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'Tech war' is brewing between U.S. and China, says Palantir's Jacob Helberg

Video vocabulary

fusion

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US / ˈfju:ʒn /

UK / ˈfjuʒən /

B2
  • noun
  • Combining various things to make something new

heating

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US / ˈhiːtɪŋ /

UK / ˈhiːtɪŋ /

A2
  • noun
  • System that provides warmth to a house or building
  • verb
  • To make hot or hotter

military

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US / 'mɪlətrɪ /

UK / ˈmɪlɪˌtɛri /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the army or navy
  • noun
  • Army or armed forces

result

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US / rɪ'zʌlt /

UK / rɪˈzʌlt /

A2
  • noun
  • Something produced through tests or experiments
  • Final score of a competition, election or game
  • verb
  • To be the outcome of other causes and effects

show

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US / ʃəʊ /

UK / ʃo /

A1
  • noun
  • False display of love, emotion or action
  • An event for displaying or promoting goods
  • Play, opera or theater production
  • Presentation that is broadcast on TV or radio
  • verb
  • To be easily seen or displayed
  • To display your emotions or feelings
  • To let someone see something; display
  • To explain or teach how something is done
  • To lead someone somewhere; point them to something
  • To prove something to be true, correct
  • To reveal or allow something to be seen

theory

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US / ˈθiəri /

UK / ˈθiəri, ˈθɪri /

A2
  • noun
  • Ideas or principles that explain facts or events

control

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US / kən'trəʊl /

UK / kənˈtrol /

A1
  • noun
  • A device designed to operate a machine
  • Participant in experiment that is left untouched
  • Act to dominate or command; make manageable
  • A law limiting the growth or spread of something
  • A place which overseas or manages e.g. a factory
  • verb
  • To direct or influence the behavior of something

fence

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US / fens /

UK / fɛns /

B1
  • noun
  • Wood, metal structure enclosing an area, land
  • verb
  • To enclose an area (with a wall or boundary)

though

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US / ðəu /

UK / ðo /

A1
  • adverb
  • Although, despite the fact that

capability

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US / ˌkeɪpəˈbɪləti /

UK / ˌkeɪpə'bɪləti /

B1
  • noun
  • Means, ability, or potential to do something

competitive

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US / kəmˈpetətɪv /

UK / kəmˈpɛtɪtɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being strongly driven to win or be better than

highly

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US / ˈhaɪli /

UK / 'haɪlɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In a manner that shows approval
  • More than usual; to a great degree

question

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US / 'kwestʃən /

UK / ˈkwɛstʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Issue or problems you are dealing with
  • What you ask about; issue
  • verb
  • To ask for or try to get information
  • To have or express concerns or uncertainty

computer

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US / kəmˈpju:tə(r) /

UK / kəmˈpjutɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Machine for storing data, accessing the internet

definitely

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US / ˈdefɪnətli /

UK / ˈdefɪnətli /

A2
  • adverb
  • Without question; beyond doubt

sound

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US / saʊnd /

UK / saʊnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Sensible, dependable and reliable
  • Unbroken or undisturbed, as of sleep
  • Firm or solid in structure
  • Sane; not mentally ill
  • Clearly reasoned; involving sense, good judgment
  • noun
  • Unique quality that characterizes a style of music
  • Waves traveling in air or water that can be heard
  • verb
  • To seem or appear to be, from what was said
  • To say in a clear deliberate manner
  • To make a noise, e.g. to ring a bell

grow

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US / ɡrəʊ /

UK / ɡro /

A1
  • verb
  • To get bigger and more mature; make plants do this
  • To improve; to develop better skills over time
  • To develop and become bigger or taller over time

manufacture

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US / ˌmænjʊ'fæktʃə(r) /

UK / ˌmænjəˈfæktʃɚ /

A2
  • verb
  • To produce large numbers of products in a factory
  • To create a story or explanation that is not true

restrict

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US / rɪ'strɪkt /

UK / rɪˈstrɪkt /

A2
  • verb
  • To prevent a person from doing something

since

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US / sɪns /

UK / sɪns /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a point before the present time
  • conjunction
  • For this reason; because
  • preposition
  • From the time in the past that

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

system

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US / 'sɪstəm /

UK / ˈsɪstəm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Working in an organized, logical way
  • noun
  • Set of organized, planned ideas that work together

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

obtain

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US / əbˈteɪn /

UK / əbˈtein /

A2
  • other
  • To get something through your efforts
  • verb
  • To be given or to earn something through efforts

mistrust

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US / ˌmɪsˈtrʌst /

UK / mɪsˈtrʌst /

C1
  • noun
  • Feeling that you cannot trust someone or something
  • verb
  • To feel that you cannot trust someone or something

short

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US / ʃɔ:t /

UK / ʃɔrt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Less than what is needed
  • Suddenly stopping what you are saying or doing
  • verb
  • (Of electric circuit) to spark because faulty
  • adjecitve
  • Measuring a small distance
  • Happening for a small amount of time
  • Unfriendly or rude

through

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US / θru: /

UK / θru /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • having finished using or doing something
  • adverb
  • From the beginning of something until the end
  • preposition
  • Over, in, across an entire thing or place
  • Allowing you to pass between, or to
  • By a particular way or process; by the use of

