • Tool with 4-5 points for eating or digging
  • verb
  • To divide or separate into two branches

really

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US / ˈri:əli /

UK / ˈriəˌli, ˈrili /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to stress something that is said; definitely
  • In a true or accurate manner
  • Very

would

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate something imagined
  • Used to ask or request something politely
  • Verb used to indicate possibility, request etc.
  • Used to indicate a preference
  • Used to indicate a reaction
  • Indicates something that occurred repeatedly
  • Used to indicate willingness or ability to do

advantage

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US / əd'vɑ:ntɪdʒ /

UK / ædˈvæntɪdʒ /

A2
  • noun
  • Thing making the chance of success higher
  • A positive point about something

against

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US / əˈgenst /

UK / əˈɡenst /

A1
  • preposition
  • In physical contact with, as for support; next to
  • In opposition to; disagreeing with

frequent

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US / ˈfri:kwənt /

UK / ˈfrikwənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Happening often
  • verb
  • To go to a place regularly

trial

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US / ˈtraɪəl /

UK / ˈtraɪəl, traɪl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being made or done as a test or experiment
  • noun
  • Hearing and judgment of a case in court
  • Act or process of testing or experimenting
  • verb
  • To be made or done as a test or experiment

become

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US / bɪ'kʌm /

UK / bɪˈkʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To begin to be; grow to be; develop into
  • To be suitable for a particular job or role

behaviour

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US / bɪˈheɪvjə(r) /

UK / bɪˈhevjɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • The way a person or thing acts; manner

final

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US / ˈfaɪnl /

UK / ˈfaɪnəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • That will not be changed; permanent
  • Being the last thing in a series
  • noun
  • Last game in a series in a competition

ability

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US / ə'bɪlətɪ /

UK / əˈbɪlɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • The power, resources or skill to do something

arena

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US / ə'ri:nə /

UK / əˈrinə /

B1
  • noun
  • Place to watch sports, performances, entertainment

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

especially

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US / ɪˈspeʃəli /

UK / ɛˈspɛʃəli, ɪˈspɛʃ- /

A1
  • adverb
  • More than usual; extremely

formation

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US / fɔ:ˈmeɪʃn /

UK / fɔ:rˈmeɪʃn /

B1
  • noun
  • Process of creating; making a particular shape

overlap

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US / ˌəʊvəˈlæp /

UK / ˌoʊvərˈlæp /

B1
  • noun
  • Amount shared in the same space, form, idea
  • verb
  • To lie over or cover a part of something else
  • To happen at the same time as another event
  • To share qualities or functions

single

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US / 'sɪŋɡl /

UK / ˈsɪŋɡəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being one only, without others
  • Only; merely
  • Not married or in a relationship
  • noun
  • One run in cricket or a hit baseball
  • An individual song from a CD or album
  • Person who is not married or in a relationship

underground

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US / ˈʌndəgraʊnd /

UK / ˈʌndərgraʊnd /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • (Being or living) under the surface of the earth
  • noun
  • Secret group organized to overthrow a government
  • Subway system, e.g. in London

vulnerable

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US / ˈvʌlnərəbl /

UK / ˈvʌlnərəbəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being open to attack or damage
  • Being easily harmed, hurt, or wounded

after

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US / 'ɑ:ftə(r) /

UK / ˈæftɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Later than another time, or behind something
  • conjunction
  • Following something before
  • preposition
  • When an event happened or time has passed

feather

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US / ˈfeðə(r) /

UK / ˈfɛðɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • One of the many light soft things on a bird's body
  • verb
  • To grow feathers
  • To cover something with feathers
  • To cut hair so that it lays in layers

container

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US / kənˈteɪnə(r) /

UK / kənˈtenɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • An object that can be used to hold things

many

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US / 'menɪ /

UK / ˈmɛni /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer a large number of things

thousand

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US / ˈθaʊznd /

UK / ˈθaʊzənd /

A1
  • number
  • Number 1,000

tail

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US / teɪl /

UK / tel /

A2
  • noun
  • Extended part at the back of an animal's body
  • Back or last part of something e.g. shirt
  • verb
  • To be end of (a march or parade, line)
  • To follow someone secretly and watch what they do

aggravation

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US / ˌæɡrə'veɪʃn /

UK / ˌæɡrəˈveʃən /

B2
  • noun
  • Feeling of annoyance; exasperation

beneficial

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US / ˌbenɪˈfɪʃl /

UK / ˌbɛnəˈfɪʃəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Giving an advantage, having a helpful effect

