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Why were there three popes at the same time? - Jo?lle Rollo-Koster

Video vocabulary

raise

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US / reɪz /

UK / rez /

A1
  • noun
  • Increase in a bet above another when playing cards
  • Pay increase
  • verb
  • To increase a bet above another when playing cards
  • To gather donations for a cause or charity
  • To bring up and educate a child to maturity
  • To bring a dead person to life
  • To increase a quantity, size, intensity or price
  • To lift (e.g. your hand) to a higher position
  • To mention a topic /issue for discussion; bring up
  • To increase (salary, etc.)
  • To grow or care for plants or animals

quickly

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US / ˈkwɪkli /

UK / ˈkwɪklɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Without taking a lot of time; fast

assert

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US / ə'sɜ:t /

UK / əˈsɚt /

B1
  • verb
  • To state or declare your ideas positively strongly

supremacy

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US / su:ˈpreməsi /

UK / sʊˈprɛməsi /

C2
  • noun
  • State of being greatest or best possible

cardinal

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US / ˈkɑ:dɪnl /

UK / ˈkɑ:rdɪnl /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Of the greatest importance; paramount

end

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US / end /

UK / ɛnd /

A1
  • noun
  • The point where a process or activity stops
  • A point that marks the limit of something; finish
  • Goal or desired result
  • The tip, edge or limit of something
  • verb
  • To be the last part of something

western

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US / ˈwestən /

UK / ˈwestərn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Movies often about cowboys in the American West
  • Coming from, found in, or facing towards the west

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

excommunicate

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US / ˌekskəˈmjuːnɪkeɪt /

UK / ˌekskəˈmjuːnɪkeɪt /

C2
  • verb
  • To reject someone from the Catholic church

lifestyle

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US / ˈlaɪfstaɪl /

UK / ˈlaɪfˌstaɪl /

B1
  • noun
  • The type of life that you have; the way you live

gather

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US / ˈgæðə(r) /

UK / ˈɡæðɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Fold in cloth, as in a full skirt
  • verb
  • To bring objects together into one place
  • (Of liquids) To come to a head, as in boil
  • To collect foods such as wild berries or crops
  • To increase or accumulate
  • To bring people, animals together into a group
  • To activate strength, courage to prepare for task
  • To understand or believe some information

undisputed

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US / ˌʌndɪ'spju:tɪd /

UK / ˌʌndɪ'spju:tɪd /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Generally agreed upon; not subject to dispute

radical

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US / ˈrædɪkl /

UK / ˈrædɪkəl,'rædɪkḷ /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Very new and different from what is traditional
  • Concerning something's most basic part or form
  • noun
  • Person who believes in extreme political change

origin

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US / ˈɒrɪdʒɪn /

UK / ˈɔrədʒɪn,ˈɑr- /

A2
  • noun
  • Point at which something begins or is created
  • Country or social group that a person comes from

last

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US / lɑ:st /

UK / læst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Most recent; the latest
  • The one before
  • adverb
  • Final; with nothing following; after all others
  • Most recent; the latest
  • determiner
  • The one at the end
  • verb
  • To remain or continue for a certain period of time

urban

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US / 'ɜ:bən /

UK / ˈɚbən /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a city; located in a city

greedy

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US / 'ɡri:dɪ /

UK / ˈɡridi /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Wanting to have more of something than you need

england

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US / 'ɪŋɡlənd /

UK / ˈɪŋɡlənd /

A1
  • proper noun
  • A European country that forms the largest and most southern part of Great Britain and of the United

almost

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US / 'ɔ:lməʊst /

UK / ˈɔlˌmost, ɔlˈmost /

A1
  • adverb
  • Only a little less than, nearly, not quite

his

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US / hɪz /

UK / hɪz /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Something belonging to a male person

group

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US / ɡru:p /

UK / ɡrup /

A1
  • noun
  • Two or more musicians who play music together
  • Number of people or things gathered together
  • verb
  • To combine or collect objects or people together

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

roman

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US / rɔmə /

UK / roˈmɑŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A resident of modern Rome
  • other
  • A typeface used in ancient Roman inscriptions
  • An inhabitant of the ancient Roman Empire
  • Characteristic of the modern type that most directly represents the type used in ancient Roman inscr
  • Of or relating to or supporting Romanism
  • Relating to or characteristic of people of Rome

century

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US / 'sentʃərɪ /

UK / ˈsɛntʃəri /

A1
  • noun
  • Period of 100 years

offend

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US / ə'fend /

UK / əˈfɛnd /

B1
  • verb
  • To break a rule or do something wrong
  • To upset, as by hurting someone's feelings

hand

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US / hænd /

UK / hænd /

A1
  • noun
  • Cards given to a player in a card game
  • Piece of a clock that points to the time
  • Someone who performs physical tasks or work
  • Body part at the end of a person's arm
  • Help for someone performing a particular action
  • Condition of having power or influence
  • Member of the crew of a ship
  • verb
  • To give something to someone personally

initially

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US / ɪˈnɪʃəli /

UK / ɪˈnɪʃəli /

A2
  • adverb
  • At first; originally

usurper

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US / juːˈzɜːpə(r) /

UK / juːˈzɜːrpər /

C1
  • noun
  • Person wrongfully taking the place of a king, etc.