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

aerial

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US / 'eərɪəl /

UK / ˈɛriəl, eˈɪriəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being done, living or seen in the air
  • noun
  • Antenna; device for receiving radio/ TV signal

california

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US / ˌkælɪ'fɔ:njə, -'fɔ:ni:ə /

UK / ˌkælɪ'fɔ:rnjəˌ -'fɔ:rni:ə /

A1
  • noun
  • A state in the western United States on the Pacific; the rd largest state; known for earthquakes

chinese

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US / /

UK / /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of China

consumer

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US / kənˈsju:mə(r) /

UK / kənˈsumɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Person who buys goods or services

both

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US / bəuθ /

UK / boθ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time
  • pronoun
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time

device

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US / dɪˈvaɪs /

UK / dɪˈvaɪs /

A2
  • noun
  • Object, machine, or equipment for a specific use
  • Method of doing something; a way

between

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US / bɪˈtwi:n /

UK / bɪˈtwin /

A1
  • preposition
  • From one person, thing, or place, to another
  • In the space that separates two objects
  • Among two or more people who share something

billion

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US / ˈbɪljən /

UK / ˈbɪljən /

A2
  • noun
  • Number 1,000,000,000

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

china

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US / ˈtʃaɪnə /

UK / ˈtʃaɪnə /

A1
  • noun
  • A communist nation that covers a vast territory in eastern Asia; the most populous country in the wo
  • other
  • High quality porcelain originally made only in China

thank

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US / θæŋk /

UK / θæŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To tell someone you are grateful to them

bit

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US / bɪt /

UK / bɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • Device put in a horse's mouth to control it
  • Small piece of something
  • verb
  • (E.g. of fish) to take bait and be caught

believe

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US / bɪ'li:v /

UK / bɪˈliv /

A1
  • verb
  • To think or accept that something is true
  • To have a particular opinion about something

washington

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US / 'wɒʃɪŋtən /

UK / 'wɑ:ʃɪŋtənˌ 'wɔ:ʃɪŋ- /

A1
  • other
  • A state in northwestern United States on the Pacific

geopolitical

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US / ˌdʒi:əʊpə'lɪtɪkl /

UK / ˌdʒi:oʊpə'lɪtɪkl /

C1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning geopolitics

its

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US / ɪts /

UK / ɪts /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to or belonging to ‘it’
  • determiner
  • Of something; belonging or related to something
  • other
  • Possessive form of “it”

take

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US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
  • verb
  • To accept something that is offered
  • To use a method of traveling, e.g. a bus or train
  • To use a camera to make (a photo)
  • To pick up something and go away with it
  • To study a subject in school
  • To attempt to pass (an exam)
  • To require a certain amount of time, money, space

capitol

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US / 'kæpɪtl /

UK / 'kæpɪtl /

A1
  • other
  • A building occupied by a state legislature
  • Government building in Washington where the United States Senate and the House of Representatives me

chip

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US / tʃɪp /

UK / tʃɪp /

B1
  • noun
  • Small piece that has broken off (e.g. from cup)
  • Piece of computer hardware that does calculations
  • Thin piece of fried potato or other food
  • Act of hitting a ball high but not very far
  • verb
  • To break a small piece off something such as a cup
  • To break into small pieces, often with a tool
  • To hit or kick a ball high but not very far

war

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US / wɔ:(r) /

UK / wɔr /

A2
  • noun
  • Situation where armies fight each other

slow

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US / sləʊ /

UK / sloʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Lacking activity, busyness or excitement
  • (Clock) showing time earlier than the actual time
  • Having difficulty understanding simple things
  • Moving or happening without speed; not fast
  • verb
  • To move, with less speed than before
  • To move or go without much speed

commissioner

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US / kəˈmɪʃənə(r) /

UK / kəˈmɪʃənɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Person heading a group in charge of something

civilian

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US / sə'vɪlɪən /

UK / sɪˈvɪljən /

B2
  • noun
  • Ordinary person who is not in the army

export

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US / ˈekspɔ:t /

UK / ˈekspɔ:rt /

A2
  • noun
  • When goods are sold to another country
  • verb
  • To send goods to be sold in another country

ceo

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US / ˌsiː iː ˈəʊ /

UK / ˌsiː iː ˈoʊ /

C2
  • abbreviation
  • CEO for Chief Operating Officer

against

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US / əˈgenst /

UK / əˈɡenst /

A1
  • preposition
  • In physical contact with, as for support; next to
  • In opposition to; disagreeing with

understand

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US / ˌʌndə'stænd /

UK / ˌʌndɚˈstænd /

A1
  • verb
  • To know the meaning of language, what someone says

stock

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US / stɒk /

UK / stɑk /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • (E.g. of a response) standard; usual; not original
  • noun
  • Animals such as cattle kept for breeding
  • Tasty liquid added to stews, soups etc.
  • Merchandise; goods kept by a business for sale
  • Piece of a business, bought in the form of shares
  • verb
  • To keep some of, as items for sale

quite

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US / kwaɪt /

UK / kwaɪt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Not very; fairly
  • Very; In a complete or total manner

