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Does Wine Really Need to 'Breathe'?

Video vocabulary

breathing

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US / ˈbri:ðɪŋ /

UK / ˈbriðɪŋ /

A2
  • verb
  • To move air into and out of your lungs
  • To say something very softly
  • To stop moving so one can rest

question

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US / 'kwestʃən /

UK / ˈkwɛstʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Issue or problems you are dealing with
  • What you ask about; issue
  • verb
  • To ask for or try to get information
  • To have or express concerns or uncertainty

responsible

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US / rɪ'spɒnsəbl /

UK / rɪˈspɑnsəbəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being the cause of something that has occurred
  • Having the duty of dealing with something
  • Able to be trusted to do what needs to be done

subtly

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US / ˈsʌtli /

UK / ˈsəd(ə)li /

B1
  • adverb
  • In a way that is delicate or slight, but effective

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

preservative

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US / prɪˈzɜ:vətɪv /

UK / prɪˈzə:vətɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Tending or having the power to preserve
  • noun
  • Chemical added to food to make it last longer

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

through

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US / θru: /

UK / θru /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • having finished using or doing something
  • adverb
  • From the beginning of something until the end
  • preposition
  • Over, in, across an entire thing or place
  • Allowing you to pass between, or to
  • By a particular way or process; by the use of

why

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US / waɪ /

UK / hwaɪ, waɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Question word to ask for a reason
  • exclamation
  • (Used to express surprise or approval)

evaporation

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US / ɪˌvæpə'reɪʃn /

UK / ɪˌvæpəˈreʃən /

B2
  • noun
  • Changing from a liquid into a gas, e.g. steam

face

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US / feɪs /

UK / fes /

A1
  • noun
  • Side or outer surface of something
  • An expression using mouth, nose, eyes etc.
  • Front part of the head where eyes, mouth etc. are
  • Characteristics you show in public
  • verb
  • To cover a surface with something like paint
  • To deal with a problem or responsibilities
  • To look toward; point in a certain direction

molecule

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US / ˈmɒlɪkju:l /

UK / ˈmɑlɪˌkjul /

B2
  • noun
  • Two or more atoms chemically combined

stuff

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US / stʌf /

UK / stʌf /

A1
  • noun
  • Generic description for things, materials, objects
  • verb
  • To push material inside something, with force

amount

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US / ə'maʊnt /

UK / əˈmaʊnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Quantity of something
  • verb
  • To add up to a certain figure

benefit

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US / 'benɪfɪt /

UK / ˈbɛnəfɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Good result or effect, something advantageous
  • verb
  • To have a good effect or be helpful

head

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US / hed /

UK / hɛd /

A1
  • noun
  • Counter for the number of cattle
  • Natural mental ability or intelligence
  • Leader or person with the greatest authority
  • Mind; mental ability; mental state
  • Side of a coin with a head on it
  • Top part of your body with eyes and a mouth
  • Starting point of something, e.g. a river
  • verb
  • To hit a ball with your head in a game
  • To be first or at the front or top (e.g. a list)
  • To travel or move toward a particular place; To go in a particular direction
  • To become the leader of something
  • To lead or be responsible for something

leg

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US / leɡ /

UK / lɛɡ /

A1
  • noun
  • Part of the body from the hips down
  • The piece of furniture that touches the ground

ask

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US / ɑ:sk /

UK / æsk /

A1
  • verb
  • To say to someone that you want something

start

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US / stɑ:t /

UK / stɑrt /

A1
  • noun
  • First time or place that a thing exists; beginning
  • First opportunity to achieve something, e.g. a job
  • Sudden action or movement because you are scared
  • other
  • Beginning of something in place or time
  • verb
  • To do, be or happen for the first time; begin
  • To turn something on

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

since

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US / sɪns /

UK / sɪns /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a point before the present time
  • conjunction
  • For this reason; because
  • preposition
  • From the time in the past that

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

tasty

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US / ˈteɪsti /

UK / ˈtesti /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Good tasting; having a lot of flavor

rich

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US / rɪtʃ /

UK / rɪtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having a lot of money or valuable possessions
  • Containing a lot of exciting events or experiences and therefore very interesting
  • (of a color, sound, smell, etc.) Pleasantly deep or strong
  • If food is rich, it contains a large amount of oil, butter, eggs, or cream.