consider

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US / kən'sɪdə(r) /

UK / kənˈsɪdər /

A1
  • verb
  • To think carefully about something

popular

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US / ˈpɒpjələ(r) /

UK / ˈpɑ:pjələ(r) /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Liked or enjoyed by many people

mimic

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US / 'mɪmɪk /

UK / ˈmɪmɪk /

B2
  • noun
  • Someone who tries to act like another person
  • verb
  • To copy a person's words/actions to amuse people
  • To look or act like something else

reverberate

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US / rɪˈvɜ:bəreɪt /

UK / rɪˈvɜ:rbəreɪt /

C1
  • verb
  • (Of sounds) to repeat several times as an echo

try

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US / traɪ /

UK / traɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of putting the ball over the rugby goal line
  • verb
  • To make an effort, to attempt to do something
  • To examine someone or something in a court of law
  • To test to see if it is good or you like it
  • To make a person go through hardship; test
  • To examine something to see if it works

actually

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US / ˈæktʃuəli /

UK / ˈæktʃuəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to add new (often different) information

astounding

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US / əˈstaʊndɪŋ /

UK / əˈstaʊndɪŋ /

C1
  • verb
  • To surprise someone greatly

exodus

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US / ˈeksədəs /

UK / ˈeksədəs /

B2
  • other
  • Going out or forth in a large group

predation

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US / prɪˈdeɪʃn /

UK / prɪˈdeʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of one animal killing and eating another

route

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US / ru:t /

UK / rut, raʊt /

A2
  • noun
  • Way to get from one place to another place; path
  • Path or way that people often use
  • Method of achieving a certain result
  • verb
  • To send along a particular path or way

stick

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US / stɪk /

UK / stɪk /

A2
  • noun
  • Long thin piece of wood from a tree
  • verb
  • To push a sharp or pointed object into something
  • To join together using glue or paste
  • To remain in one place or position for a long time

use

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US / ju:s /

UK / ju:s /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to employ something
  • Need to enable it to work
  • Permission to do something with something
  • Act of spending money
  • Operation of a machine for its function
  • verb
  • To have; to eat, drink, consume etc.
  • To need to operate or work
  • To operate a machine, e.g. a computer
  • To treat a person badly
  • To do something with, for a task or purpose

area

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US / 'eərɪə /

UK / ˈɛriə /

A1
  • noun
  • Amount of measured space
  • A specific section or space; part of a region
  • A subject or field of study

charming

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US / ˈtʃɑːmɪŋ /

UK / ˈtʃɑːrmɪŋ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being very likable; attractive
  • verb
  • To cause others to like you or do what you want

healthy

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US / ˈhelθi /

UK / ˈhɛlθi /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In good condition physically, or financially; well

himself

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US / hɪmˈself /

UK / hɪmˈsɛlf /

A1
  • pronoun
  • The same (male) person who did the action

somehow

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US / ˈsʌmhaʊ /

UK / ˈsʌmˌhaʊ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In a way that is not known or certain

darwin

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US / ˈdɑːwɪn /

UK / ˈdɑrwɪn /

A1
  • proper noun
  • The capital of Northern Territory, Australia; population 120,652 (2008).

day

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US / deɪ /

UK / de /

A1
  • noun
  • A period of 24 hours beginning at midnight
  • The period of time when it is light outside
  • Person's name

persist

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US / pə'sɪst /

UK / pɚˈsɪst, -ˈzɪst /

B1
  • verb
  • To continue a course of action despite opposition

vibrate

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US / vaɪˈbreɪt /

UK / ˈvaɪˌbret /

B2
  • verb
  • To shake side to side quickly in small movements

bestseller

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US / ˌbest'selə(r) /

UK / ˌbest'selər /

C2
  • noun
  • Book or other product selling in large numbers

undertaking

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US / ˌʌndəˈteɪkɪŋ /

UK / ˌʌndərˈteɪkɪŋ /

B1
  • noun
  • Responsibility taken on; duty or task
  • verb
  • To begin; attempt; take on responsibility for

eat

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US / i:t /

UK / it /

A1
  • verb
  • To put food in your mouth

gull

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US / ɡʌl /

UK / ɡʌl /

B2
  • noun
  • Type of sea bird

publish

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US / 'pʌblɪʃ /

UK / ˈpʌblɪʃ /

A2
  • verb
  • To prepare and make available a book magazine etc.
  • To release information to the general public