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

development

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US / dɪ'veləpmənt /

UK / dɪˈvɛləpmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Act or process of growing bigger or more advanced
  • A new event related to a previous event

whether

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US / ˈweðə(r) /

UK / ˈhwɛðɚ, ˈwɛð- /

A1
  • conjunction
  • If something will happen or not

reflective

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US / rɪˈflektɪv /

UK / rɪˈflɛktɪv /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Having the ability to reflect light, heat, sound
  • Thinking deeply about something; thoughtful

overreaction

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US / ˌəʊvərɪ'ækʃn /

UK / ˌoʊvərɪ'ækʃn /

B1
  • noun
  • A too strong or inappropriate response

effect

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US / ɪ'fekt /

UK / ɪˈfɛkt /

A1
  • noun
  • An advantage, benefit
  • Change brought about by a cause; result

collect

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US / kəˈlekt /

UK / kəˈlɛkt /

A2
  • adverb
  • By asking the receiver of a call to pay for it
  • verb
  • To ask for money, e.g. for a charity
  • To gather things, people together in one place
  • To get and keep one type of things as a hobby
  • To take things and bring them together
  • To go and receive, e.g. a prize or an award
  • To take control of your own feelings or thoughts

significant

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US / sɪgˈnɪfɪkənt /

UK / sɪɡˈnɪfɪkənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Large enough to be noticed or have an effect
  • Having meaning; important; noticeable
  • (Statistics) being clearly different

liberation

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US / ˌlɪbə'reɪʃn /

UK / ˌlɪbəˈreʃən /

B2
  • noun
  • Act of setting someone or something free

single

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US / 'sɪŋɡl /

UK / ˈsɪŋɡəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being one only, without others
  • Only; merely
  • Not married or in a relationship
  • noun
  • One run in cricket or a hit baseball
  • An individual song from a CD or album
  • Person who is not married or in a relationship

security

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US / sɪ'kjʊərətɪ /

UK / sɪˈkjʊrɪtisə'kjurətɪ /

A2
  • noun
  • Department in a company in charge of protection
  • Financial document, like stocks, bonds and notes
  • Person paid to protect property and people
  • Things done to protect people, buildings etc.
  • Condition of being safe from danger or harm

give

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US / ɡɪv /

UK / ɡɪv /

A1
  • noun
  • Degree of flexibility in something, a material
  • verb
  • To hand over or present something to someone
  • To cause someone to have or experience something

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

ability

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US / ə'bɪlətɪ /

UK / əˈbɪlɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • The power, resources or skill to do something

race

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US / reɪs /

UK / res /

A2
  • noun
  • Speed contest between people, animals or vehicles
  • People who share physical features or culture
  • verb
  • To take part in a running or swimming competition
  • To move or go at a very fast pace
  • To take someone, something to a place very quickly

reflection

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US / rɪˈflekʃn /

UK / rɪˈflɛkʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Sign or indication of a state or condition
  • Image that you see in a mirror, glass, or water
  • An image in glass, water, a mirror, etc.
  • Process of thinking carefully about something

compute

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US / kəm'pju:t /

UK / kəmˈpjut /

A1
  • verb
  • To find out by calculating or estimating

point

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US / pɔɪnt /

UK / pɔɪnt /

A1
  • noun
  • An item to be discussed
  • Small spot or dot
  • Fact or detail
  • Feature of something
  • The size of the text on a page or screen
  • A certain time or stage in a process
  • Certain position in time or space
  • Idea or fact you try to convince people about
  • Measurement of scores in a game, sport
  • Sharp end of something, e.g. a pen or pin
  • verb
  • To face a certain direction, e.g. north
  • To indicate something with your finger to others

ever

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US / 'evə(r) /

UK / ˈɛvɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At any time; at all times in the future

develop

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US / dɪ'veləp /

UK / dɪˈvɛləp /

A1
  • verb
  • To explain something in steps and in detail
  • To create or think of something
  • To grow bigger, more complex, or more advanced
  • To make a photograph from film

certain

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US / ˈsə:tn /

UK / ˈsɚtn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Definite, fixed
  • Referring to an unspecified amount or quantity
  • Being sure about something; without doubt

tesla

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US / 'teslə /

UK / 'teslə /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of magnetic flux density equal to one weber per square meter

use

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US / ju:s /

UK / ju:s /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to employ something
  • Need to enable it to work
  • Permission to do something with something
  • Act of spending money
  • Operation of a machine for its function
  • verb
  • To have; to eat, drink, consume etc.
  • To need to operate or work
  • To operate a machine, e.g. a computer
  • To treat a person badly
  • To do something with, for a task or purpose

potent

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US / 'pəʊtnt /

UK / ˈpotnt /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • (Of men) being able to make a woman pregnant
  • Having a powerful effect, e.g. on the body or mind

autonomous

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US / ɔ:ˈtɒnəməs /

UK / ɔ:ˈtɑ:nəməs /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Able to control or decide matters by itself

actually

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US / ˈæktʃuəli /

UK / ˈæktʃuəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to add new (often different) information