few

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US / fju: /

UK / fju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Not many, a small number

much

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US / mʌtʃ /

UK / mʌtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very; to a high level or degree
  • adverb
  • A lot; large amount; a high degree of
  • Nearly; basically
  • On many occasions; often
  • noun
  • A large amount; a great quantity

strong

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US / strɒŋ /

UK / strɔŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of tea or beer) dark or thick
  • Having big muscles; physically powerful

far

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US / fɑ:(r) /

UK / fɑr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A long way away
  • Being a long way away
  • adverb
  • To a large degree or extent

leave

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US / li:v /

UK / liv /

A1
  • noun
  • Permission to do something
  • Vacation time; time off work
  • verb
  • To go away from; depart
  • To gift property to someone after you die
  • To allow something to continue happening
  • To let something remain unused or available
  • To let something or someone remain somewhere

rotten

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US / 'rɒtn /

UK / ˈrɑtn /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Gone bad; broken into pieces through dying
  • Being very unpleasant, unfortunate or undesirable
  • Being very morally wrong

wonderful

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US / ˈwʌndəfl /

UK / 'wʌndərfl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Producing feelings of enjoyment or delight

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

fruity

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US / 'fru:tɪ /

UK / ˈfruti /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Tasting or smelling of fruit

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

over

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US / 'əʊvə(r) /

UK / ˈovɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Finished; no longer happening
  • Towards the ground/away from a standing position
  • noun
  • A set of six consecutive balls bowled in cricket
  • other
  • Finished
  • preposition
  • Showing the relation when a thing is above another
  • On or covering something
  • Above or across something
  • More than you need
  • From one side to the other
  • In the direction of; toward

electron

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US / ɪˈlektrɒn /

UK / ɪˈlektrɑ:n /

B2
  • noun
  • A negatively charged particle

oxidize

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US / ˈɒksɪdaɪz /

UK / ˈɑ:ksɪdaɪz /

C2
  • verb
  • To be exposed to oxygen, as when food goes brown
  • To make something combine with oxygen

two

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • number
  • 2

chemistry

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US / 'kemɪstrɪ /

UK / ˈkɛmɪstri /

B1
  • noun
  • The study of the structure of substances

leap

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US / li:p /

UK / lip /

B1
  • noun
  • (Of prices) a quick large increase
  • A large forward step or jump
  • verb
  • To enter or start something eagerly
  • (Of prices) to increase quickly by a large amount
  • To jump over something

something

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US / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

UK / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In some degree or measure
  • noun
  • a person or thing of some value or consequence
  • pronoun
  • Thing that is not yet known or named
  • Approximately

chocolate

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US / ˈtʃɒklət /

UK / ˈtʃɑ:klət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being made from cocoa beans
  • noun
  • Hard brown candy made from cocoa beans

gently

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US / ˈdʒentli /

UK / ˈdʒentli /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a mild, careful, and soft manner

react

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US / rɪ'ækt /

UK / riˈækt /

A2
  • verb
  • To change when mixing with other chemicals
  • To behave or make a change in a particular way

drink

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US / drɪŋk /

UK / drɪŋk /

A1
  • noun
  • A liquid that you put in your mouth
  • verb
  • To put water in your body through your mouth

large

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US / lɑ:dʒ /

UK / lɑ:rdʒ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Big; of great size; broad, tall, wide, or fat

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

mostly

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US / ˈməʊstli /

UK / ˈmoʊstli /

A2
  • adverb
  • In large part; mainly or chiefly

ugh

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US / ʌg, ʌk /

UK / ʌɡ, ʌk /

A1
  • exclamation
  • Sound people make when hurt

any

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US / 'enɪ /

UK / ˈɛni /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One, or some, no matter which
  • pronoun
  • One (thing) of many; some

decide

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US / dɪ'saɪd /

UK / dɪˈsaɪd /

A2
  • verb
  • To make a choice or choose after thinking about it
  • To make a legal judgment in court
  • to affect the result of something

come

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US / kʌm /

UK / kʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To arrive at a place
  • (Of mail) to be delivered
  • To move toward someone; go with someone
  • To reach a certain point or state

evaporate

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US / ɪˈvæpəreɪt /

UK / ɪˈvæpəˌret /

B2
  • verb
  • To pass off or away; to disappear
  • To change from a liquid into a gaseous state

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

skin

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US / skɪn /

UK / skɪn /

A2
  • noun
  • Outer covering of an animal used for leather; hide
  • Outer covering of a fruit or vegetable
  • Outer layer of an animal or human
  • Outer part of an object, such as a plane
  • verb
  • To defeat someone easily and completely
  • To hurt yourself, accidentally cutting yourself
  • To remove the outer covering from an animal

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

intro

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US / ˈɪntrəʊ /

UK / ˈɪntroʊ /

A1
  • noun
  • Opening part of a text or piece of music

seed

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US / si:d /

UK / sid /

B1
  • noun
  • A person's children; offspring
  • Part of a plant used to grow more on them
  • Source of a feeling or thought
  • Top-ranked person in a competition, e.g. in tennis
  • verb
  • (Of plants) to produce seeds for the future
  • To produce seeds, as a plant
  • To remove the center part from a fruit or vegetable
  • To be the source of a feeling or thought
  • To plant seeds in the ground

vinegar

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US / ˈvɪnɪgə(r) /

UK / ˈvɪnɪɡɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Sharp-tasting liquid made from sour wine, malt etc.