earthly

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US / ˈɜ:θli /

UK / ˈə:θli /

B1
  • adverb
  • Concerning or belonging to characteristic of earth

choice

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US / tʃɔɪs /

UK / tʃɔɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Of good quality or taste; desirable
  • noun
  • Decision between two or more possibilities

decade

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US / ˈdekeɪd /

UK / ˈdɛkˌed, dɛˈked /

B1
  • noun
  • Period of 10 years

recently

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US / ˈri:sntli /

UK / 'risṇtlɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just a while ago; not long ago

month

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US / mʌnθ /

UK / mʌnθ /

A1
  • noun
  • One of 12 28-31 day periods in the year

ruler

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US / ˈru:lə(r) /

UK / ˈrulɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Someone who has control over a country or area
  • Straight instrument used for measuring things

world

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US / wɜ:ld /

UK / wɜrld /

A1
  • noun
  • All the humans, events, activities on the earth
  • Political division due to some kind of similarity

give

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US / ɡɪv /

UK / ɡɪv /

A1
  • noun
  • Degree of flexibility in something, a material
  • verb
  • To hand over or present something to someone
  • To cause someone to have or experience something

survive

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US / sə'vaɪv /

UK / sɚˈvaɪv /

A2
  • verb
  • To continue to live despite illness or trouble

neapolitan

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US / niəˈpɔlitən /

UK / ˌniəˈpɑlɪtən /

A1
  • other
  • A native or inhabitant of Naples
  • Of or relating to or characteristic of Naples or its people

development

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US / dɪ'veləpmənt /

UK / dɪˈvɛləpmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Act or process of growing bigger or more advanced
  • A new event related to a previous event

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

swiftly

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US / swɪftlɪ /

UK / ˈswɪftlɪ /

B2
  • adverb
  • Quickly

seven

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US / ˈsevn /

UK / ˈsɛvən /

A1
  • number
  • Number 7

recent

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US / 'ri:snt /

UK / ˈrisənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or beginning not long ago

become

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US / bɪ'kʌm /

UK / bɪˈkʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To begin to be; grow to be; develop into
  • To be suitable for a particular job or role

against

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US / əˈgenst /

UK / əˈɡenst /

A1
  • preposition
  • In physical contact with, as for support; next to
  • In opposition to; disagreeing with

want

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US / wɔnt /

UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

now

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US / naʊ /

UK / naʊ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At the present time or moment
  • Right away or in the next possible moment
  • Used to refer to something that just happened
  • Time between the present and a moment in the past
  • conjunction
  • Resulting from or because of something

themselves

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US / ðəmˈselvz /

UK / ðɛmˈsɛlvz, ðəm- /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Reflexive form of 'they'

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

resolve

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US / rɪ'zɒlv /

UK / rɪˈzɑlv /

B1
  • verb
  • To make a decision to do something
  • To find an answer, solution to a problem/ question
  • To change gradually into a different form
  • To decide to try to do something
  • To change into something, other parts, etc.

king

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US / kɪŋ /

UK / kɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • Person considered the best or top at something
  • Playing card with the image of a king on it
  • Key piece in the game of chess
  • Royal male ruler of a country
  • Person's name

significant

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US / sɪgˈnɪfɪkənt /

UK / sɪɡˈnɪfɪkənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Large enough to be noticed or have an effect
  • Having meaning; important; noticeable
  • (Statistics) being clearly different

italian

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US / ɪ'tælɪən /

UK / ɪˈtæljən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of Italy
  • noun
  • Person from Italy

record

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US / 'rekɔ:d /

UK / ˈrekərd /

A1
  • noun
  • Highest or most extreme level achieved
  • Round plastic disc on which music has been stored
  • History of a person's past actions or achievements
  • verb
  • To indicate a temperature, speed, etc.; register
  • To write down or say what happened
  • To put music, sounds onto a device to store it

schism

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US / ˈskɪzəm /

UK / ˈsɪzəm, ˈskɪz- /

C1
  • noun
  • Separation or division into disagreeing sides

war

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US / wɔ:(r) /

UK / wɔr /

A2
  • noun
  • Situation where armies fight each other

take

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US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
  • verb
  • To accept something that is offered
  • To use a method of traveling, e.g. a bus or train
  • To use a camera to make (a photo)
  • To pick up something and go away with it
  • To study a subject in school
  • To attempt to pass (an exam)
  • To require a certain amount of time, money, space

its

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US / ɪts /

UK / ɪts /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to or belonging to ‘it’
  • determiner
  • Of something; belonging or related to something
  • other
  • Possessive form of “it”

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

supreme

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US / su:ˈpri:m /

UK / sʊˈprim /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Greatest in degree/nature/quality; absolute best
  • Holding the highest power, status or authority

viii

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US / ˈeɪt /

UK / ˈeɪt /

A1

move

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US / mu:v /

UK / muv /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of moving a playing piece in chess, etc.
  • An action; doing something
  • Step taken to achieve a goal
  • verb
  • To cause someone to have certain emotions
  • To cause something to change to a different place
  • To change where people live or a business operates
  • To take action to do or achieve something

election

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US / ɪ'lekʃn /

UK / ɪˈlɛkʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Process of choosing someone by voting

court

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US / kɔ:t /

UK / kɔrt, kort /

A2
  • noun
  • Place king or queen meet people, makes laws etc.
  • Place where legal cases are decided
  • Large, flat area, to play tennis or basketball
  • verb
  • To act in a way to shows you wish to marry someone
  • To encourage dangerous behavior
  • To pay attention to someone to get their support

shocking

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US / ˈʃɒkɪŋ /

UK / ˈʃɑkɪŋ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very upsetting due to some unexpected event
  • verb
  • To affect someone with an electrical current
  • To cause great surprise, horror, or anger

prove

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US / pru:v /

UK / pruv /

A2
  • verb
  • To demonstrate truth by providing evidence

strange

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US / streɪndʒ /

UK / strendʒ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Unusual or odd; surprising because unexpected

agree

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US / əˈgri: /

UK / əˈɡri /

A1
  • verb
  • To have the same opinion as someone else

hold

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US / həʊld /

UK / hold /

A1
  • noun
  • Section of a ship or plane used for storing things
  • Influence or power held over someone
  • Place of support for hands or feet when climbing
  • verb
  • To agree to keep something for someone
  • To have the capacity to support/contain something
  • To control an area and protect it from attack
  • To not allow someone to leave a place
  • To cause an event to happen at a place or time
  • To use hands or arms to carry or keep something
  • To have a specific quality or property
  • To keep an image, belief or feeling in your mind
  • To have or own something
  • To wait before being able to talk on the phone
  • To limit the movement of someone in a sport

