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The business of Christmas music and why some songs become classics

Video vocabulary

stratospheric

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US / ˌstrætə'sferɪk /

UK / ˌstrætə'sferɪk /

C1
  • adjecitve
  • High above the earths atmosphere
  • Very high in level, e.g. of prices

simplicity

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US / sɪm'plɪsətɪ /

UK / sɪmˈplɪsɪti /

C1
  • noun
  • Being easy to understand or use

decade

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US / ˈdekeɪd /

UK / ˈdɛkˌed, dɛˈked /

B1
  • noun
  • Period of 10 years

eleven

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US / ɪˈlevn /

UK / ɪˈlɛvən /

A1
  • number
  • 11

songwriter

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US / 'sɒŋraɪtə(r) /

UK / 'sɔ:ŋraɪtər /

B2
  • noun
  • Composer of words or music for popular songs

almost

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US / 'ɔ:lməʊst /

UK / ˈɔlˌmost, ɔlˈmost /

A1
  • adverb
  • Only a little less than, nearly, not quite

part

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US / pɑ:t /

UK / pɑ:rt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To some degree; half; not fully
  • noun
  • Division of a book
  • Ratio of something, e.g. 3 of gin, 1 of tonic
  • A line in a person's hair, made with a comb
  • Character an actor plays on stage, movie, or TV
  • Some, but not all of a specific thing
  • Role in causing something to happen
  • verb
  • To make a line in a person's hair, by using a comb
  • To move two things apart creating a space
  • To leave someone, or to break off a relationship

pianist

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US / ˈpɪənɪst /

UK / piˈænɪst, ˈpiənɪst /

A2
  • noun
  • Person who plays the piano

draw

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US / drɔ: /

UK / drɔ /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that attracts people to visit a place
  • A lottery or prize
  • Result of a game, contest where the score is equal
  • verb
  • To attract attention to someone or something
  • To get closer to or approach something or someone
  • To influence a person's involvement in something
  • To move an object by pulling
  • To create an image using pen or pencil and paper
  • To take one thing out of a container, etc.
  • (Of 2 teams) to finish a game with the same score

era

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US / 'ɪərə /

UK / 'ɪrə /

B1
  • noun
  • Period characterized by particular events, people

performer

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US / pəˈfɔ:mə(r) /

UK / pərˈfɔ:rmə(r) /

A2
  • noun
  • Someone who completes a task well
  • Actor, musician, dancer, etc. who entertains

mariah

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US / məˈraɪə /

UK / məˈraɪə /

A1

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

holiday

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US / ˈhɒlədeɪ /

UK / ˈhɑ:lədeɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Day when people don't go to work or school
  • A day for a culture to celebrate; festival day
  • Time of year when people go somewhere for fun/rest

film

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US / fɪlm /

UK / fɪlm /

A2
  • noun
  • Thin layer that covers something
  • Movie
  • verb
  • To record moving action with a camera

his

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US / hɪz /

UK / hɪz /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Something belonging to a male person

hundred

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US / 'hʌndrəd /

UK / ˈhʌndrɪd /

A1
  • number
  • 100

without

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US / wɪˈðaʊt /

UK / wɪðˈaʊt, wɪθ- /

A1
  • preposition
  • Not with; not having

popularity

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US / ˌpɒpjuˈlærəti /

UK / ˌpɑ:pjuˈlærəti /

A2
  • noun
  • State of being liked or supported by many people

store

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US / stɔ:(r) /

UK / stɔr, stor /

A2
  • noun
  • Place where things are kept for future use
  • Place where you can go to buy things
  • verb
  • To put things in a place for later use

southern

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US / ˈsʌðən /

UK / ˈsʌðərn /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a region in the south
  • Being in or toward the south

history

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US / 'hɪstrɪ /

UK / ˈhɪstəri /

A2
  • noun
  • Established pattern or record
  • Study of past events as an academic subject

notice

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US / 'nəʊtɪs /

UK / ˈnotɪs /

A1
  • noun
  • Time by when you must leave, e.g. if you are fired
  • Paper with an announcement, e.g. pinned to a board
  • verb
  • To become aware by sight, touch, or hearing

tuesday

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US / ˈtjuːzdeɪ /

UK / ˈtuːzdeɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Second day of the week; the day after Monday

hear

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • verb
  • To be aware of sound; to perceive with the ear
  • To be told or find out information or facts
  • To consider or listen to a court case

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

come

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US / kʌm /

UK / kʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To arrive at a place
  • (Of mail) to be delivered
  • To move toward someone; go with someone
  • To reach a certain point or state

think

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US / θɪŋk /

UK / θɪŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To have an idea about something without certainty
  • To have an idea, opinion or belief about something

underneath

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US / ˌʌndə'ni:θ /

UK / ˌʌndɚˈniθ /

B1
  • adverb
  • Hidden beneath the surface of something
  • On the lower side or bottom of something
  • preposition
  • Lower than, as in status; beneath
  • Located under or below something

rest

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US / rest /

UK / rɛst /

A1
  • noun
  • Time when one relaxes, sleeps, or is inactive
  • State in which there is a lack of motion
  • Part of something remaining after some was used
  • verb
  • To stop working or avoid activity to recover
  • (Of dead person) to lie in a grave
  • To lean, support or place something against
  • To not be tired because you had enough sleep

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

call

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US / kɔ:l /

UK / kɔl /

A1
  • noun
  • A order or request for action
  • The sound an animal makes, often when in danger
  • A correct prediction, e.g. a decision in a game
  • A short visit to a place or person
  • A decision by a referee or umpire in a game
  • verb
  • To make a request or order for action
  • (Animal) to make sounds to warn of danger
  • To announce the date of an election
  • To make a judgment about something
  • To give someone or something a name
  • To guess in advance the result or outcome
  • To visit a place or person for a short time
  • To phone someone
  • To speak, announce or shout in a loud voice

join

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US / dʒɔɪn /

UK / dʒɔɪn /

A1
  • verb
  • To bring something close to another, to become one
  • To become a member of
  • To participate in an activity with others

guide

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US / ɡaɪd /

UK / ɡaɪd /

A2
  • noun
  • Book or a magazine containing information/advice
  • Person leading others visiting an unknown place
  • verb
  • To help or advise someone about something
  • To control missile to hit a target by radio signal
  • To lead people visiting a new or unknown place

proposition

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US / ˌprɒpəˈzɪʃn /

UK / ˌprɑ:pəˈzɪʃn /

B1
  • noun
  • General claim or theory
  • Something you want to do that may be difficult