call

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US / kɔ:l /

UK / kɔl /

A1
  • noun
  • A order or request for action
  • The sound an animal makes, often when in danger
  • A correct prediction, e.g. a decision in a game
  • A short visit to a place or person
  • A decision by a referee or umpire in a game
  • verb
  • To make a request or order for action
  • (Animal) to make sounds to warn of danger
  • To announce the date of an election
  • To make a judgment about something
  • To give someone or something a name
  • To guess in advance the result or outcome
  • To visit a place or person for a short time
  • To phone someone
  • To speak, announce or shout in a loud voice

leave

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US / li:v /

UK / liv /

A1
  • noun
  • Permission to do something
  • Vacation time; time off work
  • verb
  • To go away from; depart
  • To gift property to someone after you die
  • To allow something to continue happening
  • To let something remain unused or available
  • To let something or someone remain somewhere

large

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US / lɑ:dʒ /

UK / lɑ:rdʒ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Big; of great size; broad, tall, wide, or fat

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

rest

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US / rest /

UK / rɛst /

A1
  • noun
  • Time when one relaxes, sleeps, or is inactive
  • State in which there is a lack of motion
  • Part of something remaining after some was used
  • verb
  • To stop working or avoid activity to recover
  • (Of dead person) to lie in a grave
  • To lean, support or place something against
  • To not be tired because you had enough sleep

another

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US / əˈnʌðə(r) /

UK / əˈnʌðɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One more, but not this
  • determiner
  • One more added
  • pronoun
  • One more (thing)

elicit

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US / iˈlɪsɪt /

UK / ɪˈlɪsɪt /

B2
  • verb
  • To get an answer or reaction from

girl

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US / gɜ:l /

UK / gɜ:rl /

A1
  • noun
  • A female child; a young woman

sometimes

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US / ˈsʌmtaɪmz /

UK / ˈsʌmˌtaɪmz /

A1
  • adverb
  • Only at certain times; occasionally

maintain

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US / meɪn'teɪn /

UK / menˈten /

A2
  • verb
  • To keep saying something a certain way
  • To keep (machine) working by checking, repairing
  • To keep, exist or continue without changing

mole

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US / məʊl /

UK / mol /

B2
  • noun
  • Small animal with dark fur that lives under ground
  • Small natural dark spot on someone's skin
  • Spy working among those whose secrets he sells

legend

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US / 'ledʒənd /

UK / ˈlɛdʒənd /

B1
  • noun
  • List of explanations of symbols on map, etc.
  • Person famous for doing something very well
  • Old story generally believed, although not proven

paint

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US / peɪnt /

UK / pent /

A1
  • noun
  • Colored liquid you apply with a brush
  • verb
  • To make a picture with colored liquids
  • To describe as
  • To apply a color, oil or sealant with a brush

come

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US / kʌm /

UK / kʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To arrive at a place
  • (Of mail) to be delivered
  • To move toward someone; go with someone
  • To reach a certain point or state

decide

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US / dɪ'saɪd /

UK / dɪˈsaɪd /

A2
  • verb
  • To make a choice or choose after thinking about it
  • To make a legal judgment in court
  • to affect the result of something

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

literally

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US / ˈlɪtərəli /

UK / ˈlɪtərəli /

B1
  • adverb
  • So as to express the exact meaning of something
  • Used to say something is true, even if unlikely

think

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US / θɪŋk /

UK / θɪŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To have an idea about something without certainty
  • To have an idea, opinion or belief about something

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

medieval

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US / ˌmediˈi:vl /

UK / ˌmidiˈivəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Old or out of date and not of much use
  • Concerning the middle ages

propose

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US / prə'pəʊz /

UK / prəˈpoz /

A2
  • verb
  • To make an offer of marriage
  • To offer or put forward an idea for consideration

subterranean

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US / ˌsʌbtəˈreɪniən /

UK / ˌsʌbtəˈreniən /

C2
  • adjecitve
  • Living or situated below the surface of the earth

until

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US / ənˈtɪl /

UK / ʌnˈtɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Up to; to a time when something happens
  • preposition
  • Before (a specific time)

unknowingly

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US / ʌn'nəʊɪŋlɪ /

UK / ʌn'noʊɪŋlɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • Without knowing or being consciously aware

along

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US / əˈlɒŋ /

UK / əˈlɔ:ŋ /

A1
  • adverb
  • As a companion; taken with someone
  • preposition
  • At a point on a line