both

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US / bəuθ /

UK / boθ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time
  • pronoun
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time

entrench

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US / ɪn'trentʃ /

UK / ɛnˈtrɛntʃ /

C1
  • verb
  • To make an opinion fixed so it is hard to change

several

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US / ˈsevrəl /

UK / ˈsɛvərəl,ˈsɛvrəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Many of
  • pronoun
  • More than two but not a large amount

general

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US / 'dʒenrəl /

UK / ˈdʒɛnərəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Widespread, normal or usual
  • noun
  • Top ranked officer in the army

figure

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US / ˈfiɡə /

UK / ˈfɪɡjɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Your body shape
  • Numbers in a calculation
  • Doll-like thing meant to represent a person
  • Picture or diagram giving information in a text
  • Person who is very important or famous
  • Shape of a person seen indistinctly or in outline
  • Amount that is expressed in numbers
  • verb
  • To appear in a game, play or event
  • To calculate how much something will cost
  • To understand after thinking; work out

reign

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US / reɪn /

UK / ren /

B1
  • noun
  • Time during which a person runs an organization
  • Period of time when (e.g. king) rules a country
  • verb
  • To be present and felt or sensed by everyone there
  • (King or Queen) to rule a country

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

appoint

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US / ə'pɔɪnt /

UK / əˈpɔɪnt /

A2
  • verb
  • To officially choose a person for a job, position

return

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US / rɪ'tɜ:n /

UK / rɪ'tɜ:rn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Do again; repeated
  • noun
  • Faulty or unwanted product sent back to a company
  • Enter key; the main key on the computer keyboard
  • Profit made as a result of a business activity
  • Process of going back to a previous way or state
  • verb
  • To hit something back to the other player or team
  • To come back after being away from somewhere
  • To repay someone's actions, kindness etc.
  • To put, bring, take, give, or send something back
  • To occur again

rome

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US / rəʊm /

UK / rom /

A1
  • other
  • Leadership of the Roman Catholic Church

pious

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US / 'paɪəs /

UK / ˈpaɪəs /

C1
  • adjecitve
  • Feeling and showing love and duty to a religion

between

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US / bɪˈtwi:n /

UK / bɪˈtwin /

A1
  • preposition
  • From one person, thing, or place, to another
  • In the space that separates two objects
  • Among two or more people who share something

pressure

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US / 'preʃə(r) /

UK / ˈprɛʃɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Anxiety caused by difficult problems
  • Force, weight when pressing against a thing
  • Strong persuasion to do something
  • verb
  • To apply force to something
  • To persuade or force someone to do something

papal

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US / ˈpeɪpl /

UK / 'peɪpl /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the Pope or Roman Catholic Church

who

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US / hu: /

UK / hu /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Which person
  • Used to introduce information about people

catholic

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US / ˈkæθlɪk /

UK / ˈkæθəlɪk, ˈkæθlɪk /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • One of many Christian belief systems
  • noun
  • Person believing in the Catholic church

article

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US / 'ɑ:tɪkl /

UK / ˈɑrtɪkəl /

A2
  • noun
  • Word such as 'a', 'an', or 'the' used before nouns
  • Piece of writing about a particular subject
  • Piece of something, e.g. clothing
  • Section of a business contract or law

regardless

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US / rɪˈgɑ:dləs /

UK / rɪˈɡɑrdlɪs /

A2
  • adverb
  • Without being affected or concerned by something

since

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US / sɪns /

UK / sɪns /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a point before the present time
  • conjunction
  • For this reason; because
  • preposition
  • From the time in the past that

struggle

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US / 'strʌɡl /

UK / ˈstrʌɡəl /

A2
  • noun
  • Strong efforts made to do something difficult
  • verb
  • To try very hard to do something difficult

die

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US / daɪ /

UK / daɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Cube with dots numbering 1-6 on it used in games
  • verb
  • To cease to function or work
  • (Of a thing) to stop being used or done
  • (Of a person) to stop living

determine

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US / dɪ'tɜ:mɪn /

UK / dɪˈtɚmɪn /

A2
  • verb
  • To control exactly how something will be or act
  • To establish the facts about; discover

vassal

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US / ˈvæsl /

UK / ˈvæsəl /

C1
  • noun
  • One promising to serve a lord in return for land

papacy

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US / 'peɪpəsɪ /

UK / 'peɪpəsɪ /

B2
  • noun
  • Position or the authority of the Pope

those

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US / ðəʊz /

UK / ðoz /

A1
  • determiner
  • The people or things we are talking about
  • pronoun
  • The objects far from the speaker

heretic

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US / ˈherətɪk /

UK / ˈhɛrɪtɪk /

C1
  • adjecitve
  • Person rebelling against accepted religion

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

french

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US / frentʃ /

UK / frentʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of France
  • noun
  • Person's name

unite

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US / juˈnaɪt /

UK / juˈnaɪt /

A2
  • verb
  • To join or come together for the same goal

arrest

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US / əˈrest /

UK / əˈrɛst /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of catching people who committed crimes
  • verb
  • To attract someone's attention and hold interest
  • (Police) to catch and keep criminals
  • To stop or slow something that is happening

doctrinal

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US / dɒkˈtraɪnl /

UK / ˈdɑ:ktrənl /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning or involving with doctrine

split

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US / splɪt /

UK / splɪt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • No longer married or in a relationship
  • (Injured) by cutting it open, as in someone's lip
  • (Of a decision) when people cannot decide a winner
  • noun
  • Difference of opinion in a group causing a break
  • Separation or a break in something
  • verb
  • To become divided or broken along a straight line
  • To cause a cut in (lip, etc.)
  • To have difference of opinion in a group
  • To separate into two or more pieces
  • To divide something in an even or fair way