new

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US / nju: /

UK / nu, nju /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not old, recently born, built or made
  • Being or doing something for the first time
  • Not felt, seen or known previously
  • Having been recently bought or obtained

lose

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US / lu:z /

UK / luz /

A1
  • verb
  • To be unable to keep in check or control something
  • To decrease in value or quantity (e.g. weight)
  • To stop having certain qualities or abilities
  • To stop having or being entitled to
  • To fail to win something that is being contested
  • To be unable to find something you once had
  • To be dependent on someone (used with 'not')

army

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US / 'ɑ:mɪ /

UK / ˈɑrmi /

A2
  • noun
  • Large group of soldiers organized to fight in wars

side

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US / saɪd /

UK / saɪd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In addition to the central or most important thing
  • Next to, or very close to, the right or left of
  • noun
  • Position or opinion that is opposite to another
  • Right or left part of a person's body
  • Feature of someone's personality
  • Straight edge of an object
  • One of two or more groups fighting each other
  • verb
  • To decide to agree with one point, not the other

market

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US / ˈmɑ:kɪt /

UK / ˈmɑ:rkɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • Need or demand for a particular product or service
  • Area or region where a certain product is sold
  • Public event where people sell goods on tables
  • Institution where stocks are bought and sold
  • verb
  • To publicize products to get you to buy; advertise

concern

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US / kənˈsɜ:n /

UK / kənˈsɚn /

A2
  • noun
  • Company, firm or business
  • Feeling of worry or anxiety
  • verb
  • To be about a particular topic
  • To have a direct impact on someone
  • To be responsible or mixed up in; to be involved
  • To feel worry or anxiety

area

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US / 'eərɪə /

UK / ˈɛriə /

A1
  • noun
  • Amount of measured space
  • A specific section or space; part of a region
  • A subject or field of study

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

leapfrog

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US / 'li:pfrɒɡ /

UK / ˈlipˌfrɔɡ, -ˌfrɑɡ /

C1
  • verb
  • To jump over or jump in front of, out of turn

wait

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US / weɪt /

UK / wet /

A1
  • verb
  • To delay or not do something until later
  • To spend time until an expected thing happens
  • To remain in a place until a thing happens

underwater

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US / ˌʌndəˈwɔ:tə(r) /

UK / ˈʌndɚˌwɔtɚ, -ˌwɑtɚ /

C2
  • adjecitve
  • (Moving or existing) beneath the surface of water

while

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US / waɪl /

UK / hwaɪl, waɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • In spite of the fact that; although
  • During the time that; at the same time
  • noun
  • Short amount of time

restriction

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US / rɪˈstrɪkʃn /

UK / rɪˈstrɪkʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Law or rule that controls or limits something

global

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US / ˈgləʊbl /

UK / ˈgloʊbl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning, involving, affecting all of something
  • Of, affecting, or involving the entire world

breakthrough

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US / 'breɪkθru: /

UK / ˈbrekˌθru /

B2
  • noun
  • Important discovery in doing something difficult

office

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US / ˈɒfɪs /

UK / ˈɔ:fɪs /

A1
  • noun
  • Room or building used for business
  • Important job position, often in a government

permanently

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US / 'pɜ:mənəntlɪ /

UK / ˈpəmənəntlɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • For a long time; always

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

legitimate

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US / lɪ'dʒɪtɪmət /

UK / ləˈdʒɪtəmɪt /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Being born to legally married parents
  • Being reasonable and sound
  • verb
  • To make acceptable and sound

large

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US / lɑ:dʒ /

UK / lɑ:rdʒ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Big; of great size; broad, tall, wide, or fat

ban

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US / bæn /

UK / bæn /

B1
  • noun
  • Official action preventing something happening
  • verb
  • To make something illegal or not allowed

over

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US / 'əʊvə(r) /

UK / ˈovɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Finished; no longer happening
  • Towards the ground/away from a standing position
  • noun
  • A set of six consecutive balls bowled in cricket
  • other
  • Finished
  • preposition
  • Showing the relation when a thing is above another
  • On or covering something
  • Above or across something
  • More than you need
  • From one side to the other
  • In the direction of; toward

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

administration

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US / ədˌmɪnɪˈstreɪʃn /

UK / ædˌmɪnɪˈstreʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of giving e.g. medicine to a patient
  • The work of running something, e.g. a business
  • People managing a business, government etc.

policymaker

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US / 'pɒləsɪmeɪkə(r) /

UK / 'pɒləsɪˌmeɪkə /

C2
  • noun
  • Someone who makes and decides (government) plans

lot

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US / lɒt /

UK / lɑt /

A1
  • noun
  • What happens to a person in life from chance; fate
  • A group of people seen together
  • Item for sale at an auction
  • Small area of land used for a purpose e.g. parking

intelligence

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US / ɪn'telɪdʒəns /

UK / ɪnˈtɛlədʒəns /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of the spying services; acting in secrecy
  • noun
  • Collection of secret information about something
  • Ability to learn things or to consider situations