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

another

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US / əˈnʌðə(r) /

UK / əˈnʌðɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One more, but not this
  • determiner
  • One more added
  • pronoun
  • One more (thing)

keep

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US / ki:p /

UK / kip /

A1
  • noun
  • Large, strong tower in the middle of a castle
  • Money spent on you so you can live in a place
  • verb
  • To continue doing something; not to stop
  • To stop balls going in a goal in sports
  • To not give back or return something
  • (Of food) to not spoil or not rot
  • To take possession of something to own, e.g. a pet
  • To have and continue to hold something
  • To do something that you have promised or agreed
  • To stay in a certain place or condition
  • To maintain the rules

lot

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US / lɒt /

UK / lɑt /

A1
  • noun
  • What happens to a person in life from chance; fate
  • A group of people seen together
  • Item for sale at an auction
  • Small area of land used for a purpose e.g. parking

industry

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US / 'ɪndəstrɪ /

UK / ˈɪndəstri /

A1
  • noun
  • Hard work; being busy working
  • Factories or businesses that make certain products

forty

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US / 'fɔ:tɪ /

UK / ˈfɔrti /

A1
  • number
  • 40

tree

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US / tri: /

UK / tri /

A1
  • noun
  • Tall green plants in a forest

complex

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US / 'kɒmpleks /

UK / kəmˈplɛks, ˈkɑmˌplɛks /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Not being simple; having many parts or aspects
  • noun
  • Group of buildings all used for the same purpose
  • Psychological issue regarding self-image

hip

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US / hɪp /

UK / hɪp /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being stylish and popular
  • noun
  • The upper part of Leg

release

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US / rɪ'li:s /

UK / rɪ'li:s /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of freeing someone from a duty or burden
  • Introduction of a new product, film, book, etc.
  • Relief from sadness, suffering or trouble
  • Act of freeing from a jail, cage, prison, etc.
  • verb
  • To free someone from a responsibility or burden
  • To allow a film, music etc. to be sold/distributed
  • To allow to leave a jail, cage, etc.; let out
  • To let go of something you are holding

hallmark

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US / ˈhɔ:lmɑ:k /

UK / ˈhɔ:lmɑ:rk /

B2
  • noun
  • Quality that is typical or defines person or thing
  • Mark on gold/silver article stating purity

podcast

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US / 'pɒdkɑ:st /

UK / 'pɑ:dkæst /

A2
  • noun
  • A digital recording (e.g. radio show) for download

two

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • number
  • 2

back

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US / bæk /

UK / bæk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Farthest from the front e.g. in a classroom
  • adverb
  • Have returned to a place you were before
  • noun
  • The part of a chair that the upper body leans upon
  • Location at the rear of something
  • The reverse of side something
  • Area on the rear of your body
  • verb
  • To bet money on something
  • To go backwards in a car
  • To support and encourage someone or some cause

harmony

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US / 'hɑ:mənɪ /

UK / ˈhɑrməni /

B1
  • noun
  • Pleasing, attractive combination of parts, things
  • When musical notes sound pleasing together
  • State of getting along together in peace

any

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US / 'enɪ /

UK / ˈɛni /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One, or some, no matter which
  • pronoun
  • One (thing) of many; some

hot

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US / hɒt /

UK / hɑ:t /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Angry or excited
  • Being very good at something
  • Having a high temperature
  • Popular and causing a great deal of excitement
  • Attractive in a sexually exciting way
  • (Of food) very spicy
  • Stolen; dangerous to buy or trade in

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

bob

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US / bɒb /

UK / bɑ:b /

B2
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • verb
  • To move up and down repeatedly

old

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US / əʊld /

UK / old /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having existed for a long time, not young or new
  • Age of a person since birth

nice

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US / naɪs /

UK / naɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being attractive or of high quality or value
  • Good or enjoyable
  • Being kind or friendly

bring

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US / brɪŋ /

UK / brɪŋ /

A1
  • verb
  • To take or go with someone to a place

deceptive

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US / dɪˈseptɪv /

UK / dɪˈsɛptɪv /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Causing someone to believe what is not true

alice

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US / ˈælɪs /

UK / ˈælɪs /

A1

artist

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US / ˈɑ:tɪst /

UK / ˈɑrtɪst /

A2
  • noun
  • A person skilled and creative in art e.g. painter

main

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US / meɪn /

UK / men /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Most important; most often used

ago

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US / əˈgəʊ /

UK / əˈgoʊ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a specified length of time in the past

professor

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US / prəˈfesə(r) /

UK / prəˈfɛsɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Teacher who teaches at a college or university

room

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US / ru:m /

UK / rum, rʊm /

A1
  • noun
  • All of the people inside a particular room
  • Part of building enclosed by walls, e.g. kitchen
  • Opportunity to exist, happen, or be true
  • verb
  • To share a home with someone

string

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US / strɪŋ /

UK / strɪŋ /

A2
  • noun
  • A line of connected objects
  • Thick thread; thin rope
  • verb
  • To tie or connect things together with a thread

between

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US / bɪˈtwi:n /

UK / bɪˈtwin /

A1
  • preposition
  • From one person, thing, or place, to another
  • In the space that separates two objects
  • Among two or more people who share something

christmas

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US / ˈkrɪsməs /

UK / ˈkrɪsməs /

A2
  • noun
  • Christian holiday celebrated on December 24-26

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

vocal

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US / ˈvəʊkl /

UK / ˈvoʊkl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Expressing an opinion publicly in a loud way
  • Concerning the voice