line

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US / laɪn /

UK / laɪn /

A1
  • noun
  • Border that divides two places or regions
  • Long crease in the skin, often from age
  • Mark that is long, straight and very thin
  • Row of words, letters or numbers that are written
  • Telephone connection
  • People waiting one behind the other; queue
  • Long thin wire, e.g. for electrical signal
  • verb
  • To put material along the inside of something

martin

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US / ˈmɑ:tn /

UK / ˈmɑrtn: /

A1
  • other
  • Any of various swallows with squarish or slightly forked tail and long pointed wings; migrate around

elect

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US / ɪ'lekt /

UK / ɪˈlɛkt /

B1
  • verb
  • To select someone for a position by voting

chaos

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US / 'keɪɒs /

UK / ˈkeˌɑs /

B1
  • other
  • State of utter confusion or disorder

diplomatic

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US / ˌdɪpləˈmætɪk /

UK / ˌdɪpləˈmætɪk /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning formal relationships between countries
  • Not being offensive

under

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US / ˈʌndə(r) /

UK / ˈʌndɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In the same place as another thing, but lower
  • adverb
  • In a lower quantity or price than expected
  • preposition
  • According to the terms of an agreement or law
  • Managed or controlled by the authority of
  • Being of a lesser quality or amount than expected
  • Influenced or affected by something or someone
  • Less or lower in age, amount, size or number

situation

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US / ˌsɪtʃuˈeɪʃn /

UK / ˌsɪtʃuˈeʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Place, position or area that something is in
  • Circumstance or condition surrounding an event
  • An unexpected problem or difficulty

decree

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US / dɪ'kri: /

UK / dɪˈkri /

B2
  • noun
  • Official order issued by an authority
  • verb
  • To give an order as an authority

soon

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US / su:n /

UK / sun /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a time not long from now

limit

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US / 'lɪmɪt /

UK / ˈlɪmɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Point beyond which it is not possible to go
  • verb
  • To stop or prevent an increase past a point

begin

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US / bɪ'ɡɪn /

UK / ˈbeɡɪn /

A1
  • verb
  • To do the first part of an action; to start

crisis

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US / 'kraɪsɪs /

UK / ˈkraɪsɪs /

B1
  • noun
  • Unstable situation of extreme danger or difficulty

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

back

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US / bæk /

UK / bæk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Farthest from the front e.g. in a classroom
  • adverb
  • Have returned to a place you were before
  • noun
  • The part of a chair that the upper body leans upon
  • Location at the rear of something
  • The reverse of side something
  • Area on the rear of your body
  • verb
  • To bet money on something
  • To go backwards in a car
  • To support and encourage someone or some cause

church

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US / tʃɜ:tʃ /

UK / tʃɚtʃ /

A1
  • noun
  • Building where Christians gather and pray to God
  • An occasion of Christian religious prayer, worship

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

maintain

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US / meɪn'teɪn /

UK / menˈten /

A2
  • verb
  • To keep saying something a certain way
  • To keep (machine) working by checking, repairing
  • To keep, exist or continue without changing

local

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US / ˈləʊkl /

UK / ˈloʊkl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Relating to a particular area, city, or town
  • noun
  • Bus or train, that stops at most stations
  • People who live in the area being discussed
  • The pub you most frequently go to

name

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US / neɪm /

UK / nem /

A1
  • noun
  • What something or someone is called
  • verb
  • To state what someone is called, e.g. John

finance

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US / ˈfaɪnæns /

UK / fəˈnæns, faɪ-, ˈfaɪˌnæns /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerned with money
  • noun
  • Control of money a person, business has access to
  • verb
  • To support someone or something financially

finally

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US / ˈfaɪnəli /

UK / ˈfaɪnəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • used especially at the beginning of a sentence to introduce the last point or idea
  • After a long time or some difficulty

escape

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US / ɪ'skeɪp /

UK / ɪˈskep /

A2
  • noun
  • Act to briefly ignoring boring or bad things
  • The 'esc key' on a keyboard
  • Act of getting away from where you are being kept
  • verb
  • To avoid something undesirable, dangerous or bad
  • To get away from a place where you are being kept
  • (Gas, water) to come out from a pipe, container
  • To not to be noticed or remembered by someone

two

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • number
  • 2

seat

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US / si:t /

UK / sit /

A1
  • noun
  • Place where a government or organization is based
  • A chair or place to sit
  • Official position in an organization
  • Part of a chair on which a person sits
  • verb
  • To have seats available for a number of people
  • To give someone a place to sit down

until

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US / ənˈtɪl /

UK / ʌnˈtɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Up to; to a time when something happens
  • preposition
  • Before (a specific time)

homeland

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US / ˈhəʊmlænd /

UK / ˈhoʊmlænd /

C1
  • noun
  • Country where you were born

where

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US / hwɛə /

UK / hwɛr, wɛr /

A1
  • conjunction
  • At or in the place which
  • In whatever place
  • pronoun
  • Word you use to ask the location of something

over

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US / 'əʊvə(r) /

UK / ˈovɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Finished; no longer happening
  • Towards the ground/away from a standing position
  • noun
  • A set of six consecutive balls bowled in cricket
  • other
  • Finished
  • preposition
  • Showing the relation when a thing is above another
  • On or covering something
  • Above or across something
  • More than you need
  • From one side to the other
  • In the direction of; toward

decide

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US / dɪ'saɪd /

UK / dɪˈsaɪd /

A2
  • verb
  • To make a choice or choose after thinking about it
  • To make a legal judgment in court
  • to affect the result of something

plethora

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US / ˈpleθərə /

UK / ˈplɛθərə /

A1
  • noun
  • (Formal) a large amount or number of something

only

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US / ˈəunli /

UK / ˈonli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just one; just that amount or thing; not more than
  • Not very important or serious
  • Just that type of thing, person
  • Short time ago; not before a certain time
  • conjunction
  • Except; but