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

escape

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US / ɪ'skeɪp /

UK / ɪˈskep /

A2
  • noun
  • Act to briefly ignoring boring or bad things
  • The 'esc key' on a keyboard
  • Act of getting away from where you are being kept
  • verb
  • To avoid something undesirable, dangerous or bad
  • To get away from a place where you are being kept
  • (Gas, water) to come out from a pipe, container
  • To not to be noticed or remembered by someone

national

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US / 'næʃnəl /

UK / ˈnæʃənəl, ˈnæʃnəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a nation as a whole
  • noun
  • A person of a particular country

over

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US / 'əʊvə(r) /

UK / ˈovɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Finished; no longer happening
  • Towards the ground/away from a standing position
  • noun
  • A set of six consecutive balls bowled in cricket
  • other
  • Finished
  • preposition
  • Showing the relation when a thing is above another
  • On or covering something
  • Above or across something
  • More than you need
  • From one side to the other
  • In the direction of; toward

wiggle

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US / 'wɪɡl /

UK / ˈwɪɡəl /

C1
  • verb
  • To move from side to side with short fast movement

only

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US / ˈəunli /

UK / ˈonli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just one; just that amount or thing; not more than
  • Not very important or serious
  • Just that type of thing, person
  • Short time ago; not before a certain time
  • conjunction
  • Except; but

perhaps

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US / pəˈhæps /

UK / pɚˈhæps /

A1
  • adverb
  • Possibly, but not certainly; maybe

rare

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US / reə(r) /

UK / rɛr /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • (Of meat) cooked, but still red and juicy
  • Unusual or out of the ordinary; not common

release

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US / rɪ'li:s /

UK / rɪ'li:s /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of freeing someone from a duty or burden
  • Introduction of a new product, film, book, etc.
  • Relief from sadness, suffering or trouble
  • Act of freeing from a jail, cage, prison, etc.
  • verb
  • To free someone from a responsibility or burden
  • To allow a film, music etc. to be sold/distributed
  • To allow to leave a jail, cage, etc.; let out
  • To let go of something you are holding

two

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • number
  • 2

catch

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US / kætʃ /

UK / kætʃ, kɛtʃ /

A1
  • noun
  • Amount of something that has been caught
  • Trick or something trying to deceive
  • verb
  • To stop something flying and hold it
  • To stop something and not let it go, e.g. animals
  • To get sick or get a disease from someone else
  • To find someone to do something, a task
  • To get stuck on or in something
  • To be trapped so you can’t escape
  • To be able to understand what someone is saying

interesting

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US / ˈɪntrəstɪŋ /

UK / ˈɪntrɪstɪŋ, -tərɪstɪŋ, -təˌrɛstɪŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Taking your attention; making you want to know
  • verb
  • To make someone want to know about something
  • To persuade to do, become involved with something

imaginative

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US / ɪˈmædʒɪnətɪv /

UK / ɪˈmædʒənətɪv, -ˌnetɪv /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Able to think of new and interesting ideas

hit

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US / hɪt /

UK / hɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • A planned killing, usually for money
  • Song, movie etc. that is successful
  • When someone strikes someone or something
  • Time when a player makes contact with the ball
  • Time when a website is accessed
  • verb
  • To have a negative impact on a person/place/thing
  • To press something, such as a button or switch
  • To suddenly realize the importance of something
  • To move your hand, a bat, etc. against with force
  • To fight, attack or damage something or someone
  • To arrive at a specific place, level, or goal
  • To make contact with the ball in a game or sport

number

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US / ˈnʌmbə(r) /

UK / ˈnʌmbɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Symbols such as 1, 2, 56, 793
  • Particular song or dance performed during a show
  • Total quantity or amount of things
  • verb
  • To put numbers on things
  • To assign a sequence within a group, series, set
  • To claim to be part of a larger group, series, set

stay

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US / steɪ /

UK / ste /

A1
  • noun
  • Legal order to stop or delay an action
  • Strong rope or wire that supports a ship's mast
  • Period of time spent living in or visiting a place
  • verb
  • To keep trying without giving up
  • To remain in the same place and not move away
  • To spend time visiting a place or someone's home

specie

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US / 'spi:ʃi: /

UK / 'spi:ʃɪ /

B1
  • noun
  • Singular of species

dig

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US / dɪg /

UK / dɪɡ /

A2
  • verb
  • To move material to create a hole

elsewhere

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US / ˌelsˈweə(r) /

UK / ˌelsˈwer /

A1
  • adverb
  • In, or to, another or different place

fun

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US / fʌn /

UK / fʌn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Amusing and enjoyable
  • noun
  • Enjoyable or amusing quality or feeling

master

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US / 'mɑ:stə(r) /

UK / ˈmæstɚ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being very skilled at doing something
  • Being the main or most important thing or part
  • noun
  • Someone who is very skilled at doing something
  • Holding a higher degree from a university
  • Male teacher
  • Owner of an animal, e.g. a dog
  • verb
  • To gain control over something
  • To learn to do something very well