tell

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US / tel /

UK / tɛl /

A1
  • verb
  • To (strongly) advise a person to do something
  • To be able to guess
  • To say or communicate information to someone
  • To inform, but without speaking; indicate
  • To have a negative effect on someone
  • To order someone to do something; command
  • To recognize something based on certain signs
  • To report something to an authority
  • To explain something or teach someone something

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

impact

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US / 'ɪmpækt /

UK / ˈɪmˌpækt /

A2
  • noun
  • A striking effect or result to hit with force
  • Very strong influence
  • Act or force of one thing hitting something else
  • verb
  • To hit or strike someone or something with force

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

sit

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US / sɪt /

UK / sɪt /

A1
  • verb
  • To take an exam
  • To be in a resting position on a chair
  • To provide seating for people
  • To remain in a still position while being painted

aeration

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US / eə'reɪʃn /

UK / er'reɪʃn /

C1
  • noun
  • Act of filling something with bubbles of air

happen

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US / 'hæpən /

UK / ˈhæpən /

A1
  • verb
  • To take place or occur

astringent

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US / əˈstrɪndʒənt /

UK / əˈstrɪndʒənt /

C2
  • noun
  • Liquid to make skin less oily, stop bleeding

buzz

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US / bʌz /

UK / bʌz /

B1
  • noun
  • Low pitched sound similar to the sound bees make
  • verb
  • To make a low, constant noise like a bee

oxygen

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US / 'ɒksɪdʒən /

UK / ˈɑksɪdʒən /

B1
  • noun
  • A gas in the air that we need to breathe

tend

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US / tend /

UK / tɛnd /

A2
  • verb
  • To move or act in a certain manner
  • To take care of
  • To regularly behave in a certain way

down

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US / daʊn /

UK / daʊn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being sad, sick, or unhappy
  • Not operating, working, or functioning as expected
  • adverb
  • In a sitting or lying position
  • Towards or on the ground, floor, or bottom
  • Written or copied onto a piece of paper or book
  • noun
  • A period of play in American Football
  • The soft, smooth hairs that cover a bird's body
  • preposition
  • Along something's path, course, or direction
  • Going from a higher position to a lower position
  • verb
  • To eat or drink very quickly and without stopping

glass

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US / ɡlɑ:s /

UK / ɡlæs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being made of glass
  • noun
  • Clear hard container used for drinking
  • A lens for eyewear
  • Hard see-through material used for making windows

include

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US / ɪnˈklu:d /

UK / ɪnˈklud /

A1
  • verb
  • To make someone, something part of a group

vaporize

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US / 'veɪpəraɪz /

UK / ˈvepəˌraɪz /

A1
  • verb
  • To kill to make something completely disappear

least

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US / li:st /

UK / list /

A1
  • adverb
  • In the smallest or lowest way
  • noun
  • Something that is of the lowest or smallest degree

wine

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US / waɪn /

UK / waɪn /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Dark red color
  • noun
  • Alcoholic drink made from the juice of grapes

bacteria

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US / bæk'tɪərɪə /

UK / bækˈtɪriə /

B2
  • noun
  • The very small creatures that can cause disease

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

first

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US / fɜ:st /

UK / fɚst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 1st; Coming before all others in time or place
  • noun
  • Something that has not happened before
  • Position of the winner of a competition

second

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US / 'sekənd /

UK / ˈsɛkənd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 2nd; the one following first
  • noun
  • Unit of time; one sixtieth of a minute
  • Short period of time that you wait for someone
  • (Do) soon
  • verb
  • To agree to support a proposal at a meeting

cause

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US / kɔ:z /

UK / kɔz /

A2
  • noun
  • Belief, goal or organization that people support
  • Reason for
  • verb
  • To make something happen; create effect or result

cheer

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US / tʃiə /

UK / tʃɪr /

A2
  • noun
  • Feeling of happiness or optimism
  • A loud shout of encouragement or approval
  • A toast used when raising your glass to drink
  • verb
  • To give a loud shout of encouragement to someone
  • To make someone feel happier or less worried

answer

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US / 'ɑ:nsə(r) /

UK / ˈænsɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Reply to a question someone asks
  • Solution to a problem or test question
  • verb
  • To reply to a question someone asks
  • To solve a test question or a problem

favourite

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US / ˈfeɪvərɪt /

UK / 'fevərɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Best liked or most enjoyed
  • noun
  • A thing that someone likes best or enjoys most