luxurious

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US / lʌgˈʒʊəriəs /

UK / lʌgˈʒʊriəs /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being very comfortable, beautiful, and expensive

call

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US / kɔ:l /

UK / kɔl /

A1
  • noun
  • A order or request for action
  • The sound an animal makes, often when in danger
  • A correct prediction, e.g. a decision in a game
  • A short visit to a place or person
  • A decision by a referee or umpire in a game
  • verb
  • To make a request or order for action
  • (Animal) to make sounds to warn of danger
  • To announce the date of an election
  • To make a judgment about something
  • To give someone or something a name
  • To guess in advance the result or outcome
  • To visit a place or person for a short time
  • To phone someone
  • To speak, announce or shout in a loud voice

prone

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US / prəʊn /

UK / proʊn /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Lying flat with your head facing the ground
  • Likely to have, do or be (usually something bad)

issue

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US / 'ɪʃu: /

UK / ˈɪʃu /

A2
  • noun
  • Important topic discussed, debated or argued over
  • Single edition of a magazine
  • verb
  • To make something available to be used or sold
  • To deliver a statement, etc. in an official manner

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

come

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US / kʌm /

UK / kʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To arrive at a place
  • (Of mail) to be delivered
  • To move toward someone; go with someone
  • To reach a certain point or state

pretender

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US / prɪˈtendə(r) /

UK / prɪˈtɛndɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Person who pretends what they believe

conflict

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US / 'kɒnflɪkt /

UK / ˈkɑnˌflɪkt /

A2
  • noun
  • Argument or struggle between two or more parties
  • verb
  • To have opposite ideas; to disagree; To not match

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

three

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US / θri: /

UK / θri /

A1
  • number
  • Number 3

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

italy

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US / 'ɪtəlɪ /

UK / 'ɪtəlɪ /

A1
  • proper noun
  • A country in southern Europe; population 59,800,000 (estimated 2015); capital, Rome; official langua

vie

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US / vaɪ /

UK / vaɪ /

B2
  • verb
  • To fight or compete against to win or get a thing

demand

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US / dɪ'mɑ:nd /

UK / dɪˈmænd /

A2
  • noun
  • Desire customers have to buy product, service
  • A strong request for someone to do something
  • verb
  • To strongly request someone to do something

depose

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US / dɪ'pəʊz /

UK / dɪˈpoz /

C1
  • verb
  • To remove something from power or prominence

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

five

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US / faɪv /

UK / faɪv /

A1
  • number
  • 5

follow

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US / ˈfɔləu /

UK / ˈfɑlo /

A1
  • verb
  • To come after someone; be guided by someone
  • To support someone, e.g. singer or comedian
  • To be the logical result of something
  • To happen after something else happens
  • To believe a set of values or a moral teacher
  • To understand something happening or being said

france

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US / ˈfrɑːns /

UK / fræns /

A1
  • noun
  • A republic in western Europe; the largest country wholly in Europe

seek

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US / si:k /

UK / sik /

A2
  • verb
  • To ask someone for help
  • To search for; try to find or do; look for
  • To try to achieve something

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

lead

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US / li:d /

UK / lid /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being the main part in movies or plays
  • noun
  • Wire for electricity, computer, etc.; cable
  • Information that could help to solve a crime
  • Main part in a play or movie
  • Heavy, gray metal element
  • Rope used to tie something to stop it escaping
  • Act of being at the front in a race or game
  • verb
  • To show the way or guide others
  • To be at the front of a race or game
  • To travel in front of; go in advance of others

dispute

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US / dɪ'spju:t /

UK / dɪˈspjut /

B1
  • noun
  • Argument with someone about something
  • A question or doubt about something
  • verb
  • To argue with someone about something
  • To disagree about who owns or controls something
  • To question the truth or reality of something

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

philip

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US / ˈfilip /

UK / ˈfɪlɪp /

A1
  • other
  • Englishman and husband of Elizabeth II (born )

term

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US / tɜ:m /

UK / tɚm /

A1
  • noun
  • Conditions applying to an agreement, contract
  • Length of time something is expected to happen
  • Fixed period of weeks for learning at school
  • The (precise) name given to something
  • verb
  • To call; give a name to

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

unfortunately

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US / ʌnˈfɔ:tʃənətli /

UK / ʌnˈfɔːrtʃənətli /

B1
  • adverb
  • In a way that is to be regretted; unluckily

play

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US / pleɪ /

UK / pleɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Loose, free movement between two objects
  • Single action in a sports game
  • Performance in which people act in a theater
  • verb
  • To act as a character in a movie, or on stage
  • To perform music on an instrument
  • To use a device, e.g. a video game
  • To do something for enjoyment and fun
  • To do or perform a game or sport

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

power

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US / 'paʊə(r) /

UK / ˈpaʊɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Legal or official right to perform certain actions
  • Ability to move forcefully and quickly
  • Energy of something (e.g. electricity or fuel)
  • Mathematical way to multiply a number
  • Condition of being in political control
  • Physical force, energy, and strength
  • verb
  • To give energy to something, e.g. by electricity
  • To move something forcefully and quickly

restore

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US / rɪˈstɔ:(r) /

UK / rɪˈstɔr, -ˈstor /

B1
  • verb
  • To return a thing to its original condition

successor

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US / səkˈsesə(r) /

UK / səkˈsɛsɚ /

B2
  • noun
  • Person who takes over the position of another

attempt

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US / ə'tempt /

UK / əˈtɛmpt /

A2
  • noun
  • Effort made to try to do or accomplish something
  • verb
  • To try to do something challenging or difficult