she

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US / ʃɪ /

UK / ʃi /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Female person or animal mentioned before
  • (Refers to female person mentioned before)

abundant

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US / əˈbʌndənt /

UK / əˈbʌndənt /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Being in very great supply; plentiful

practice

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US / 'præktɪs /

UK / ˈpræktɪs /

A2
  • noun
  • The office and place for legal or medical work
  • Doing something many times to become better at it
  • verb
  • To work as a doctor or lawyer
  • To live according to the teachings of a religion
  • To do something many times to improve a skill

then

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US / ðen /

UK / ðɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • A time that is not now
  • Following another thing in time or arrangement
  • Following on reasonably from what was just stated
  • At that time, not now

enough

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US / ɪˈnʌf /

UK / ɪˈnʌf /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Sufficient to answer the need
  • adverb
  • To a satisfactory degree
  • pronoun
  • Equal to what is needed; as much as required
  • Adequate number or amount

florida

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US / 'flɒrɪdə /

UK / 'flɔ:rədə /

A1
  • noun
  • A state in southeastern United States between the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico; one of the Confed

find

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US / faɪnd /

UK / faɪnd /

A1
  • noun
  • Object discovered by chance
  • Things that have been discovered from searching
  • verb
  • To become aware of something that is happening
  • To discover or meet by chance
  • To decide if someone is guilty of a crime, or not
  • To learn through study, research, or effort
  • To discover something by looking for it

action

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US / 'ækʃn /

UK / ˈækʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Something that a person or thing does
  • verb
  • To act to do something

first

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US / fɜ:st /

UK / fɚst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 1st; Coming before all others in time or place
  • noun
  • Something that has not happened before
  • Position of the winner of a competition

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

pool

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US / pu:l /

UK / pul /

A2
  • noun
  • Amount collected, e.g. money, for some purpose
  • Small body of still water
  • Game of hitting balls on a table with long sticks
  • Small area of water for swimming bound by walls
  • verb
  • (Of a liquid) to collect into a small area
  • To make a collection of (resources, money etc.)

unravel

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US / ʌnˈrævl /

UK / ʌnˈrævəl /

B2
  • verb
  • To work out the meaning of, in a slow careful way

unbelievable

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US / ˌʌnbɪˈli:vəbl /

UK / ˌʌnbɪˈlivəbəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being very hard to believe; very great

biologist

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US / baɪˈɒlədʒɪst /

UK / baɪˈɑːlədʒɪst /

A2
  • noun
  • A scientist who studies living things

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

current

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US / 'kʌrənt /

UK / ˈkɚrənt, ˈkʌr- /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or being in the present time
  • noun
  • Electricity flowing through wires
  • Movement of water in a river, or air in the sky

different

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US / ˈdɪfrənt /

UK / ˈdɪfrənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not of the same kind; unlike other things

fly

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US / flaɪ /

UK / flai /

A1
  • noun
  • Common flying insect, sometimes blue in color
  • Opening with fold of cloth hiding zipper on pants
  • verb
  • To move in the wind, e.g. a flag
  • To move at a high speed
  • To travel in a plane, helicopter, balloon etc.
  • To pilot people or items by plane
  • To travel through the air using wings

grunt

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US / grʌnt /

UK / ɡrʌnt /

B2
  • verb
  • To utter a deep sound like that of a pig

even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

people

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US / 'pi:pl /

UK / ˈpipəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Persons sharing culture, country, background, etc.
  • Men, Women, Children

rival

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US / 'raɪvl /

UK / 'raɪvl /

A2
  • verb
  • To be nearly as good as others in quality, skill
  • To be in opposition often as competitors
  • adjecitve
  • Matching the quality, skill, et. of others
  • Opposing; being the team you compete against
  • noun
  • Someone you are competing against/trying to beat

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

bizarre

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US / bɪˈzɑ:(r) /

UK / bɪˈzɑr /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Odd or strange

emerge

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US / ɪ'mɜ:dʒ /

UK / ɪˈmɚdʒ /

A2
  • verb
  • To rise or appear out of some background

ground

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US / graʊnd /

UK / ɡraʊnd /

A1
  • noun
  • Connection of electrical equipment to earth
  • Place where people play particular sports
  • Solid surface of the earth that we stand on
  • verb
  • To break (coffee, etc.) into tiny bits with machine
  • To make loud jarring noise by pressing hard
  • To make sharp or smooth through friction
  • To press together with force making a sound
  • To punish someone by not allowing them to go out
  • To hit the bottom
  • (Of boat) to hit the bottom so it cannot move
  • To prevent a plane from taking off
  • To place the ball over the goal line in rugby