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

shine

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US / ʃaɪn /

UK / ʃaɪn /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of using a polish to clean shoes
  • verb
  • To point a light in a certain direction
  • To make something clean by using a polish
  • To make or produce a bright light

suggest

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US / səˈdʒest /

UK / səɡˈdʒɛst, səˈdʒɛst /

A1
  • verb
  • To mention something that could be done; propose

contact

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US / 'kɒntækt /

UK / ˈkɑnˌtækt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Touching or feeling something
  • noun
  • Touching or feeling something
  • Object that allows electricity to run through it
  • Communication with someone or something
  • People who can give you information, introductions
  • verb
  • To get in touch with someone

marvel

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US / ˈmɑ:vl /

UK / ˈmɑ:rvl /

B2
  • noun
  • Something that causes wonder or astonishment

mellow

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US / 'meləʊ /

UK / ˈmɛlo /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Being completely relaxed and calm

whiff

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US / wɪf /

UK / hwɪf, wɪf /

C1
  • noun
  • Slight smell; weak odor

bottle

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US / 'bɒtl /

UK / ˈbɑtl /

A1
  • noun
  • Container with a narrow neck used to hold liquids
  • verb
  • To put something into a bottle to store it

expose

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US / ɪk'spəʊz /

UK / ɪkˈspoʊz /

A2
  • noun
  • News article revealing secret information
  • verb
  • To make visible, without covering or protection
  • To allow light through a cameras lens onto film
  • To be talked about in the media
  • To make a secret known to the public
  • To experience something, often a harmful thing

may

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US / meɪ /

UK / me /

A1
  • noun
  • 5th month of the year
  • other
  • Used to express a desire
  • Expresses permission, possibility or probability
  • Used to show that a thing could be true

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

swirl

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US / swɜ:l /

UK / swɜrl /

B1
  • verb
  • To make a twisting shape, mark, or pattern

flavour

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US / ˈfleɪvə(r) /

UK / ˈflevɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Taste of something, especially in food or drink
  • verb
  • To add extra taste to a food

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

patreon

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US / 'peɪʃənts /

UK / 'peɪʃənts /

A1

scent

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US / sent /

UK / sɛnt /

B1
  • noun
  • Pleasant smell, as of flowers or perfume
  • verb
  • To become aware of the presence of a smell, etc.
  • To add smell to something

turn

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US / tɜ:n /

UK / tɚn /

A1
  • noun
  • Place where changing of direction happens
  • Your time or chance to perform a duty
  • Your chance to play or do in say a game
  • Unexpected change, as in the weather
  • verb
  • To become (a particular age)
  • To become a different quality, color, etc.
  • To change the direction of something, e.g. a car
  • To move in an opposite direction or position
  • To shape metal with a spinning tool

eyeglass

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US / ˈaɪɡlɑːs /

UK / ˈaɪɡlæs /

A1
  • other
  • Lens for correcting defective vision in one eye; held in place by facial muscles

let

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US / let /

UK / lɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To allow someone to do something
  • Introducing a suggestion to do something together
  • To rent a house, etc. to others

might

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US / maɪt /

UK / maɪt /

A1
  • other
  • Used to politely request an action
  • Used to express that something could happen
  • Power, strength, force or influence

molecular

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US / mə'lekjələ(r) /

UK / məˈlɛkjəlɚ /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • About or caused by molecules

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

sniff

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US / snɪf /

UK / snɪf /

B1
  • noun
  • A noisy breath through your nose
  • verb
  • To detect something, e.g. a potential problem
  • To breathe in noisily through nose, as when crying

eggy

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US / /

UK / /

A1
  • adjective
  • Rich in or covered with egg.
  • Annoyed; irritated.

dry

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US / draɪ /

UK / draɪ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of humor) clever, but not obvious; ironic
  • Without water; not wet
  • (Of wine, etc.) not sweet
  • Without butter or jam
  • verb
  • To remove liquid or water from something

pretty

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US / 'prɪtɪ /

UK / ˈprɪti /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being attractive to the eye in a simple way
  • adverb
  • Very; to a great degree

flatten

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US / 'flætn /

UK / ˈflætn: /

B1
  • verb
  • To make level and spread out over a surface

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

add

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US / æd /

UK / æd /

A1
  • verb
  • To include as well
  • To put two things or numbers together, e.g. 2+2

take

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US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
  • verb
  • To accept something that is offered
  • To use a method of traveling, e.g. a bus or train
  • To use a camera to make (a photo)
  • To pick up something and go away with it
  • To study a subject in school
  • To attempt to pass (an exam)
  • To require a certain amount of time, money, space

tannin

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US / 'tænɪn /

UK / ˈtænɪn /

C1
  • noun
  • Substance used in tanning and in medicine

bit

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US / bɪt /

UK / bɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • Device put in a horse's mouth to control it
  • Small piece of something
  • verb
  • (E.g. of fish) to take bait and be caught