person

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US / 'pɜ:sn /

UK / 'pɜ:rsn /

A1
  • noun
  • Man, woman or child

capital

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US / 'kæpɪtl /

UK / ˈkæpɪtl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Main, or major
  • noun
  • Writing the first letter of a word in big letters
  • Official main city of a country, province or state
  • Collective name for money, shares, and assets
  • Money that is used for a business

here

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • adverb
  • In this place; at this location, position or time

continue

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US / kən'tɪnju: /

UK / kənˈtɪnju /

A1
  • verb
  • To do something without stopping, or after pausing
  • To start doing again after a break, pause, or stop

predicament

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US / prɪˈdɪkəmənt /

UK / prɪˈdɪkəmənt /

B1
  • noun
  • Difficult situation that is hard to get out of

matter

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US / 'mætə(r) /

UK / ˈmætɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Material all things are made of that fills space
  • Problem or reason for concern
  • verb
  • To be of great importance; to count

after

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US / 'ɑ:ftə(r) /

UK / ˈæftɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Later than another time, or behind something
  • conjunction
  • Following something before
  • preposition
  • When an event happened or time has passed

write

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US / raɪt /

UK / raɪt /

A1
  • verb
  • To compose letters and words on paper or a screen
  • To invent or create a computer program
  • To create a song or piece of music

council

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US / 'kaʊnsl /

UK / ˈkaʊnsəl /

A2
  • noun
  • Group chosen to make decisions about something

try

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US / traɪ /

UK / traɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of putting the ball over the rugby goal line
  • verb
  • To make an effort, to attempt to do something
  • To examine someone or something in a court of law
  • To test to see if it is good or you like it
  • To make a person go through hardship; test
  • To examine something to see if it works

strike

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US / straɪk /

UK / straɪk /

A2
  • noun
  • A punch or hit
  • Fact of not hitting the ball when playing baseball
  • Refusal to work to get more pay, protest something
  • verb
  • To hit something
  • To suddenly become (e.g. rich)
  • To have an idea occur to you

among

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US / əˈmʌŋ /

UK / əˈmʌŋ /

A1
  • preposition
  • In the center of several things

safe

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US / seɪf /

UK / sef /

A2
  • noun
  • Metal box with a lock to keep valuable things in
  • adjecitve
  • Highly likely
  • Being out of danger

plunder

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US / 'plʌndə(r) /

UK / ˈplʌndɚ /

C1
  • noun
  • Things taken violently or by force
  • verb
  • To take steal forcefully and unlawfully in wartime

desperate

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US / ˈdespərət /

UK / ˈdɛspərɪt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being beyond hope; prepared to do anything
  • State of urgently wanting to go to the toilet

true

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US / tru: /

UK / tru: /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Agreeing with the facts; not false; real or actual

tax

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US / tæks /

UK / tæks /

A2
  • noun
  • Money taken by a government from its people
  • verb
  • To require a lot of physical or mental effort
  • (Government) to take money from a country's people

genuine

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US / ˈdʒenjuɪn /

UK / ˈdʒɛnjuɪn /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being real, actual, and not false or artificial
  • Being sincere in your actions or character

violent

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US / ˈvaɪələnt /

UK / ˈvaɪələnt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Done with force; likely to produce physical damage

reformer

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US / rɪˈfɔ:mə(r) /

UK / rɪˈfɔrmər /

A2
  • noun
  • Person who advocates political reform

drama

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US / 'drɑ:mə /

UK / ˈdrɑmə, ˈdræmə /

A2
  • noun
  • Play that is performed on stage, theater, or TV
  • Study of acting

while

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US / waɪl /

UK / hwaɪl, waɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • In spite of the fact that; although
  • During the time that; at the same time
  • noun
  • Short amount of time

himself

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US / hɪmˈself /

UK / hɪmˈsɛlf /

A1
  • pronoun
  • The same (male) person who did the action

third

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US / θɜ:d /

UK / θɜ:rd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 3rd: Number after second

raid

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US / reɪd /

UK / red /

B1
  • noun
  • Sudden entry by police; surprise attack by army
  • (Army) to suddenly enter or attack a place
  • verb
  • (Army) to suddenly enter or attack a place
  • To suddenly enter or attack, e.g. to steal or harm

declare

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US / dɪ'kleə(r) /

UK / dɪˈklɛr /

A2
  • verb
  • To make a statement in a strong and confident way
  • To show the cost of things purchased overseas
  • To say something in an official or sure way

ordinary

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US / 'ɔ:dnrɪ /

UK / ˈɔ:rdneri /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Normal or usual

illegitimate

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US / ˌɪləˈdʒɪtəmət /

UK / ˌɪlɪˈdʒɪtəmɪt /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Contrary to or forbidden by law

realm

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US / relm /

UK / rɛlm /

B2
  • noun
  • Area ruled by a king or queen
  • Field of knowledge or thought

assault

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US / əˈsɔ:lt /

UK / əˈsɔlt /

B1
  • noun
  • An attack on someone physically or emotionally
  • verb
  • To attack someone physically or emotionally

authority

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US / ɔ:ˈθɒrəti /

UK / əˈθɔrɪti, əˈθɑr-, ɔˈθɔr-, ɔˈθɑr- /

A2
  • noun
  • The power to give orders to people
  • Person who is an expert on a particular topic
  • Expert knowledge on a given subject
  • The power to decide or approve things
  • a group of people who have the official power to make decisions

always

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US / 'ɔ:lweɪz /

UK / ˈɔlwez,-wɪz,-wiz /

A1
  • adverb
  • For a very long time
  • At all times; in every situation
  • For ever

new

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US / nju: /

UK / nu, nju /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not old, recently born, built or made
  • Being or doing something for the first time
  • Not felt, seen or known previously
  • Having been recently bought or obtained