musicology

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US / ˌmjuːzɪˈkɒlədʒi /

UK / ˌmjuːzɪˈkɑːlədʒi /

A1
  • noun
  • Scholarly and scientific study of music

top

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US / tɒp /

UK / tɑp /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good or great; excellent
  • Being the most in degree or quality
  • noun
  • Item of clothing covering shoulders to waist, hips
  • A cover or lid
  • Part (e.g. road) that is the furthest away
  • Highest or upper part or point of something
  • Best or highest status or position
  • Flat upper surface or edge of an object
  • Child's toy that spins on its point
  • Upper section or leaves of fruits and vegetables
  • Winning in a sport or contest
  • verb
  • To be higher or larger than a specific value
  • To arrive at the highest point of something
  • To put a cover or layer or over something
  • To kill; murder
  • To hold the highest position on a list
  • To be more important, successful or better than
  • To beat someone or win at a game

who

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US / hu: /

UK / hu /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Which person
  • Used to introduce information about people

familiarity

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US / fəˌmɪliˈærəti /

UK / fəˌmɪlˈjærɪti, -ˌmɪliˈær- /

B1
  • noun
  • Manner of talking or behaving

very

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US / 'verɪ /

UK / ˈvɛri /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a large degree or amount
  • adverb
  • A lot; much; many
  • Used to stress or emphasize a noun

lucrative

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US / ˈlu:krətɪv /

UK / ˈlukrətɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Producing a lot of money

tongue

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US / tʌŋ /

UK / tʌŋ /

A2
  • noun
  • Long, thin part of (e.g. shoe under the laces)
  • Meat from the mouth of an animal, cooked as food
  • A language
  • Movable fleshy thing in your mouth, for tasting
  • Act of scolding someone
  • A specific manner of speaking
  • verb
  • To using your mouth to produce musical notes
  • To use your mouth to touch something

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

chart

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US / tʃɑ:t /

UK / tʃɑ:rt /

B1
  • noun
  • Drawing showing information in a clear way
  • Map of the sea or stars
  • verb
  • To make a plan for future action
  • To make a map of
  • To keep a record of developments over time

its

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US / ɪts /

UK / ɪts /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to or belonging to ‘it’
  • determiner
  • Of something; belonging or related to something
  • other
  • Possessive form of “it”

bit

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US / bɪt /

UK / bɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • Device put in a horse's mouth to control it
  • Small piece of something
  • verb
  • (E.g. of fish) to take bait and be caught

crosby

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US / ˈkrɔzbi /

UK / /

A1

attention

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US / əˈtenʃn /

UK / əˈtɛnʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Taking notice of someone or something
  • (Soldiers) Standing with straight backs

songbook

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US / ˈsɒŋbʊk /

UK / ˈsɔːŋbʊk /

A1
  • other
  • A book containing a collection of songs

comfortably

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US / ˈkʌmftəbli /

UK / ˈkʌmfɚtəblɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • Having more than enough e.g. money for your needs
  • Not being worried about something; at ease

heavy

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US / 'hevɪ /

UK / ˈhɛvi /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Greater in amount, degree, or severity than usual
  • Involving serious or strong emotions
  • Having a lot of weight

download

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US / 'daʊnləʊd /

UK / ˈdaʊnˌlod /

A2
  • noun
  • Transfer of data from the internet to a computer
  • verb
  • To transfer data from a computer or the internet

look

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US / lʊk /

UK / lʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's beauty or physical attractiveness
  • Particular style of dress, clothes, or appearance
  • The way someone, something appears to be
  • Act of searching for or examining something
  • verb
  • To appear to be; seem

orchestra

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US / ˈɔ:kɪstrə /

UK / ˈɔ:rkɪstrə /

B1
  • noun
  • Large group who perform instrumental music
  • Seating area in a theater close to the stage

thank

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US / θæŋk /

UK / θæŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To tell someone you are grateful to them

once

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US / wʌns /

UK / wʌns /

A1
  • adverb
  • One time; one instance
  • At a time in the past
  • conjunction
  • When; as soon as

roast

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US / rəʊst /

UK / roʊst /

B1
  • noun
  • A joint of meat cooked in an oven
  • Joints of meat cooked in an oven
  • verb
  • To strongly criticize often in a teasing manner
  • To cook food in an oven or over a fire

singer

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US / ˈsɪŋə(r) /

UK / ˈsɪŋɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Person who sings, often as a profession

lee

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US / li: /

UK / li /

A1
  • noun
  • The side of something that is sheltered from the wind

four

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US / fɔ:(r) /

UK / fɔr, for /

A1
  • number
  • 4

use

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US / ju:s /

UK / ju:s /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to employ something
  • Need to enable it to work
  • Permission to do something with something
  • Act of spending money
  • Operation of a machine for its function
  • verb
  • To have; to eat, drink, consume etc.
  • To need to operate or work
  • To operate a machine, e.g. a computer
  • To treat a person badly
  • To do something with, for a task or purpose

assistant

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US / əˈsɪstənt /

UK / əˈsɪstənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • (Person) helping another, usually as a job
  • noun
  • Person who helps another, usually as a job

actually

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US / ˈæktʃuəli /

UK / ˈæktʃuəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to add new (often different) information

comfort

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US / 'kʌmfət /

UK / ˈkʌmfət /

A2
  • noun
  • Acts or words that reduce pain or sadness
  • State of being relaxed, warm or happy
  • verb
  • To try to make distressed person feel better

retain

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US / rɪ'teɪn /

UK / rɪˈten /

A2
  • verb
  • To continue to have or use; keep the quality of
  • To keep one thing inside another for a time
  • To memorize information

past

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US / pɑ:st /

UK / pæst /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • No longer current or new
  • adverb
  • So as to go beyond, or further than something
  • noun
  • Time that existed before now, e.g. long ago
  • preposition
  • After a particular time
  • At a later point in distance; beyond

sloan

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US / sləʊn /

UK / sloʊn /

A1

reinforce

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US / ˌri:ɪnˈfɔ:s /

UK / ˌri:ɪnˈfɔ:rs /

B2
  • verb
  • To send more troops/resources to support an army
  • To encourage or strengthen an idea or feeling
  • To strengthen a wall or building

musicologist

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US / ˌmju:zɪ'kɒlədʒɪst /

UK / ˌmju:zɪ'kɒlədʒɪst /

A1
  • noun
  • Student studying the science of music

pantheon

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US / 'pænθɪən /

UK / ˈpænθiˌɑn, -ən /

C1
  • noun
  • Temple dedicated to all the gods

guess

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US / ɡes /

UK / ɡɛs /

A1
  • noun
  • Answer given when you don't know if it is correct
  • verb
  • To give an answer without knowing if it is correct

write

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US / raɪt /

UK / raɪt /

A1
  • verb
  • To compose letters and words on paper or a screen
  • To invent or create a computer program
  • To create a song or piece of music

after

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US / 'ɑ:ftə(r) /

UK / ˈæftɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Later than another time, or behind something
  • conjunction
  • Following something before
  • preposition
  • When an event happened or time has passed

new

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US / nju: /

UK / nu, nju /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not old, recently born, built or made
  • Being or doing something for the first time
  • Not felt, seen or known previously
  • Having been recently bought or obtained