example

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US / ɪgˈzɑ:mpl /

UK / ɪɡˈzæmpəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Thing, person which represents a category

track

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US / træk /

UK / træk /

A2
  • noun
  • A circular course for running
  • Course or way someone takes, e.g. in education
  • Path in a field or a forest made by walkers
  • Often circular course laid out for car racing
  • One of multiple musical recordings on an album
  • Band surrounding the wheels of a tank
  • Metal lines that trains ride on
  • verb
  • To use marks to follow a wild animal
  • To move a certain way/follow a particular course
  • To record and examine the progress of something

deep

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US / di:p /

UK / dip /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Complex and important
  • Extreme or intense
  • Going far down from the surface
  • Low in pitch, as a sound
  • adverb
  • At a certain distance beneath the surface

mould

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US / məʊld /

UK / mold /

B1
  • noun
  • Fungus growing on old food or in wet dark places
  • Container to shape material into a certain form
  • verb
  • To form something into a shape

strip

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US / strɪp /

UK / strɪp /

B1
  • noun
  • Long narrow piece, such as ribbon or land
  • verb
  • To remove your clothes (often sexily for someone)
  • To remove something, e.g. paint from a wall
  • To take property, dignity away from (someone)

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

than

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US / ðən /

UK / ðən /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to compare two things that are not equal

whimsical

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US / ˈwɪmzɪkl /

UK / ˈhwɪmzɪkəl, ˈwɪm- /

C1
  • adjecitve
  • Quaintly humorous; funny in an odd way

grunter

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US / /

UK / /

A1
  • other
  • A person who grunts

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

tradition

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US / trəˈdɪʃn /

UK / trəˈdɪʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • An event, custom or way common to a people or race
  • Way of thinking or behaving used for a long time

immune

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US / ɪˈmju:n /

UK / ɪˈmjoon /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Having a special protection from, e.g. the law

noise

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US / nɔɪz /

UK / nɔɪz /

A1
  • noun
  • Loud sounds that cause discomfort or annoyance

three

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US / θri: /

UK / θri /

A1
  • number
  • Number 3

surface

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US / 'sɜ:fɪs /

UK / ˈsɚfəs /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of the top layer; not deep or meaningful
  • noun
  • Top layer of the ground or of water
  • Nature or emotions that show, but may not be true
  • Outside or upper layer of something
  • verb
  • To give (road) a top layer
  • To appear after being hidden, unseen, or unknown
  • To come to the top of something; emerge
  • To come to the top level of water, mud, etc.

colorful

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US / 'kʌləfəl /

UK / 'kʌləfəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being exciting or interesting; lively
  • Having a lot of color or colors

fiddle

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US / 'fɪdl /

UK / ˈfɪdl /

B2
  • verb
  • To play around in an experimental manner; tinker
  • To play the violin

mention

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US / 'menʃn /

UK / ˈmɛnʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of referring to or talking about something
  • verb
  • To refer to or talk or write about something

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

slide

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US / slaɪd /

UK / slaɪd /

A2
  • noun
  • Part of machines that slides backward and forward
  • Reduction in amount, price, quality
  • Metal or plastic device, used to hold back hair
  • Piece of glass to view object on using microscope
  • Action of moving by means of sliding
  • Sudden unexpected fall of mud or rock down a hill
  • Small piece of film with a photo on it
  • A child's play apparatus in a park for sliding
  • A backless shoe with an open toe
  • A slip on something wet or slippery
  • verb
  • To pass or move smoothly and rapidly into or out
  • To grow increasingly worse over time
  • To move smoothly and rapidly over a surface
  • (Mud or rock) to fall down a hill
  • To secretly pass something into or out of
  • To slip on something wet or slippery

simply

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US / ˈsɪmpli /

UK / ˈsɪmpli /

A1
  • adverb
  • In an easy or clear manner

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

body

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US / ˈbɒd.i /

UK / ˈbɑdi /

A1
  • noun
  • An object distinct from other objects
  • A group of people involved in an activity together
  • Main part of something
  • A person's physical self

drown

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US / draʊn /

UK / draʊn /

B1
  • verb
  • To kill something by putting it under water
  • To make something very wet or cover it completely

funnily

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US / ˈfʌnəli /

UK / ˈfʌnɪlɪ /

B2
  • adverb
  • Strangely; surprisingly

forest

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US / 'fɒrɪst /

UK / ˈfɔrɪst, ˈfɑr- /

A1
  • noun
  • Large area with many trees

inner

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US / ˈɪnə(r) /

UK / ˈɪnɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the inside part of something