rowdy

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US / 'raʊdɪ /

UK / ˈraʊdi /

C1
  • adjecitve
  • Being rough or noisy

side

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US / saɪd /

UK / saɪd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In addition to the central or most important thing
  • Next to, or very close to, the right or left of
  • noun
  • Position or opinion that is opposite to another
  • Right or left part of a person's body
  • Feature of someone's personality
  • Straight edge of an object
  • One of two or more groups fighting each other
  • verb
  • To decide to agree with one point, not the other

claim

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US / kleɪm /

UK / klem /

A2
  • noun
  • Demand for something that is believed to be due
  • Something said to be true when others don't agree
  • verb
  • To demand something that is believed to be due
  • To cause someone's life to come to an end
  • To say something is true when others may not agree

existence

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US / ɪɡ'zɪstəns /

UK / ɪɡˈzɪstəns /

A2
  • noun
  • State of being present, alive or real

total

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US / ˈtəʊtl /

UK / ˈtoʊtl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Complete
  • noun
  • Whole number or amount of something
  • verb
  • To damage a car beyond repair

number

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US / ˈnʌmbə(r) /

UK / ˈnʌmbɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Symbols such as 1, 2, 56, 793
  • Particular song or dance performed during a show
  • Total quantity or amount of things
  • verb
  • To put numbers on things
  • To assign a sequence within a group, series, set
  • To claim to be part of a larger group, series, set

political

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US / pəˈlɪtɪkl /

UK / pəˈlɪtɪkəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being active or interested in government matters
  • Diplomatic
  • Of the system of elections and government
  • Concerning government or public affairs
  • Involved in getting of power/influence in a group

wine

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US / waɪn /

UK / waɪn /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Dark red color
  • noun
  • Alcoholic drink made from the juice of grapes

archbishop

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US / ˌɑ:tʃˈbɪʃəp /

UK / ɑrtʃˈbɪʃəp /

B2
  • noun
  • (Catholic) bishop controlling churches in an area

impact

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US / 'ɪmpækt /

UK / ˈɪmˌpækt /

A2
  • noun
  • A striking effect or result to hit with force
  • Very strong influence
  • Act or force of one thing hitting something else
  • verb
  • To hit or strike someone or something with force

force

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US / fɔ:s /

UK / fɔrs, fors /

A1
  • noun
  • Group of persons trained for military action; army
  • Pressure; attraction
  • The use of physical strength/violence to persuade
  • verb
  • To use physical strength or violence to persuade

suppose

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US / sə'pəʊz /

UK / səˈpoʊz /

A2
  • conjunction
  • What if
  • verb
  • To imagine or guess what might happen

arrangement

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US / əˈreɪndʒmənt /

UK / əˈrendʒmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Particular design of a device
  • Piece of music written for a particular instrument
  • Group of things organized in a particular way
  • Organized plan, event for a time and place
  • Action done in order for something to happen

step

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US / step /

UK / stɛp /

A1
  • noun
  • Movement done as part of a particular dance
  • Distance covered by one movement of a leg; stride
  • One part or stage in a process
  • Sound made by the feet while walking; footstep
  • Flat horizontal piece that forms stairs
  • verb
  • To raise and moving the foot to put it down

each

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US / i:tʃ /

UK / itʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Every one of two or more things
  • pronoun
  • Per one person or thing

mean

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US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular meaning or value

solve

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US / sɒlv /

UK / sɑ:lv /

A2
  • verb
  • To figure out a way to handle a difficult problem

stay

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US / steɪ /

UK / ste /

A1
  • noun
  • Legal order to stop or delay an action
  • Strong rope or wire that supports a ship's mast
  • Period of time spent living in or visiting a place
  • verb
  • To keep trying without giving up
  • To remain in the same place and not move away
  • To spend time visiting a place or someone's home

denounce

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US / dɪ'naʊns /

UK / dɪˈnaʊns /

B2
  • verb
  • To criticize publicly and forcefully
  • To inform the authorities of some illegal activity

even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

refuse

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US / rɪ'fju:z /

UK / ˈrefjus /

A2
  • noun
  • Garbage, waste
  • verb
  • To not accept, allow, or give something

right

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US / raɪt /

UK / raɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Correct or true
  • The south side of you looking at the rising sun
  • adverb
  • Exactly in a place or time
  • Being appropriate for a particular event
  • In a straight or direct manner
  • noun
  • Something you are legally or morally allowed to do
  • Ideal of what is just and good
  • Political view based on conservatism
  • verb
  • To fix something previously wrong or unjust
  • To make upright, as a boat that has turned over

find

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US / faɪnd /

UK / faɪnd /

A1
  • noun
  • Object discovered by chance
  • Things that have been discovered from searching
  • verb
  • To become aware of something that is happening
  • To discover or meet by chance
  • To decide if someone is guilty of a crime, or not
  • To learn through study, research, or effort
  • To discover something by looking for it

mob

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US / mɒb /

UK / mɑb /

B2
  • noun
  • A secret criminal organization
  • Large collection of people that share an interest
  • verb
  • To move close to (a star, etc.) in a large group

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

own

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US / əʊn /

UK / on /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Belong to oneself
  • determiner
  • Yours, his, hers, etc.; not belonging to another
  • pronoun
  • (Something) belong to myself
  • verb
  • To have something as your property

officially

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US / əˈfɪʃəli /

UK / əˈfɪʃəlɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • According to what is stated by an authority figure