look

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US / lʊk /

UK / lʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's beauty or physical attractiveness
  • Particular style of dress, clothes, or appearance
  • The way someone, something appears to be
  • Act of searching for or examining something
  • verb
  • To appear to be; seem

red

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US / red /

UK / rɛd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being the color of blood

pour

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US / pɔ:(r) /

UK / pɔr, por /

A2
  • verb
  • To fill a person's glass or cup with a drink
  • To make something flow in a steady stream
  • To rain very heavily

ethanol

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US / ˈeθənɒl /

UK / ˈeθənoʊl /

A1
  • noun
  • Alcohol especially when it is used as a fuel

lessen

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US / 'lesn /

UK / ˈlɛsən /

A2
  • verb
  • To make something smaller in amount or importance

stopper

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US / ˈstɒpə(r) /

UK / ˈstɑ:pə(r) /

B2
  • noun
  • A device or cork put in something to close it

vote

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US / vəʊt /

UK / vot /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of deciding who to choose in an election
  • verb
  • To make a choice for or against, as in an election

alcohol

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US / 'ælkəhɒl /

UK / ˈælkəˌhɔl,-ˌhɑl /

B1
  • noun
  • A colorless liquid that can catch fire (C2H5OH)
  • Drinks such as wine, whiskey, beer

change

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US / tʃeɪndʒ /

UK / tʃendʒ /

A1
  • noun
  • Exchange of one set of clothes for another
  • Money in the form of coins instead of paper
  • Money returned after giving too much
  • Act of making or becoming something else
  • verb
  • To exchange one set of clothes for another
  • To exchange one kind of money for another
  • To replace something with another thing
  • To make or become something else
  • To go from one train, bus, etc. and go to another

rearrangement

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US / ˌri:ə'reɪndʒmənt /

UK / ˌri:ə'reɪndʒmənt /

B1
  • noun
  • Reordering of something to allow it happen

acetic

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US / ə'si:tɪk /

UK / ə'si:tɪk /

C2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning or containing acetic acid

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

who

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US / hu: /

UK / hu /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Which person
  • Used to introduce information about people

huge

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US / hju:dʒ /

UK / hjudʒ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very very large

nose

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US / nəʊz /

UK / noʊz /

A1
  • noun
  • Part of the face used for breathing and smelling
  • Front, pointed end of e.g. airplane or rocket
  • verb
  • To push with your face so you can smell something

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

outro

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US / 'u:trəʊ /

UK / 'u:troʊ /

A1
  • noun
  • The concluding section of a piece of music or a radio or television program.

volatile

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US / ˈvɒlətaɪl /

UK / ˈvɑ:lətl /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Able to easily become a gas at a low temperature
  • Unstable and likely to change suddenly/extremely

want

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US / wɔnt /

UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

become

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US / bɪ'kʌm /

UK / bɪˈkʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To begin to be; grow to be; develop into
  • To be suitable for a particular job or role

feeling

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US / ˈfi:lɪŋ /

UK / ˈfilɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • Sensation or emotion you experience
  • verb
  • To be aware of or experience an emotion, sensation
  • To sense through direct contact; touch

final

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US / ˈfaɪnl /

UK / ˈfaɪnəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • That will not be changed; permanent
  • Being the last thing in a series
  • noun
  • Last game in a series in a competition

same

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US / seɪm /

UK / sem /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in quality and amount
  • Identical; not different
  • Not changing; constant

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

give

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US / ɡɪv /

UK / ɡɪv /

A1
  • noun
  • Degree of flexibility in something, a material
  • verb
  • To hand over or present something to someone
  • To cause someone to have or experience something

good

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US / ɡʊd /

UK / ɡʊd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper, appropriate or right
  • (Of an amount) enough; plenty
  • Excellent; high quality
  • Acting well or properly; of moral character
  • In a positive or happy emotional state
  • noun
  • Advantage or benefit

orangey

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US / 'ɒrɪndʒɪ /

UK / 'ɒrɪndʒɪ /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Slightly orange in color

patron

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US / 'peɪtrən /

UK / ˈpetrən /

B2
  • noun
  • Person buying products or services of a business
  • Someone who donates to an organization or activity

blackberry

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US / 'blækbərɪ /

UK / ˈblækˌbɛri /

C1
  • noun
  • Type of black fruit grown on vines with thorns

involve

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US / ɪn'vɒlv /

UK / ɪnˈvɑlv /

A2
  • verb
  • To have or be included as a part of something

really

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US / ˈri:əli /

UK / ˈriəˌli, ˈrili /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to stress something that is said; definitely
  • In a true or accurate manner
  • Very

would

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate something imagined
  • Used to ask or request something politely
  • Verb used to indicate possibility, request etc.
  • Used to indicate a preference
  • Used to indicate a reaction
  • Indicates something that occurred repeatedly
  • Used to indicate willingness or ability to do