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

maintain

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US / meɪn'teɪn /

UK / menˈten /

A2
  • verb
  • To keep saying something a certain way
  • To keep (machine) working by checking, repairing
  • To keep, exist or continue without changing

beyond

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US / bɪ'jɒnd /

UK / biˈɑnd, bɪˈjɑnd /

A2
  • adverb
  • On or to the farther side
  • In addition to
  • preposition
  • Later in time than
  • Out of the limits of

separation

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US / ˌsepəˈreɪʃn /

UK / ˌsɛpəˈreʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • A line that separates; a point of parting; a gap
  • State of not live together, but are still married

real

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US / rɪəl /

UK / ˈriəl, ril /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Actually existing or happening, not imagined
  • Being important or special

think

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US / θɪŋk /

UK / θɪŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To have an idea about something without certainty
  • To have an idea, opinion or belief about something

policy

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US / 'pɒləsɪ /

UK / ˈpɑlɪsi /

A2
  • noun
  • Document stating terms of an insurance agreement
  • Course of action proposed by an organization, etc.

drone

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US / drəʊn /

UK / dron /

B2
  • noun
  • A remote controlled flying device
  • A continually dull or monotonous voice
  • Male bee
  • verb
  • To talk in a continually dull or monotonous voice

composition

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US / ˌkɒmpəˈzɪʃn /

UK / ˌkɑ:mpəˈzɪʃn /

A2
  • noun
  • Piece of writing, music etc.
  • A piece of music
  • Structure of a picture or image to make an effect

company

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US / 'kʌmpənɪ /

UK / ˈkʌmpəni /

A1
  • noun
  • Good feeling from being with someone else
  • A business that sells things or provides services
  • Guests, especially in your home
  • Being with another person rather than alone

aim

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US / eɪm /

UK / em /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of pointing something at a target
  • Purpose or goal
  • verb
  • To point something at a target
  • To intend to get a thing or for a thing to happen

where

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US / hwɛə /

UK / hwɛr, wɛr /

A1
  • conjunction
  • At or in the place which
  • In whatever place
  • pronoun
  • Word you use to ask the location of something

retaliation

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US / rɪˌtælɪˈeɪʃn /

UK / rɪˌtælɪˈeʃən /

B2
  • noun
  • Revenge for something harmful or wrong

put

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US / pʊt /

UK / pʊt /

A1
  • phrasal verb
  • to make a light stop shining by pressing or moving a switch
  • verb
  • To move or place a thing in a particular position
  • To rate something in importance or value
  • To write or say something in a certain manner

perhaps

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US / pəˈhæps /

UK / pɚˈhæps /

A1
  • adverb
  • Possibly, but not certainly; maybe

only

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US / ˈəunli /

UK / ˈonli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just one; just that amount or thing; not more than
  • Not very important or serious
  • Just that type of thing, person
  • Short time ago; not before a certain time
  • conjunction
  • Except; but

root

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US / ru:t /

UK / rut, rʊt /

A2
  • noun
  • Emotional connection with a place, history etc.
  • The origin or starting place of something
  • A number that is multiplied by itself
  • Part of plant growing underground, as to get water
  • Part of tooth, hair etc. from which the rest grows
  • Base part of a word to which affixes can be added
  • verb
  • To cause a plant to develop or grow roots
  • (Animals) to search for e.g. food in earth
  • To stop someone moving, as through fear

leak

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US / li:k /

UK / lik /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of (gas, liquid) escaping through a small hole
  • Information released that wasn't supposed to be
  • verb
  • (Of a tire) to have air, liquid escaping; (Of air)
  • To make secret information public
  • (Liquid) to go out of/get in through crack/opening

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

becky

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US / ˈbɛki /

UK / ˈbɛki /

A1

hill

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US / hɪl /

UK / hɪl /

A2
  • noun
  • High land not as high as a mountain
  • Where the road or land goes upward; slope
  • Person's name

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

simply

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US / ˈsɪmpli /

UK / ˈsɪmpli /

A1
  • adverb
  • In an easy or clear manner

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

term

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US / tɜ:m /

UK / tɚm /

A1
  • noun
  • Conditions applying to an agreement, contract
  • Length of time something is expected to happen
  • Fixed period of weeks for learning at school
  • The (precise) name given to something
  • verb
  • To call; give a name to

advance

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US / əd'vɑ:ns /

UK / ædˈvæns /

A2
  • noun
  • Forward movement by an army
  • An attempt to seduce someone
  • verb
  • (Of an army) to move forward
  • To change or improve
  • To increase in price or value
  • To move forward in a certain direction
  • To try to seduce someone

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

play

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US / pleɪ /

UK / pleɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Loose, free movement between two objects
  • Single action in a sports game
  • Performance in which people act in a theater
  • verb
  • To act as a character in a movie, or on stage
  • To perform music on an instrument
  • To use a device, e.g. a video game
  • To do something for enjoyment and fun
  • To do or perform a game or sport

congress

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US / 'kɒŋɡres /

UK / ˈkɑŋɡrɪs /

B1
  • noun
  • Meeting of elected or appointed representatives
  • American governing body of elected representatives