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

ones

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US / wʌnz /

UK / wʌnz /

A1
  • number
  • Number 1, a single person or thing

charm

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US / tʃɑ:m /

UK / tʃɑrm /

A2
  • noun
  • Quality of making people like you; attractiveness
  • verb
  • To cause others to like you or do what you want

could

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US / kəd /

UK / kʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Past form of 'can' to mean have ability
  • Used to ask for something politely, or to offer

foot

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US / fʊt /

UK / fʊt /

A1
  • noun
  • Base of something such as a mountain or vase
  • Length of 12 inches or about 25 cm
  • Lowest part of the leg we use to stand on

turtle

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US / ˈtɜ:tl /

UK / ˈtɜ:rtl /

B1
  • noun
  • Animal that lives in water and has a hard shell

almost

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US / 'ɔ:lməʊst /

UK / ˈɔlˌmost, ɔlˈmost /

A1
  • adverb
  • Only a little less than, nearly, not quite

century

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US / 'sentʃərɪ /

UK / ˈsɛntʃəri /

A1
  • noun
  • Period of 100 years

flash

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US / flæʃ /

UK / flæʃ /

B1
  • noun
  • Sudden and brief appearance of something
  • Light used by a camera to brighten the area
  • Sudden feeling, idea or occurrence
  • Publicly exposing your genitals to others
  • Sudden bright light
  • Showing something very quickly and briefly
  • Light used in the dark, powered by batteries
  • verb
  • To appear suddenly and briefly
  • To publicly expose your genitals to others
  • To shine brightly very suddenly and briefly
  • To show something very quickly and briefly

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

investigation

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US / ɪnˌvestɪ'ɡeɪʃn /

UK / ɪnˌvɛstɪˈɡeʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Search for information about something

kenneth

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US / ˈkenɪθ /

UK / /

A1

piper

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US / 'paɪpə(r) /

UK / ˈpaɪpɚ /

B2
  • noun
  • Person that plays a pipe, e.g. a bagpipe

panhandle

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US / 'pænˌhændl /

UK / ˈpænˌhændl /

C2
  • verb
  • To beg by asking people in the street for money

away

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US / ə'weɪ /

UK / əˈwe /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not present
  • adverb
  • Disappear completely
  • Doing something with a lot of energy
  • Not here; far from here; in a different direction
  • To a different area, location

hundred

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US / 'hʌndrəd /

UK / ˈhʌndrɪd /

A1
  • number
  • 100

wood

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Living or existing in the woods
  • Made from the material from trees
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • Land covered with trees, smaller than a forest
  • Cut tree used for making fires or building things
  • verb
  • To plant an area of land with trees

world

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US / wɜ:ld /

UK / wɜrld /

A1
  • noun
  • All the humans, events, activities on the earth
  • Political division due to some kind of similarity

collectively

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US / kə'lektɪvlɪ /

UK / kəˈlɛktɪvlɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • By working together as a group

his

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US / hɪz /

UK / hɪz /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Something belonging to a male person

recently

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US / ˈri:sntli /

UK / 'risṇtlɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just a while ago; not long ago

southern

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US / ˈsʌðən /

UK / ˈsʌðərn /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a region in the south
  • Being in or toward the south

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

scientist

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US / ˈsaɪəntɪst /

UK / ˈsaɪəntɪst /

A2
  • noun
  • Person who is trained in a science

summon

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US / 'sʌmən /

UK / ˈsʌmən /

B1
  • verb
  • To order someone to come, e.g. to a court of law

worm

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US / wɜ:m /

UK / wɚm /

B2
  • noun
  • Small thin tube-shaped animal without legs
  • verb
  • To remove worms from an animals stomach
  • To get information, etc. out of, by tricking them
  • To cause something to move slowly or weave through

end

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US / end /

UK / ɛnd /

A1
  • noun
  • The point where a process or activity stops
  • A point that marks the limit of something; finish
  • Goal or desired result
  • The tip, edge or limit of something
  • verb
  • To be the last part of something

explore

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US / ɪk'splɔ:(r) /

UK / ɪkˈsplɔr /

A2
  • verb
  • To examine something in detail to learn about it
  • To travel to a place to discover more about it

fall

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US / fɔ:l /

UK / fɔl /

A1
  • noun
  • Season after summer and before winter; Autumn
  • A drop in amount; decrease
  • Dropping from a standing position to the ground
  • verb
  • To drop in amount; to decrease
  • To come down from a higher position suddenly
  • To go from standing to the ground, by accident