color

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US / 'kʌlə(r) /

UK / ˈkʌlɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Quality of things you can see, e.g. red, blue
  • Pink or red in your face, e.g. after being ill
  • The shade of someone's skin e.g. black, or yellow
  • verb
  • To change or affect someone's opinion
  • To make something colorful using colored pencils

decant

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US / dɪˈkænt /

UK / dɪˈkænt /

C2
  • verb
  • To pour wine from a bottle into a container

maybe

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US / ˈmeɪbi /

UK / ˈmebi /

A1
  • adverb
  • Possibly but not certainly; perhaps

our

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to us

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

texture

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US / ˈtekstʃə(r) /

UK / ˈtɛkstʃɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Quality from different elements, as in music
  • Look and feel of a substance or material
  • verb
  • To give a particular look or feel to a surface

themselves

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US / ðəmˈselvz /

UK / ðɛmˈsɛlvz, ðəm- /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Reflexive form of 'they'

whole

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US / həul /

UK / hol /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Complete or full; all of
  • Being in a good condition
  • noun
  • Complete amount or sum; total

breathe

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US / bri:ð /

UK / brið /

A2
  • verb
  • To move air into and out of your lungs
  • To say something very softly
  • To stop moving so one can rest

nick

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US / nɪk /

UK / nɪk /

B2
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • Scratches caused by accidentally knocking
  • verb
  • To make a scratch in
  • To steal

towards

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US / tə'wɔ:dz /

UK / 'təuədz, twɔ:dz /

A1
  • preposition
  • In the direction of someone or something

aerate

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US / 'eəreɪt /

UK / 'ereɪt /

C1
  • verb
  • To fill something with air or bubbles

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

pattern

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US / 'pætn /

UK / ˈpætən /

A2
  • noun
  • Model to follow in making or doing something
  • Colors or shapes which are repeated on objects
  • Regular repeated behavior
  • verb
  • To copy the way something else is made

round

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US / raʊnd /

UK / raʊnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in the shape of a circle or ball
  • Consisting of curved and not straight lines
  • Somewhat fat or curved in physical appearance
  • Being a whole number, not a fraction, decimal
  • adverb
  • From beginning to end (e.g. of the year)
  • noun
  • One of the three-minute periods in boxing
  • Drinks bought by one person for a group
  • Series regular visits, routes, or stops at places
  • Single shot or bullet fired from a gun
  • An object with a circular shape
  • One stage in a series of games, e.g. football
  • One's turn in a game such as cards
  • preposition
  • Going around
  • verb
  • To cause or make a circular or curved shape
  • To go or pass around the bend or corner
  • To change from a fraction to nearest whole number

smell

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US / smel /

UK / smɛl /

A2
  • noun
  • Ability to notice a particular odor
  • A particular odor
  • verb
  • To have a particular odor
  • To sense that something is not right
  • To notice a particular odor
  • To use the nose to sense something

convert

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US / kən'vɜ:t /

UK / kənˈvɚt /

A2
  • noun
  • Person switching from one belief system to another
  • verb
  • To switch from a religion, belief etc. to another
  • To change form, character, or function to another

experience

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US / ɪk'spɪərɪəns /

UK / ɪkˈspɪriəns /

A1
  • noun
  • Thing a person has done or that happened to them
  • An event at which you learned something
  • Knowledge gained by living life, doing new things
  • verb
  • To gain knowledge by doing things

phenolic

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US / fɪ'nɒlɪk /

UK / fɪ'nɒlɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Thermosetting resin

sauvignon

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US / ˌsɔˈvɪnjɑn /

UK / /

A1
  • noun
  • A variety of white wine grape.

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

quickly

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US / ˈkwɪkli /

UK / ˈkwɪklɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Without taking a lot of time; fast

end

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US / end /

UK / ɛnd /

A1
  • noun
  • The point where a process or activity stops
  • A point that marks the limit of something; finish
  • Goal or desired result
  • The tip, edge or limit of something
  • verb
  • To be the last part of something

ruin

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US / 'ru:ɪn /

UK / ˈruɪn /

B1
  • verb
  • To damage or completely destroy something
  • To cause someone to lose their money or status
  • noun
  • Remains of a building that has been destroyed

mouth

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US / maʊθ /

UK / maʊθ /

A1
  • noun
  • Hole in the face used for eating and talking
  • Opening of a container such as a bottle
  • Area where a river enters a large body of water
  • verb
  • To say words without speaking

before

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US / bɪˈfɔ:(r) /

UK / bɪˈfɔr,-ˈfor /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a time earlier than the present; previously
  • conjunction
  • In advance of something happening
  • preposition
  • In front of someone or something