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

little

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US / 'lɪtl /

UK / ˈlɪtl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being short in length of time
  • Not great in size, amount, or degree; small
  • Being very young or younger than others
  • adverb
  • By an amount or degree that is not very much
  • Not often; rarely
  • noun
  • A person's name

let

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US / let /

UK / lɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To allow someone to do something
  • Introducing a suggestion to do something together
  • To rent a house, etc. to others

level

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US / 'levl /

UK / ˈlɛvəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • (Sports) equal to another
  • Being steady and determined (e.g. a voice)
  • noun
  • Specific height of something
  • Amount of ability you have compared to others
  • Floor or deck within a building
  • Tool used to determine if something is lying flat
  • verb
  • To aim a gun at someone
  • To destroy a building; flatten an area completely
  • To make things flat or even
  • To make a score equal to another, in sports

essential

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US / ɪ'senʃl /

UK / ɪˈsɛnʃəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Extremely or most important and necessary

commercial

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US / kəˈmə:ʃəl /

UK / kəˈmɚʃəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • noun
  • Radio or television advertisement

citizen

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US / 'sɪtɪzn /

UK / ˈsɪtɪzən /

B1
  • noun
  • Person who belongs to and has rights in a country

order

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US / 'ɔ:də(r) /

UK / ˈɔrdɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Religious or social group, as of nuns
  • Instructions to others to do what you want
  • State in which things are neat and organized
  • What you ask to buy, e.g. food in restaurant
  • Social or political control of an area
  • verb
  • To put things in a sequence, e.g. a, b, c
  • To give instructions to others to do what you want
  • To ask for something you want to buy, e.g. a meal

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

karp

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US / kɑmɪk /

UK / kɑmɪk /

A1

huawei

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US / /

UK / /

A1

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

week

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US / wi:k /

UK / wik /

A1
  • noun
  • Period of seven days from Sunday to Saturday

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

different

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US / ˈdɪfrənt /

UK / ˈdɪfrənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not of the same kind; unlike other things

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

ultimately

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US / ˈʌltɪmətli /

UK / ˈʌltəmɪtli /

B1
  • adverb
  • Done or considered as the final and most important

place

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US / pleɪs /

UK / ples /

A1
  • noun
  • Particular location, area or region
  • verb
  • To put someone in a particular type of situation
  • To put something in a certain location or position

biden

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US / baɪd /

UK / baɪd /

A1

oxygen

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US / 'ɒksɪdʒən /

UK / ˈɑksɪdʒən /

B1
  • noun
  • A gas in the air that we need to breathe

mean

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US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular meaning or value

great

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US / ɡreɪt /

UK / ɡret /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very large in size
  • Very important
  • Very good; fantastic; wonderful
  • adverb
  • Very good; better than before
  • noun
  • Successful and well-admired person

apple

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US / ˈæpl /

UK / ˈæpəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Hard round red or green fruit with a white center

vision

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US / 'vɪʒn /

UK / ˈvɪʒən /

A2
  • noun
  • Ability to see; eyesight
  • Something you see in your imagination or dreams
  • Ability to plan for the future of something

sanction

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US / 'sæŋkʃn /

UK / ˈsæŋkʃən /

B2
  • noun
  • Official support or approval
  • Action taken to force a country to obey laws
  • verb
  • To allow or approve something

down

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US / daʊn /

UK / daʊn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being sad, sick, or unhappy
  • Not operating, working, or functioning as expected
  • adverb
  • In a sitting or lying position
  • Towards or on the ground, floor, or bottom
  • Written or copied onto a piece of paper or book
  • noun
  • A period of play in American Football
  • The soft, smooth hairs that cover a bird's body
  • preposition
  • Along something's path, course, or direction
  • Going from a higher position to a lower position
  • verb
  • To eat or drink very quickly and without stopping

particularly

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US / pəˈtikjuləli /

UK / pɚˈtɪkjələli, pəˈtɪk- /

A2
  • adverb
  • Specially; more than others

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

nothing

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US / 'nʌθɪŋ /

UK / ˈnʌθɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • Item of little or no value, importance, interest
  • Number or value of zero
  • pronoun
  • Not anything, not a single thing

language

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US / ˈlæŋgwɪdʒ /

UK / ˈlæŋɡwɪdʒ /

A1
  • noun
  • Words or signs used to communicate messages

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

line

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US / laɪn /

UK / laɪn /

A1
  • noun
  • Border that divides two places or regions
  • Long crease in the skin, often from age
  • Mark that is long, straight and very thin
  • Row of words, letters or numbers that are written
  • Telephone connection
  • People waiting one behind the other; queue
  • Long thin wire, e.g. for electrical signal
  • verb
  • To put material along the inside of something

purpose

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US / 'pɜ:pəs /

UK / ˈpɚpəs /

A2
  • noun
  • Reason for which something is done; aim; goal

talk

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US / tɔ:k /

UK / tɔk /

A1
  • noun
  • Style of speaking
  • Discussion between two countries
  • Giving information in front of people; lecture
  • Saying things or ideas to someone with words
  • verb
  • To make a formal speech about something
  • To say things or ideas to someone with words

technology

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US / tek'nɒlədʒɪ /

UK / tɛkˈnɑlədʒi /

A2
  • noun
  • Use or knowledge of science in industry etc.

lawmaker

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US / ˈlɔ:meɪkə(r) /

UK / ˈlɔˌmekɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Politicians who make new laws

pla

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US / plɑ /

UK / /

A1
  • abbreviation
  • People's Liberation Army.
  • (in the UK) Port of London Authority.