city

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US / 'sɪtɪ /

UK / ˈsɪti /

A1
  • noun
  • Area with many buildings, roads and people

suddenly

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US / ˈsʌdənli /

UK / ˈsʌdn:lɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In an unexpected or very quick manner
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • Why were there three popes at the same time? The late 14th century saw Catholics faced with a unique predicament - not one, not two, but three popes. This article will delve into the origins of this papal situation and explore who among them was the genuine leader.It all began in 1296 when King Philip IV of France decided to impose taxes on the Church. This move did not sit well with Pope Boniface VIII, who believed in the Pope's total supremacy over earthly rulers. In response, he wrote the "Unam Sanctam," a radical decree asserting his authority. Angered by this, King Philip declared Boniface a heretic and attempted to have him arrested through a violent raid. Although Boniface survived the assault, he passed away shortly after.Following a short-lived successor, Pope Clement V was elected in 1305. Clement, a French diplomat, wanted to stay close to the war between England and France. To achieve this, he moved the papacy's seat to Avignon in 1309, a city owned by a vassal of the Church and located near France. For over 70 years, the papacy remained in Avignon under the reign of seven popes.However, in 1376, the reigning Pope returned to Italy but tragically passed away just months later. This unexpected turn of events left the Catholic Church in need of a new leader. The Romans, eager to restore Rome as the seat of Western Christendom, were determined to elect one of their own.Local officials pressured the cardinals to choose an Italian pope, while rowdy mobs raided the conclave and even looted the papal wine cellar. Amidst this chaos, the cardinals elected the Neapolitan Archbishop of Bari, who became Pope Urban VI.This marked the beginning of a schism within the Catholic Church. Soon after his election, Pope Urban VI's temperament and leadership style caused dissatisfaction among the cardinals, who alleged that the election had been coerced. A group of cardinals withdrew their support for Urban VI and declared his election invalid. They elected a new pope, Clement VII, who returned the papacy to Avignon and maintained his authority there.With two claimants to the papal throne, the situation became even more complicated when a third pope, Alexander V, was elected by a council consisting of cardinals from both sides. This led to the peculiar scenario of three popes simultaneously reigning over different factions of the Catholic Church.This papal schism, known as the Western Schism, lasted for almost 40 years and had profound consequences for the Catholic Church and Europe as a whole. The division eroded the Church's spiritual authority, as people became disillusioned with the conflicting claims of the popes.Efforts were made to resolve the schism through diplomacy, but these attempts largely failed. It was only through the Council of Constance, convened in 1414, that a solution was reached. The council deposed all three claimants and elected a new pope, Martin V, who was accepted by the majority of the Church.In conclusion, the presence of three popes during the late 14th century was a result of political and power struggles within the Catholic Church. The move of the papacy to Avignon and subsequent disputes over leadership led to a schism that lasted for nearly 40 years. The resolution came through the Council of Constance, which deposed the rival claimants and reinstated a single pope.
  • Subtitles section
  • For almost two millennia, the Pope has been a figure of supreme spiritual authority for Catholics around the world.
  • But in the late 14th century, Catholics found themselves with not one, not two, but three popes.
  • Where did this plethora of popes come from?
  • And who among them was the genuine article?
  • The origins of this papal predicament began in 1296, when France's King Philip IV decided to raise taxes on the Church.
  • Given the clergy's political power, this offended Pope Boniface VIII, leading him to write the "Unam Sanctam": a radical decree asserting the Pope's total supremacy over earthly rulers.
  • But King Philip struck back.
  • He declared Boniface a heretic and tried to have him arrested in a violent raid.
  • Boniface survived the assault, but died soon after.
  • And following a short-lived successor, Pope Clement V was elected in 1305.
  • A French diplomat seeking peace in the war between England and his homeland, Clement wanted to stay close to the conflict and escape the demands of Rome.
  • So in 1309, he moved the seat of the papacy to Avignon— a city close to France but owned by a vassal of the Church.
  • The papacy remained here for the terms of seven popes until the reigning Pope finally returned to Italy in 1376.
  • But just several months after his arrival, he suddenly died.
  • This shocking development meant a new pope had to be elected immediately— and in Rome, where there hadn't been a papal election in over 70 years.
  • The Romans were determined to elect one of their own and restore Rome as the seat of Western Christendom.
  • Local officials pressured cardinals to choose an Italian pope, while rowdy mobs raided the conclave and plundered the papal wine cellar.
  • Amidst this chaos, the cardinals elected the Neapolitan Archbishop of Bari to become Pope Urban VI.
  • Initially, Urban was seen as a safe choice.
  • But he quickly proved to be a reformer who sought to limit the cardinal's finances.
  • Desperate to maintain their luxurious lifestyles, the cardinals declared the recent election illegitimate, since it was decided under pressure from the Roman mob.
  • They denounced Urban as a usurper and held a new conclave to elect Pope Clement VII.
  • Clement attempted to excommunicate Urban, but he refused to recognize the authority of Clement or his greedy cardinals.
  • Urban named new cardinals to his court and entrenched himself in Rome while Clement and his supporters returned to Avignon.
  • The schism had officially begun.
  • Western Christendom now had two capitals, Avignon and Rome, each with their own Pope and court of cardinals.
  • As popes from each line died, their cardinals appointed successors, continuing the crisis for decades.
  • This strange situation didn't impact most ordinary Catholics, as there were no significant doctrinal splits.
  • Instead, the drama played out in the diplomatic realm.
  • European rulers were forced to choose sides, as both popes vied for spiritual and political supremacy.
  • Only a pope had the authority to call a general council to officially resolve the issue, and both sides refused to take this step.
  • So in 1409, a group of cardinals from France and Rome took matters into their own hands.
  • They claimed that since both popes were disputed, cardinals did have the right to call a council.
  • And at their gathering these cardinals deposed the pretenders and elected a new Pope.
  • Unfortunately, both Avignon's Pope and Rome's Pope refused to recognize this council.
  • So instead of solving the crisis, the number of popes rose to three.
  • This unusual arrangement lasted five more years, until the Council of Constance in 1417.
  • Here, the popes from the Roman line and recently created third line resigned and agreed to unite the church under a new Pope— Martin V.
  • Undisputed, Martin swiftly excommunicated the only person still against him— the Pope of Avignon— and finally ended the schism after 39 years.
  • Today, the church's official records say the Roman Line was always the true papal power.
  • But regardless of how the schism ended, its existence proves that even those who are supposed to be pious are prone to petty power struggles.