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

club

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US / klʌb /

UK / klʌb /

A1
  • noun
  • Group of people who share an interest, as in sport
  • Place where people go to listen to music and dance
  • Long stick used for hitting things, as in golf
  • verb
  • To be grouped with others
  • To hit hard with a thick and heavy stick, weapon

feel

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US / fi:l /

UK / fil /

A1
  • verb
  • To be aware of or experience an emotion, sensation
  • To sense through direct contact; touch

third

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US / θɜ:d /

UK / θɜ:rd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 3rd: Number after second

exactly

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US / ɪgˈzæktli /

UK / ɪɡˈzæktli /

A1
  • adverb
  • No more and no less than; precisely

usual

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US / ˈju:ʒuəl /

UK / ˈjuʒuəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being the way things occur most of the time

exclusive

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US / ɪk'sklu:sɪv /

UK / ɪkˈsklusɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being available only to people with a lot of money
  • Available to only a particular person, group

listen

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US / ˈlɪsn /

UK / ˈlɪsən /

A1
  • verb
  • To carefully consider what someone is saying

here

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • adverb
  • In this place; at this location, position or time

switch

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US / swɪtʃ /

UK / swɪtʃ /

A2
  • noun
  • A change or shift from one method to another
  • Thing you move to turn electrical items on or off
  • Thin flexible piece of wood or stick
  • verb
  • To exchange or replace something for another thing

many

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US / 'menɪ /

UK / ˈmɛni /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer a large number of things

wait

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US / weɪt /

UK / wet /

A1
  • verb
  • To delay or not do something until later
  • To spend time until an expected thing happens
  • To remain in a place until a thing happens

explain

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US / ɪk'spleɪn /

UK / ɪkˈsplen /

A1
  • verb
  • To make clear or easy to understand by describing

thousand

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US / ˈθaʊznd /

UK / ˈθaʊzənd /

A1
  • number
  • Number 1,000

album

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US / 'ælbəm /

UK / ˈælbəm /

A2
  • noun
  • Book with a collection of photographs or pictures

white

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US / waɪt /

UK / hwaɪt, waɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Belonging to a race of people with light skin
  • Of the color of fresh snow and milk
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • Lightest color; The color of fresh snow.

piano

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US / piˈænəʊ /

UK / piˈæno, ˈpjæno /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • In a soft and quiet manner (on the piano)
  • noun
  • Keyboard instrument used for playing music

popular

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US / ˈpɒpjələ(r) /

UK / ˈpɑ:pjələ(r) /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Liked or enjoyed by many people

should

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US / ʃʊd /

UK / ʃʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate what is proper or reasonable

point

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US / pɔɪnt /

UK / pɔɪnt /

A1
  • noun
  • An item to be discussed
  • Small spot or dot
  • Fact or detail
  • Feature of something
  • The size of the text on a page or screen
  • A certain time or stage in a process
  • Certain position in time or space
  • Idea or fact you try to convince people about
  • Measurement of scores in a game, sport
  • Sharp end of something, e.g. a pen or pin
  • verb
  • To face a certain direction, e.g. north
  • To indicate something with your finger to others

able

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US / 'eɪbl /

UK / ˈebəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Skilled; good at something
  • Having the ability to do something

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

stand

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US / stænd /

UK / stænd /

A1
  • noun
  • Effort to fight against something
  • Piece of furniture; device to hold or support
  • Place in a stadium where spectators watch
  • Table where things are sold at a fair or market
  • verb
  • To be a candidate in an election
  • To be able to accept someone, something; bear
  • To last for a long time
  • To be upright; not be sitting or lying down
  • To place something in a particular position; place
  • To be (as stated)
  • To still be valid
  • To have an opinion about something

school

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US / sku:l /

UK / skul /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being to do with schools and education
  • noun
  • Large group of fish that swim together
  • Education of a child
  • Building where you learn in classes with a teacher
  • A particular belief or idea about something
  • verb
  • To teach or train someone to know or do something

fit

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US / fɪt /

UK / fɪt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Good looking; physically attractive
  • Proper or acceptable; morally or socially correct
  • noun
  • Sudden loss of body control; attack (of crying)
  • verb
  • To install a machine, equipment etc.
  • To adjust or change to the right size or shape
  • To be the right size and shape that you want

favourite

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US / ˈfeɪvərɪt /

UK / 'fevərɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Best liked or most enjoyed
  • noun
  • A thing that someone likes best or enjoys most

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

john

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US / dʒɔn /

UK / dʒɑn /

A1
  • noun
  • A toilet.
  • A prostitute's client.
  • proper noun
  • (1165–1216), son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine; king of England 1199–1216; known as John Lack
  • The name of six kings of Portugal.

clarkson

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US / ˌklærəˈnet /

UK / ˌklærəˈnɛt /

A1

little

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US / 'lɪtl /

UK / ˈlɪtl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being short in length of time
  • Not great in size, amount, or degree; small
  • Being very young or younger than others
  • adverb
  • By an amount or degree that is not very much
  • Not often; rarely
  • noun
  • A person's name