snowden

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US / 'snəʊkæpt /

UK / 'snoʊkæpt /

A1

unfold

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US / ʌn'fəʊld /

UK / ʌnˈfold /

B1
  • other
  • To happen, be told or be revealed
  • verb
  • (Of a situation) to be told or revealed
  • To open something that was folded
  • To move apart two things such as your two arms

affair

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US / ə'feə(r) /

UK / əˈfɛr /

A2
  • noun
  • Secret sexual relationship between two people
  • Event or a set of events, often unpleasant ones

expert

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US / 'ekspɜ:t /

UK / ˈɛkˌspɚt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Having special knowledge or skill
  • noun
  • Skillful person with special knowledge

jacob

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US / ˈdʒeikəb /

UK / ˈdʒɛkəb /

A1
  • proper noun
  • (in the Bible) a Hebrew patriarch, the younger of the twin sons of Isaac and Rebecca, who persuaded

leads

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US / 'ledz /

UK / 'ledz /

A1
  • other
  • Wires for electricity, computer, etc.; cable
  • Information that could help to solve crimes
  • Ropes used to tie some things to stop it escaping
  • verb
  • To show the way or guide others
  • To be at the front of a race or game

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

hear

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • verb
  • To be aware of sound; to perceive with the ear
  • To be told or find out information or facts
  • To consider or listen to a court case

bifurcation

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US / ˌbaɪfə'keɪʃn /

UK / ˌbaɪfə'keɪʃn /

A1
  • noun
  • Point where two branches, etc. separate into two

artificial

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US / ˌɑ:tɪ'fɪʃl /

UK / ˌɑrtəˈfɪʃəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Dishonest, to seem fake, not sincere
  • (Something) made by people; not created by nature

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

information

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US / ˌɪnfəˈmeɪʃn /

UK / ˌɪnfɚˈmeʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Collection of facts and details about something

supercomputer

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US / ˈsu:pəkəmpju:tə(r) /

UK / ˈsu:pərkəmpju:tə(r) /

C2
  • noun
  • Very powerful computer

blur

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US / blɜ:(r) /

UK / blɚ /

B2
  • verb
  • To make something unclear or out of focus
  • To dull the distinction between things

model

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US / ˈmɒdl /

UK / ˈmɑ:dl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being an excellent example of
  • noun
  • Person who wears fashion to show it to the public
  • A small scale copy of a full original
  • verb
  • To wear and display clothes at a fashion show
  • To make a small scale copy of a full original

semiconductor

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US / ˌsemikənˈdʌktə(r) /

UK / sɛmikənˈdʌktɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Silicon chip used in computers

sector

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US / ˈsektə(r) /

UK / ˈsɛktɚ, -ˌtɔr /

A2
  • noun
  • Part that a place is divided into
  • Area; type of industry or business

world

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US / wɜ:ld /

UK / wɜrld /

A1
  • noun
  • All the humans, events, activities on the earth
  • Political division due to some kind of similarity

commission

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US / kə'mɪʃn /

UK / kəˈmɪʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Money paid for a service, e.g. money exchanging
  • An official role or title in the military
  • Group officially put in charge of e.g. education
  • Order for a specific piece of work, usually of art
  • verb
  • To hire someone, order work to be done for payment

government

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US / ˈgʌvənmənt /

UK / ˈɡʌvənmənt /

A1
  • noun
  • Group of people and system that rule a nation

percent

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US / pə'sent /

UK / pɚˈsɛnt /

A2
  • adverb
  • One one-hundredth of a whole; the symbol %

violate

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US / ˈvaɪəleɪt /

UK / ˈvaɪəˌlet /

B1
  • verb
  • To abuse, damage or disrespect
  • To break rules or laws; disregard important rights
  • To force sex acts on a person against their will

tech

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US / tek /

UK / tɛk /

A2
  • noun
  • Shortened form of 'technology' or 'technician'

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

adviser

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US / ədˈvaɪzə(r) /

UK / ædˈvaɪzɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Someone giving advice in business, law etc.

beijing

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US / ˌbeɪˈdʒɪŋ /

UK / ˌbeɪˈdʒɪŋ /

A1
  • proper noun
  • The capital of China, in the northeast of the country; population 8,580,400 (est. 2006). Beijing bec

economic

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US / ˌi:kəˈnɒmɪk /

UK / ˌɛkəˈnɑmɪk, ˌikə- /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning trade, industry, and money

raise

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US / reɪz /

UK / rez /

A1
  • noun
  • Increase in a bet above another when playing cards
  • Pay increase
  • verb
  • To increase a bet above another when playing cards
  • To gather donations for a cause or charity
  • To bring up and educate a child to maturity
  • To bring a dead person to life
  • To increase a quantity, size, intensity or price
  • To lift (e.g. your hand) to a higher position
  • To mention a topic /issue for discussion; bring up
  • To increase (salary, etc.)
  • To grow or care for plants or animals