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

drip

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US / drɪp /

UK / drɪp /

B1
  • verb
  • (Of liquid) to fall in drops
  • noun
  • Tiny amount of liquid that falls from something
  • Sound made by drops of liquid falling

moment

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US / 'məʊmənt /

UK / 'moʊmənt /

A1
  • noun
  • Very short or brief period of time
  • A particular period in time

air

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US / eə(r) /

UK / er /

A1
  • noun
  • Mixture of gases around the earth that we breathe
  • A person's manner intended to impress others
  • verb
  • To expose to the outside, to dry or freshen
  • To broadcast a TV or radio show
  • To open a subject to discussion and debate

break

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US / breɪk /

UK / brek /

A1
  • noun
  • Time you stop an activity before continuing
  • End of a relationship
  • An escape from a place such as a jail
  • (Lucky) advantage or benefit from something
  • Find a solution or answer to a problem or crime
  • Change in the weather
  • verb
  • To create a new record e.g. running the 100m dash
  • To form a crack in something
  • To burst or become damaged
  • To end a relationship
  • To escape from a place such as a jail
  • To train a wild animal e.g. a horse
  • To separate into pieces by force, or by dropping
  • To act against a law, rule, or promise
  • To become known suddenly, as in the news
  • To not do what you promised e.g. not keep promises
  • To solve a crime, or answer a problem
  • To stop functioning properly
  • To suddenly start, open or commence
  • To change in pitch suddenly, as in a voice
  • To fall on the shore, as in waves
  • To begin or change suddenly; the dawn or weather
  • To defeat by causing the person to lose their will

cherry

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US / ˈtʃeri /

UK / ˈtʃɛri /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Bright red color
  • noun
  • Small, round fruit with a red or black skin

grape

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US / greɪp /

UK / ɡrep /

B2
  • noun
  • Fruit from which wine is made

increase

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US / ɪn'kri:s /

UK / ɪnˈkris /

A1
  • noun
  • Fact of increasing; amount something grows by
  • verb
  • To make or become larger in size or amount

hear

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • verb
  • To be aware of sound; to perceive with the ear
  • To be told or find out information or facts
  • To consider or listen to a court case

process

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US / prə'ses /

UK / ˈprɑsˌɛs, ˈproˌsɛs /

A2
  • noun
  • Dealing with official forms in the way required
  • Set of changes that occur slowly and naturally
  • verb
  • To organize and use data in a computer
  • To deal with official forms in the way required
  • To prepare by treating something in a certain way
  • To adopt a set of actions that produce a result
  • To convert by putting something through a machine

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

after

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US / 'ɑ:ftə(r) /

UK / ˈæftɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Later than another time, or behind something
  • conjunction
  • Following something before
  • preposition
  • When an event happened or time has passed

already

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US / ɔ:lˈredi /

UK / ɔlˈrɛdi /

A1
  • adverb
  • Having happened or been done before this time

fresh

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US / freʃ /

UK / frɛʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Clean; not used or dirty
  • Remaining clear, as in a person's memory
  • Newly made or gathered
  • (Water) not salty, usually from a lake or a river

processes

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US / ˈprəʊsesɪz , prəˈsesɪz /

UK / ˈprɑːsesɪz , prəˈsesɪz /

B1
  • other
  • Sets of changes that occur slowly and naturally
  • verb
  • To organize and use data in a computer
  • To deal with official forms in the way required
  • To prepare by treating something in a certain way
  • To adopt a set of actions that produce a result
  • To convert by putting something through a machine

sulfite

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US / ˈsʌlfaɪt /

UK / sʌlfaɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • A salt of sulphuric acid

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

shift

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US / ʃɪft /

UK / ʃɪft /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • (Of work) starting at a certain time, as at night
  • noun
  • A change in a persons plans, opinions or beliefs
  • Period of work starting at a certain time
  • verb
  • To change in position or direction
  • To move something from one place to another

should

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US / ʃʊd /

UK / ʃʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate what is proper or reasonable

white

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US / waɪt /

UK / hwaɪt, waɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Belonging to a race of people with light skin
  • Of the color of fresh snow and milk
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • Lightest color; The color of fresh snow.

once

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US / wʌns /

UK / wʌns /

A1
  • adverb
  • One time; one instance
  • At a time in the past
  • conjunction
  • When; as soon as

wait

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US / weɪt /

UK / wet /

A1
  • verb
  • To delay or not do something until later
  • To spend time until an expected thing happens
  • To remain in a place until a thing happens

while

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US / waɪl /

UK / hwaɪl, waɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • In spite of the fact that; although
  • During the time that; at the same time
  • noun
  • Short amount of time

actually

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US / ˈæktʃuəli /

UK / ˈæktʃuəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to add new (often different) information