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

than

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US / ðən /

UK / ðən /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to compare two things that are not equal

kind

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US / kaɪnd /

UK / kaɪnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In a caring and helpful manner
  • friendly and considerate
  • noun
  • One type of thing

merry

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US / 'merɪ /

UK / ˈmɛri /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Feeling a little drunk from alcohol
  • Causing happiness or joy

university

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US / ˌju:nɪ'vɜ:sətɪ /

UK / ˌjunɪˈvɜrsəti /

A1
  • noun
  • High-level educational institution; college

entire

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US / ɪn'taɪə(r) /

UK / ɛnˈtaɪr /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Complete or full; with no part left out; whole

live

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US / lɪv /

UK / liv /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being broadcast as events happen, not recorded
  • Carrying electric current; able to give a shock
  • Glowing because burning; hot
  • Not yet killed (for food)
  • adverb
  • (Music, drama) as it is performed
  • verb
  • To be alive
  • To experience a particular type of life
  • To make your home in a house or town

five

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US / faɪv /

UK / faɪv /

A1
  • number
  • 5

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

thornton

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US / ˈθɔ:ntən /

UK / ˈθɔrntən /

A1
  • other
  • American architect

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

big

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US / bɪɡ /

UK / bɪɡ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Popular
  • Serious
  • Large

term

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US / tɜ:m /

UK / tɚm /

A1
  • noun
  • Conditions applying to an agreement, contract
  • Length of time something is expected to happen
  • Fixed period of weeks for learning at school
  • The (precise) name given to something
  • verb
  • To call; give a name to

bell

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US / bel /

UK / bɛl /

A2
  • noun
  • Metal object shaped like a cup that rings when hit
  • Electronic device that makes a ringing sound

lifespan

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US / ˈlaɪfspæn /

UK / ˈlaɪfspæn /

B2
  • noun
  • Length of time something is expected to last

mention

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US / 'menʃn /

UK / ˈmɛnʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of referring to or talking about something
  • verb
  • To refer to or talk or write about something

wish

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US / wɪʃ /

UK / wɪʃ /

A1
  • noun
  • Expression of a hope for something in the future
  • verb
  • To want something to happen or to become true

power

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US / 'paʊə(r) /

UK / ˈpaʊɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Legal or official right to perform certain actions
  • Ability to move forcefully and quickly
  • Energy of something (e.g. electricity or fuel)
  • Mathematical way to multiply a number
  • Condition of being in political control
  • Physical force, energy, and strength
  • verb
  • To give energy to something, e.g. by electricity
  • To move something forcefully and quickly

three

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US / θri: /

UK / θri /

A1
  • number
  • Number 3

pull

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US / pʊl /

UK / pʊl /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of breathing in smoke, as from a pipe
  • Force something has that draws other things to it
  • Using your hands to move something to you
  • verb
  • To breathe in smoke, as from a pipe
  • To hold something and move it toward you
  • To remove something by force

love

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US / lʌv /

UK / lʌv /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • A very strong feeling of affection
  • The person you care very deeply about
  • Strong, deep emotional and sexual attraction
  • verb
  • To care for and like someone very strongly, deeply
  • To like doing very much; enjoy greatly
  • To feel a strong emotional and romantic attraction

play

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US / pleɪ /

UK / pleɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Loose, free movement between two objects
  • Single action in a sports game
  • Performance in which people act in a theater
  • verb
  • To act as a character in a movie, or on stage
  • To perform music on an instrument
  • To use a device, e.g. a video game
  • To do something for enjoyment and fun
  • To do or perform a game or sport

essential

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US / ɪ'senʃl /

UK / ɪˈsɛnʃəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Extremely or most important and necessary

crave

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US / kreɪv /

UK / krev /

B2
  • verb
  • To have a very strong desire for something

open

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US / 'əʊpən /

UK / ˈopən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Available for use; accessible
  • Not being hidden; available for others to see
  • Being available for customers to enter or use
  • Allowing everyone to use or take part in
  • Not secret anymore
  • Not closed or shut
  • Willing to accept new ideas and thoughts
  • noun
  • Name for a tennis or golf competition
  • verb
  • To make accessible or able to be used, e.g. road
  • To start the activities or services of a business
  • To make a space or hole appear in something
  • To move or change so that it is no longer closed
  • To start something, e.g. a new business

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

start

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US / stɑ:t /

UK / stɑrt /

A1
  • noun
  • First time or place that a thing exists; beginning
  • First opportunity to achieve something, e.g. a job
  • Sudden action or movement because you are scared
  • other
  • Beginning of something in place or time
  • verb
  • To do, be or happen for the first time; begin
  • To turn something on

sleigh

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US / sleɪ /

UK / sle /

C1
  • noun
  • Vehicle with runners for moving on snow or ice

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

accompaniment

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US / əˈkʌmpənimənt /

UK / əˈkʌmpənimənt, əˈkʌmpni- /

B1
  • noun
  • Music played to support a person singing

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

fact

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US / fækt /

UK / fækt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that is known or proved to be true

partial

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US / ˈpɑ:ʃl /

UK / ˈpɑ:rʃl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Giving better treatment to one person than another
  • Not complete; being only part of something

grow

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US / ɡrəʊ /

UK / ɡro /

A1
  • verb
  • To get bigger and more mature; make plants do this
  • To improve; to develop better skills over time
  • To develop and become bigger or taller over time

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

such

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US / sʌtʃ /

UK / sʌtʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Being similar to
  • (Thing) as previously stated or referred to
  • adverb
  • (Used to emphasize the quality of an adjective)

poise

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US / pɔɪz /

UK / pɔɪz /

B2
  • noun
  • Way of behaving with confidence/emotional control
  • other
  • Way of moving gracefully with balance/control
  • To hold something steadily
  • verb
  • To hold something steadily

talk

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US / tɔ:k /

UK / tɔk /

A1
  • noun
  • Style of speaking
  • Discussion between two countries
  • Giving information in front of people; lecture
  • Saying things or ideas to someone with words
  • verb
  • To make a formal speech about something
  • To say things or ideas to someone with words