scene

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US / si:n /

UK / sin /

A2
  • noun
  • Incident where someone behaves angrily, badly
  • View that looks like a picture
  • Place where something particular happened
  • Part of an act in a play
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • In the middle of Florida’s Apalachicola National Forest, a bizarre and almost magical scene unfolds. A master summoner slides a metal strip over a wooden stake, sending deep croaking noises reverberating through the area. In response, hundreds of earthworms emerge from the soil as if in a trance. This practice, known as worm grunting or worm charming, has been a tradition for over a century, but its inner workings have remained a mystery until recently. The idea of worms collectively undertaking an underground exodus seems unbelievable considering the vulnerability it exposes them to. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, such as worms being charmed by the noise or being tickled by the vibrations. One popular theory suggested that worm grunting mimicked the sound of falling rain and the worms emerged to avoid drowning. However, biologist Kenneth Catania tested this hypothesis and found that only two earthworms emerged after an hour of rain, while the rest remained buried and healthy. This led Catania to explore alternative explanations for worm grunting's effectiveness.
  • Subtitles section
  • In the middle of Florida's Apalachicola National Forest, a bizarre, almost magical scene is unraveling.
  • Sliding a metal strip over a wooden stake, a master summoner is sending deep croaking noises reverberating through the area.
  • And, as if in a trance, hundreds of earthworms begin emerging from the soil.
  • This is worm grunting, also called worm charming or fiddling.
  • It's a tradition that's been practiced for more than a century, but its inner workings were a mystery until only recently.
  • Worms collectively undertaking an underground exodus seems especially unbelievable when you consider how vulnerable this makes them.
  • So why is surfacing worth the risk?
  • Over the years, people have proposed a number of imaginative hypotheses.
  • One was that worms were somehow charmed by the noise, like the rats from the medieval Pied Piper legend.
  • Okay, sounds fun, but how would the worms actually become bewitched?
  • Another hypothesis was that worm grunting tickled their bodies, so they emerged to end the aggravation.
  • Whimsical!
  • But worm grunting vibrates the ground's surface.
  • If worms were evading the vibrations, wouldn't they burrow deeper instead?
  • Perhaps the most popular hypothesis was that worm grunting mimicked falling rain and the worms fled to avoid drowning.
  • In 2008, biologist Kenneth Catania tested this hypothesis, setting up three arenas filled with soil and 300 individuals of the large species of earthworm found in the Florida Panhandle.
  • After an hour of rain, water had pooled at the surface, but only two earthworms emerged.
  • The rest remained buried and healthy.
  • So, unlike those containers, this hypothesis just didn't hold water.
  • Catania decided to explore another route of inquiry.
  • In 1881, Charles Darwin published his final work, a bestseller that rivaled his most well-known books at the time: "The Formation of Vegetable Mould, Through the Action of Worms, with Observations on their Habits." Yes, it was literally called that— and it was the culmination of 40 years of earthworm investigations.
  • Within it, Darwin noted that worms sometimes left their burrows when the ground trembled and mentioned an interesting hypothesis: maybe they flee because they believe they're being pursued by moles.
  • Catania got to work testing this hypothesis himself.
  • He found that Eastern moles had astounding tracking abilities, could eat their weight in worms every day, and were abundant in the Florida Panhandle.
  • When Catania released a single mole into worm- and soil-filled arenas, about 30% of the worms crawled to the surface in the first hour— a markedly different result from the control and rain trials.
  • And when he recorded the vibrations produced by worm grunters and moles digging, their frequencies overlapped substantially.
  • This was it.
  • Over hundreds of thousands of years, these earthworms evolved a behavior that helped them escape a top predator.
  • Aboveground, they were immune to the moles, which usually stayed subterranean.
  • But then humans came along.
  • And, funnily enough, we aren't even the only ones that take advantage of this behavior.
  • Herring gulls and wood turtles also sometimes drum their feet on the earth to summon worms.
  • So then why does this behavior persist?
  • Scientists think it's beneficial for a prey species to maintain its adaptations against a more frequent predator, even if it makes it more vulnerable to a rarer one.
  • Many insects, for example, use flight to avoid predation.
  • But painted redstarts take advantage of this: they boldly flash their colorful tail and wing feathers to elicit this response, then catch the insects as they try to fly away.
  • It seems the prey species' response remains simply because it's beneficial most of the time.
  • For over a century, humans in the southern US, the UK, and elsewhere have been unknowingly exploiting the worm's escape response.
  • The current world record for "most worms charmed" was set by a 10-year-old British girl in 2009.
  • Wiggling a fork in the ground and hitting it with a stick, she made 567 worms surface in just 30 minutes.
  • Charming, really.