oxidation

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US / ˌɒksɪ'deɪʃn /

UK / ˌɑksɪˈdeʃən /

C1
  • noun
  • Process of combining with oxygen

among

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US / əˈmʌŋ /

UK / əˈmʌŋ /

A1
  • preposition
  • In the center of several things

cabernet

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US / ˈkæbərnei /

UK / ˌkæbɚˈne /

C2
  • noun
  • Type of red wine from Bordeaux area

enhance

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US / ɪn'hɑ:ns /

UK / ɛnˈhæns /

B1
  • verb
  • To improve; make bigger or better

gross

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US / ɡrəʊs /

UK / ɡros /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Nasty; ill-mannered; unappealing
  • noun
  • 144 of something; twelve dozen of something
  • Total sum of money earned before costs and taxes
  • Total weight of something including packaging
  • verb
  • To earn an amount of money before costs and taxes

taste

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US / teɪst /

UK / test /

A2
  • noun
  • (Good) sense of style in clothes, art, or manners
  • Flavor in your mouth from food or drink
  • A liking for something; preference
  • Brief experience of something
  • verb
  • To experience something
  • To experience the flavor of food, drink
  • To briefly experience to see if you like something

too

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition, also; with emphasis
  • Say that something is more than you want

side

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US / saɪd /

UK / saɪd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In addition to the central or most important thing
  • Next to, or very close to, the right or left of
  • noun
  • Position or opinion that is opposite to another
  • Right or left part of a person's body
  • Feature of someone's personality
  • Straight edge of an object
  • One of two or more groups fighting each other
  • verb
  • To decide to agree with one point, not the other

day

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US / deɪ /

UK / de /

A1
  • noun
  • A period of 24 hours beginning at midnight
  • The period of time when it is light outside
  • Person's name
  • Subtitles section
  • [INTRO] Any good sommelier will tell you that it's important to let your Cabernet "breathe." After you pour your glass, you should take a moment to gently swirl it around.
  • Look at the pattern of "legs" as the wine drips down the sides.
  • Maybe take a good sniff and marvel at the wonderful notes of chocolate, cherry, and blackberry.
  • Or, at least, just wait a second or two before you down the whole thing.
  • And they're not actually making up the whole "breathing" thing.
  • Exposing wines, at least red wines, briefly to air does make them taste better by subtly changing their chemistry.
  • There are two key processes happening when a wine is "breathing": evaporation and oxidation.
  • You won't see bits of wine vaporizing when you pour your first glass, but the most volatile components—those that evaporate easily—have already started leaping into the air.
  • That includes some of the wine's ethanol, the alcohol that gets you buzzed.
  • And while you wouldn't want all of it to evaporate, ethanol has a pretty strong smell, so it's not the first thing you want heading up your nose when you tip your glass towards your face.
  • At the same time, sulfites, which are added to wine as preservatives, also take their leave.
  • These sulfur-containing molecules can give the first whiff of wine a rotten eggy note.
  • Ugh.
  • But once these scents are lessened, you can actually smell the goodies in the wine, and how something smells has a huge impact on how it tastes.
  • Aerating also exposes the wine to oxygen, and oxygen causes oxidation: a rearrangement of electrons that can shift a chemical's properties and help break down molecules.
  • In wines, among the first to react with oxygen are phenolics: the stuff mostly responsible for the color of your favorite red or rosé.
  • You may have heard of tannins, for example—those are phenolics that don't have strong flavors themselves, but cause that drying feeling in your mouth after you drink a bold red.
  • Oxidation breaks them down, mellowing that astringent texture and allowing other flavors and aromas to shine through.
  • Phenolics come from the grape's skin and seeds, and since the red wine-making process involves more time with the whole grapes, more phenolics end up in the final product.
  • That's why rich reds like Cabernet Sauvignons, Malbecs, and Sangioveses benefit from "breathing," and why red wine glasses are rounder and larger, to increase amount of the wine that's in contact with air.
  • Fruity, fresh red wines have fewer tannins, so they don't need to breathe as much, if at all.
  • And too much aeration can ruin a wine.
  • If oxidation is allowed to go too far, it will change and break down the tasty bits of the wine, too, so the flavors and aromas flatten out.
  • Red wines tend to be okay with a stopper for a few days, while whites become oxidized more quickly.
  • And you can even see it happen: Whites become brown-tinged, and reds turn more orangey.
  • Eventually—like, if you forget about your bottle of wine for months—your wine will become really gross.
  • That's because bacteria get into it that convert ethanol to acetic acid, the molecular flavor of vinegar.
  • So, if you're drinking a robust red on date night, letting it sit in the glass for a few minutes or decanting the bottle might enhance the experience.
  • Cheers to our Patreon patron Nick for asking, and to all our other patrons who voted for this question in our poll.
  • If you'd like to suggest questions or vote to help decide what questions we answer, head over Patreon.com/SciShow and become our patron.
  • [OUTRO]