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

incredible

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US / ɪnˈkredəbl /

UK / ɪnˈkrɛdəbəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very good; amazing
  • Really good; amazing; great
  • Very hard to believe

song

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US / sɒŋ /

UK / sɔ:ŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • Distinctive series of sounds made by a bird
  • Music with words that are sung to it
  • Art or tradition of singing

few

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US / fju: /

UK / fju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Not many, a small number

berlin

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US / bə:ˈlin /

UK / bɚˈlin /

A1
  • noun
  • A limousine with a glass partition between the front and back seats
  • other
  • Capital of Germany located in eastern Germany

difficult

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US / 'dɪfɪkəlt /

UK / ˈdɪfɪˌkʌlt, -kəlt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Hard; not easy; you need to work hard to do it

though

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US / ðəu /

UK / ðo /

A1
  • adverb
  • Although, despite the fact that

much

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US / mʌtʃ /

UK / mʌtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very; to a high level or degree
  • adverb
  • A lot; large amount; a high degree of
  • Nearly; basically
  • On many occasions; often
  • noun
  • A large amount; a great quantity

orchestral

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US / ɔ:ˈkestrəl /

UK / ˈɔrkɪstrəl, -ˌkɛstrəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Written for an orchestra

piece

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US / pi:s /

UK / pis /

A1
  • noun
  • A counter in a board game
  • Small part of something larger
  • verb
  • To put items together to assemble something

stream

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US / stri:m /

UK / strim /

A2
  • noun
  • Classes split into ability levels
  • A small river
  • verb
  • To send a constant flow of data over the internet
  • To split classes or students into ability levels

hitmaker

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US / /

UK / /

A1
  • noun
  • A musician who makes popular songs

yang

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US / jæŋ /

UK / jæŋ /

A1
  • other
  • Bright positive masculine principle in Chinese dualistic cosmology

send

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US / send /

UK / sɛnd /

A1
  • verb
  • To cause to behave or respond in a particular way
  • To cause mail or packages to go to another place
  • To move something quickly in a particular way
  • To give information or greetings to someone

sound

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US / saʊnd /

UK / saʊnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Sensible, dependable and reliable
  • Unbroken or undisturbed, as of sleep
  • Firm or solid in structure
  • Sane; not mentally ill
  • Clearly reasoned; involving sense, good judgment
  • noun
  • Unique quality that characterizes a style of music
  • Waves traveling in air or water that can be heard
  • verb
  • To seem or appear to be, from what was said
  • To say in a clear deliberate manner
  • To make a noise, e.g. to ring a bell

california

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US / ˌkælɪ'fɔ:njə, -'fɔ:ni:ə /

UK / ˌkælɪ'fɔ:rnjəˌ -'fɔ:rni:ə /

A1
  • noun
  • A state in the western United States on the Pacific; the rd largest state; known for earthquakes

pop

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US / pɒp /

UK / pɑp /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Type of music or art popular with many people
  • noun
  • Sweet soda drink
  • verb
  • To cause something to open or burst suddenly
  • To go to or in a place for a brief period of time

kelly

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US / ə'gri:d /

UK / ə'gri:d /

A1

rhythm

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US / ˈrɪðəm /

UK / ˈrɪðəm /

A2
  • noun
  • Pattern of events, motions, or changes
  • A pattern of sound and beats in music

grant

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US / ɡrɑ:nt /

UK / ɡrænt /

A2
  • noun
  • Money given for education or research
  • Person's name
  • verb
  • To admit an opinion is true but not fully agreeing
  • To give or let someone do what they want

music

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US / 'mju:zɪk /

UK / ˈmjuzɪk /

A1
  • noun
  • Sounds that are sung or played to give pleasure
  • Academic study of rhythms and sounds
  • Written symbols that represent musical sounds

why

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US / waɪ /

UK / hwaɪ, waɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Question word to ask for a reason
  • exclamation
  • (Used to express surprise or approval)

hit

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US / hɪt /

UK / hɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • A planned killing, usually for money
  • Song, movie etc. that is successful
  • When someone strikes someone or something
  • Time when a player makes contact with the ball
  • Time when a website is accessed
  • verb
  • To have a negative impact on a person/place/thing
  • To press something, such as a button or switch
  • To suddenly realize the importance of something
  • To move your hand, a bat, etc. against with force
  • To fight, attack or damage something or someone
  • To arrive at a specific place, level, or goal
  • To make contact with the ball in a game or sport

oldness

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US / 'əʊldnɪs /

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A1
  • other
  • The opposite of youngness
  • The quality of being old; the opposite of newness

about

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UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

everywhere

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US / ˈevriweə(r) /

UK / ˈevriwer /

A1
  • adverb
  • Every place

she

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US / ʃɪ /

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A1
  • pronoun
  • Female person or animal mentioned before
  • (Refers to female person mentioned before)

great

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US / ɡreɪt /

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A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very large in size
  • Very important
  • Very good; fantastic; wonderful
  • adverb
  • Very good; better than before
  • noun
  • Successful and well-admired person

again

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US / ə'ɡen /

UK / əˈɡɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • One more time, once more

dylan

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US / ˈdɪlən /

UK / ˈdɪlən /

A1
  • noun
  • Celtic god of the waves; son of Arianrhod

mean

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US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
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even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

instrumentation

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UK / ˌɪnstrəmɛnˈteʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Series of gauges and dials that provide data

number

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US / ˈnʌmbə(r) /

UK / ˈnʌmbɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Symbols such as 1, 2, 56, 793
  • Particular song or dance performed during a show
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  • verb
  • To put numbers on things
  • To assign a sequence within a group, series, set
  • To claim to be part of a larger group, series, set

clever

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US / 'klevə(r) /

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A1
  • adjecitve
  • Funny in a way that shows intelligence
  • Showing intelligence; quick to understand or learn

what

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A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
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  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
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  • adverb
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  • determiner
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that