senior

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US / 'si:nɪə(r) /

UK / ˈsinjɚ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being older than another person
  • Concerning the needs or activities of older people
  • (Student) in the final year of school
  • noun
  • Person who has usually reached a specific old age
  • Person who is older than someone else
  • Person with higher status or authority than
  • Student who is in the final year of school

review

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US / rɪˈvju: /

UK / rɪˈvju /

A2
  • noun
  • Examination of soldiers and supplies
  • Opinion, as in a paper, about movie, book, or play
  • Studying again to remind yourself about something
  • verb
  • To carefully look at the quality of something
  • To formally examine something in the military
  • To write an opinion about movie, book, or play
  • To study again to remind yourself about something

spillover

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US / ˈspɪləʊvə(r) /

UK / ˈspɪloʊvə(r) /

A1
  • noun
  • Any indirect effect of public expenditure

could

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US / kəd /

UK / kʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Past form of 'can' to mean have ability
  • Used to ask for something politely, or to offer

know

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US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

public

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US / 'pʌblɪk /

UK / ˈpʌblɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Owned by the government
  • Concerning society in general
  • Being available or accessible to people in general
  • Known or able to be known by all people
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • In a recent interview, Jacob Helberg, the commissioner of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission and senior policy advisor to CEO Alex Karp at Palantir, discusses the brewing "tech war" between the United States and China. According to Helberg, what is unfolding in real time is nothing short of a technological conflict between the two global powers. He highlights the Biden administration's efforts to control China's access to advanced semiconductor devices, particularly those with potential military applications. While these export controls may slow China down, they won't permanently halt its technological advancements. Helberg acknowledges that the race for artificial intelligence dominance is ultimately between the U.S. and China. The implications of this tech war include a potential division in the advanced computing sector, with a Chinese-led technology world and an American-led technology world taking shape. This could result in restrictions on market access for both Chinese and American companies in each other's respective markets.
  • Subtitles section
  • He is the commissioner of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission that was created by Congress.
  • He's also a senior policy advisor to CEO Alex Karp at Palantir.
  • And thank you for being with us today, Jacob.
  • Let's talk through this.
  • It sounds like things are definitely heating up.
  • What do you think the implications are?
  • Well, Becky, it's great to be with you.
  • What we're seeing unfolding in real time is nothing short of a tech war between the U.S. and China.
  • The Biden administration is waiting to get more details on the California composition of this new 7-nanometer SMIC chip, but we're hearing lawmakers from Capitol Hill raise legitimate questions about whether SMIC's Huawei chip violates U.S. sanctions.
  • And the Biden administration has put in place expert controls aimed at restricting China's ability to obtain certain high-end semiconductor devices with potential military applications, develop and maintain supercomputers,
  • And manufacture advanced semiconductor devices.
  • And what Huawei's breakthrough chip shows is that export controls will slow China, but it won't permanently stop China from making advances.
  • And that's OK, because ultimately, artificial intelligence is a race between the U.S. and China.
  • What's the result of that tech war, though?
  • Does it mean that the U.S. market is closed off to Chinese companies and the Chinese market is going to be closed off to U.S. companies?
  • It basically means that in areas of advanced computing that have significant spillover effects on the development of artificial intelligence and things like large language models, which have potent military applications,
  • We are going to see a bifurcation into a Chinese-led technology world and an American-led technology world.
  • The U.S. and China are in a race for global leadership in artificial intelligence.
  • The leadership in Washington and Beijing both understand that AI is the single most consequential breakthrough paradigm-shifting technology in military affairs in 80 years.
  • And China views AI as essential to leapfrogging, to use their term, U.S. military capabilities, particularly in the Indo-Pacific.
  • And while the U.S. still leads the PLA in aerial applications of AI, the PLA is highly competitive in computer vision and underwater autonomous drones.
  • The PLA being the People's Liberation Army of China?
  • Let's talk a little bit, though, about what this means for Apple.
  • We're talking about high-end AI applications, but this sounds like it is playing out on lower-technology consumer applications at this point with these restrictions on iPhones in Chinese government offices and perhaps beyond that.
  • Is this an overreaction in the market this week?
  • We saw Apple lose $200 billion.
  • Stocks down by 6 percent just in this week to date.
  • Is that an overreaction?
  • Do you think that this is going to be more?
  • How does this play out?
  • Well, this is the reflection of a growing level of mistrust that a lot of different commercial civilian technologies actually have dual-use applications.
  • So, in the U.S., we've actually seen this mistrust take root through bans and restrictions on companies like Huawei and ZTE, where the U.S. government had legitimate concerns that the Chinese government could use its control over Huawei and ZTE in order to collect a lot of information on U.S. citizens and U.S. companies.
  • Ultimately, China has a civil-military fusion system that blurs the line between the private and the public sector.
  • So, in my view, American concerns are quite legitimate.
  • But on the Beijing side of the fence, a lot of policymakers simply don't believe that the U.S. has a real separation between the private and the public sector.
  • And ever since the Snowden leaks, you know, the Snowden leaks has given oxygen to that theory and narrative.
  • So, we're seeing these restrictions on iPhones and Teslas by government employees as not only retaliations against American restrictions, but also as reflective of that growing mistrust that the U.S. government could use its influence over American companies for geopolitical purposes.