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US / ðæt /

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A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
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  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
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  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

disappear

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A1
  • verb
  • To no longer see because it's not there any more

then

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US / ðen /

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  • adverb
  • A time that is not now
  • Following another thing in time or arrangement
  • Following on reasonably from what was just stated
  • At that time, not now

people

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A1
  • noun
  • Persons sharing culture, country, background, etc.
  • Men, Women, Children

right

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A1
  • adjecitve
  • Correct or true
  • The south side of you looking at the rising sun
  • adverb
  • Exactly in a place or time
  • Being appropriate for a particular event
  • In a straight or direct manner
  • noun
  • Something you are legally or morally allowed to do
  • Ideal of what is just and good
  • Political view based on conservatism
  • verb
  • To fix something previously wrong or unjust
  • To make upright, as a boat that has turned over

fire

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A1
  • noun
  • Heat and the flame produced when burning
  • Intense energy for or about something
  • verb
  • To apply heat to something to make it hard
  • To make a person leave their job; dismiss
  • To shoot a gun or weapon
  • To launch something into the sky, e.g. a rocket
  • To start working on something e.g. a project

place

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US / pleɪs /

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A1
  • noun
  • Particular location, area or region
  • verb
  • To put someone in a particular type of situation
  • To put something in a certain location or position

instrument

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US / 'ɪnstrəmənt /

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A2
  • noun
  • Gauge for measuring something, e.g. temperature
  • Legal document
  • Device that is used for creating music

essentially

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A2
  • adverb
  • Basically; (said when stating the basic facts)

during

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US / ˈdjʊərɪŋ /

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A1
  • preposition
  • At some point in the course of an event or thing

sing

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US / sɪŋ /

UK / sɪŋ /

A1
  • verb
  • To make musical sounds with your voice

week

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US / wi:k /

UK / wik /

A1
  • noun
  • Period of seven days from Sunday to Saturday

different

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US / ˈdɪfrənt /

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A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not of the same kind; unlike other things

element

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US / 'elɪmənt /

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A2
  • noun
  • Essential or particular part of something

stay

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US / steɪ /

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A1
  • noun
  • Legal order to stop or delay an action
  • Strong rope or wire that supports a ship's mast
  • Period of time spent living in or visiting a place
  • verb
  • To keep trying without giving up
  • To remain in the same place and not move away
  • To spend time visiting a place or someone's home

snoop

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US / snu:p /

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B2
  • noun
  • A private detective
  • verb
  • To spy on someone or something in a devious manner

like

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A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

watch

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US / wɒtʃ /

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A1
  • noun
  • Period of time someone is responsible for guarding
  • Device you wear on your wrist that shows the time
  • Official warning statement, e.g. of bad weather
  • verb
  • To keep in check, manage, or control something
  • To look at something for entertainment, e.g. TV
  • To guard a place or people; protect child, etc.
  • To look at carefully to work out what is happening
  • To protect and care for someone or something

credit

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US / 'kredɪt /

UK / ˈkrɛdɪt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Having a positive amount of money
  • noun
  • System to buy something and pay for it later
  • Points earned instead of money
  • Quality of having a good reputation for a reason
  • Points earned towards a university degree
  • verb
  • To add a certain amount of money to a total
  • To recognize someone's achievements or help

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

king

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US / kɪŋ /

UK / kɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • Person considered the best or top at something
  • Playing card with the image of a king on it
  • Key piece in the game of chess
  • Royal male ruler of a country
  • Person's name

record

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US / 'rekɔ:d /

UK / ˈrekərd /

A1
  • noun
  • Highest or most extreme level achieved
  • Round plastic disc on which music has been stored
  • History of a person's past actions or achievements
  • verb
  • To indicate a temperature, speed, etc.; register
  • To write down or say what happened
  • To put music, sounds onto a device to store it

cooper

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US / 'ku:pə(r) /

UK / ˈkupɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • A craftsman who makes or repairs wooden barrels or tubs
  • other
  • Make barrels and casks

really

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US / ˈri:əli /

UK / ˈriəˌli, ˈrili /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to stress something that is said; definitely
  • In a true or accurate manner
  • Very

now

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US / naʊ /

UK / naʊ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At the present time or moment
  • Right away or in the next possible moment
  • Used to refer to something that just happened
  • Time between the present and a moment in the past
  • conjunction
  • Resulting from or because of something

currently

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US / ˈkʌrəntli /

UK / ˈkʌrənt(ə)li /

A2
  • adverb
  • Happening or being in the present time

brenda

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US / fə'lɔ:n /

UK / fɚˈlɔrn, fɔr- /

A1

want

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UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

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  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

measure

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US / ˈmeʒə(r) /

UK / ˈmɛʒɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Plan to achieve a desired result
  • Tool used to calculate the size of something
  • verb
  • To determine the value or importance of something
  • To calculate size, weight or temperature of

same

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US / seɪm /

UK / sem /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in quality and amount
  • Identical; not different
  • Not changing; constant

perform

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US / pə'fɔ:m /

UK / pɚˈfɔrm /

A1
  • verb
  • To carry out an action well or successfully
  • To entertain an audience by dancing, singing etc.

billboard

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US / ˈbɪlbɔ:d /

UK / ˈbɪlbɔ:rd /

C2
  • noun
  • Large outdoor signboard with an ad on it

business

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US / ˈbɪznəs /

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  • noun
  • A company formed for making profit
  • Matter that has to be dealt with; task; situation
  • Activity of working to make a profit

radio

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US / ˈreɪdiəʊ /

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A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the broadcasting of sound
  • noun
  • System of sending/receiving signals through air
  • Device to listen to broadcast programs, messages
  • verb
  • To broadcast a message to be heard by radio

fifty

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US / 'fɪftɪ /

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A1
  • number
  • 50

life

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  • noun
  • All the living things e.g. animals, plants, humans
  • Period of time things live, from birth to death

but

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  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

not

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  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

chestnut

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B2
  • noun
  • Type of often edible brown nut

alongside

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UK / əˌlɔ:ŋˈsaɪd /

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  • preposition
  • Side by side with something

host

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UK / host /

A2
  • noun
  • Mass; a great number
  • Person who entertains guests
  • Plant or animal on or in which parasites live
  • Presenter on a television or radio program
  • verb
  • To be the sponsor of an event, e.g. the Olympics
  • To lead or start a party, program, or other event
  • To lead a TV or radio show as the announcer

usually

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US / ˈju:ʒuəli /

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  • adverb
  • Normally; regularly
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • The business of Christmas music is one that truly comes alive during the holiday season. While it may seem like Christmas music is everywhere - on the radio, in stores, and playing in waiting rooms - its presence is actually limited to just four weeks between Thanksgiving and Christmas. But within that short time frame, Christmas music plays a significant role in the music industry. Dr. Nate Sloan, an assistant professor of musicology at the University of Southern California's Thornton School of Music and co-host of the podcast 'Switched on Pop,' sheds light on the popularity of Christmas music and what sets it apart from other genres.The main factor that distinguishes Christmas music is its nostalgic and timeless quality. Unlike the contemporary music that dominates the airwaves throughout the rest of the year, Christmas music takes listeners back to a different era. It utilizes acoustic instruments and features iconic voices such as Bing Crosby and Brenda Lee. This departure from the usual sounds heard in the American music industry makes Christmas music stand out and captures the hearts of listeners.The enduring popularity of older Christmas songs is a testament to their appeal. For example, artists like Bing Crosby, Brenda Lee, and others who are no longer with us continue to dominate the charts and playlists during the holiday season. The familiarity and comfort that Christmas brings make people crave the warmth of traditional music. The fact that these songs have been a part of people's lives for decades adds to their enduring charm.The demand for Christmas albums is so strong that it seems like every artist feels compelled to release one. This includes unexpected collaborations, such as a heavy metal Christmas album with Alice Cooper. It's a testament to the universality of these songs and the wide-ranging appeal they hold. From classic renditions to unique interpretations, Christmas music continues to captivate audiences year after year. So, as Christmas approaches, don't be surprised if you find yourself humming along to those timeless tunes that never seem to go out of style.
  • Subtitles section
  • Right now, Christmas music seems to be everywhere, on the radio, in stores and in waiting rooms.
  • But if history is any guide, it will essentially disappear on Tuesday.
  • Even though its lifespan is the four weeks between Thanksgiving and Christmas, Christmas music is a big part of the music industry.
  • Nate Sloan is an assistant professor of musicology at the University of Southern California's Thornton School of Music.
  • He's also the co host of a podcast called Switched on Pop.
  • Nate, what is it about Christmas music that makes it so popular, that makes people love it so?
  • I think the main thing is that it sounds different from the things that you hear the rest of the year on radio.
  • Christmas music is nostalgic.
  • It's from a different era.
  • It uses acoustic instruments.
  • You hear voices like Bing Crosby and Brenda Lee.
  • It stands out from business as usual in the American music industry.
  • I mean, you mentioned Bing Crosby, Brenda Lee.
  • I mean, that brings up another point, is that so much of the Christmas music is old, is comes from, like, the forties or fifties.
  • The top five records on the Billboard Hot One Hundred this past week are all Christmas songs.
  • Three of them are performed by artists who are no longer living.
  • Why is that?
  • Is it that new music isn't being written?
  • It just doesn't measure up?
  • The oldness of this music is part of its appeal, because Christmas, the holidays,
  • This is a time when you crave familiarity and comfort.
  • And so the fact that these artists are the same ones that you have been hearing your entire life is exactly why they have retained such popularity.
  • And it seems like every artist feels the need or has to do a Christmas album.
  • I look back, there was a heavy metal album with Alice Cooper.
  • You better watch out.
  • You better not cry.
  • There was a hip hop album with Snoop Dogg.
  • Can I grant these wishes?
  • I guess I can, because, once again, Merry Christmas.
  • And, of course, a few years ago, there was a Bob Dylan album.
  • Why do the artists feel the need to do this, or why do they do it?
  • Well, as you said, John, it's very difficult to join this exclusive club of Christmas hitmakers.
  • But if you're able to do so, this can be a very lucrative proposition, because it means that, year after year, people will be listening to, downloading, streaming, playing on radio your music.
  • And if you are able to join that club, that's a really great place to be as an artist.
  • Well, we can't talk about year after year without talking about Mariah Carey's All I Want for Christmas Is You.
  • I don't want a lot for Christmas.
  • There is just one thing I need.
  • This is a song that was written almost three decades ago, and it's number one on the Billboard Top One Hundred.
  • What explains its staying power?
  • Well, I think there's a few things with Mariah Carey's song.
  • I think one thing is you have to credit her as a songwriter and as a performer.
  • Her vocals are incredible.
  • She's able to reach these stratospheric notes that few other singers can.
  • Also, the song was used in a really popular film, Love Actually, that was released in two thousand three.
  • So people watched that film.
  • And that reinforces the popularity of the song.
  • And I think, third, the song has so many hallmarks of classic Christmas music in terms of its instrumentation, in terms of its harmonies.
  • So, it really fits comfortably alongside Frank Sinatra and Bing Crosby and all these other Christmas greats.
  • I mean, you're a musicologist.
  • And I think we have talked about it in little bits and pieces here.
  • But pull it all together.
  • What makes a great Christmas song?
  • OK, I think you need a few essential elements.
  • One is, there should be some sleigh bells in there.
  • It also helps if you have a nice string orchestra, some lush orchestral accompaniment.
  • And then
  • You want to have more complex harmonies than you usually hear on the popular music charts, the kind of harmonies that people like Irving Berlin wrote in his song, White Christmas.
  • That really sends you back to this era of the great American songbook, when many of these Christmas classics were written.
  • That's the classics.
  • Are there any new songs or newer Christmas songs that have drawn your attention?
  • Well, I have been noting that Kelly Clarkson's the hit underneath the tree is currently at number eleven on the Billboard charts.
  • So, after a decade of growing popularity, I think Kelly Clarkson is poised to join this pantheon of Christmas hitmakers.
  • Nate, what's your favorite Christmas song?
  • I'm partial to Nat King Cole's, the Christmas song, Chestnuts Roasting on an Open Fire.
  • To me, this song is all about deceptive simplicity.
  • It's so easy to sing.
  • It rolls off the tongue.
  • Once you start to play it on piano, and I'm a pianist, so I love to play it during the holidays, you notice, oh, there's some really clever harmonies and rhythms here.
  • And I think that keeps us coming back to that song year after year.
  • JOHN YANG NATE SLOAN, University of Southern California, thank you very much.
  • NATE SLOAN Thanks for having me.