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Does Everybody Have A Gay Gene?

Video vocabulary

different

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US / ˈdɪfrənt /

UK / ˈdɪfrənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not of the same kind; unlike other things

even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

eventually

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US / ɪˈventʃuəli /

UK / ɪˈvɛntʃuəli /

A2
  • adverb
  • After a long time; after many attempts; in the end

label

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US / 'leɪbl /

UK / ˈlebəl /

A2
  • noun
  • A (luxury) brand owned by a company
  • A word or term used to describe a person, thing
  • A piece of paper or material to identify something
  • verb
  • To use a term to describe, often negatively
  • To attach material to identify something

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

people

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US / 'pi:pl /

UK / ˈpipəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Persons sharing culture, country, background, etc.
  • Men, Women, Children

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

second

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US / 'sekənd /

UK / ˈsɛkənd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 2nd; the one following first
  • noun
  • Unit of time; one sixtieth of a minute
  • Short period of time that you wait for someone
  • (Do) soon

alter

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US / ˈɔ:ltə(r) /

UK / ˈɔltɚ /

A2
  • verb
  • To change so (clothing) fits better

closely

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US / 'kləʊslɪ /

UK / ˈkloslɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a careful manner
  • Nearby; just next to

birth

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US / bɜ:θ /

UK / bɜ:rθ /

A2
  • noun
  • Time when a baby or young animal is born
  • Beginning of something
  • Social position based on the family you come from

decrease

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US / dɪˈkri:s /

UK / dɪˈkris /

B1
  • noun
  • Amount by which something has been reduced
  • verb
  • To reduce the size, amount or number of something

happen

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US / 'hæpən /

UK / ˈhæpən /

A1
  • verb
  • To take place or occur

epigenetics

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US / ˌepɪdʒ'netɪks /

UK / ˌepɪdʒ'netɪks /

A1
  • plural noun
  • The study of changes in organisms caused by modification of gene expression rather than alteration o

baby

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US / ˈbeɪbi /

UK / ˈbeɪbi /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Small in size; smaller than usual
  • noun
  • A very young child, who cannot yet speak
  • verb
  • To treat someone as if they were newly born

find

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US / faɪnd /

UK / faɪnd /

A1
  • noun
  • Object discovered by chance
  • Things that have been discovered from searching
  • verb
  • To become aware of something that is happening
  • To discover or meet by chance
  • To decide if someone is guilty of a crime, or not
  • To learn through study, research, or effort
  • To discover something by looking for it

methylation

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US / /

UK / /

C2
  • noun
  • Alkylation process of substitution by methyl group

mean

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US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular meaning or value

hundred

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US / 'hʌndrəd /

UK / ˈhʌndrɪd /

A1
  • number
  • 100

group

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US / ɡru:p /

UK / ɡrup /

A1
  • noun
  • Two or more musicians who play music together
  • Number of people or things gathered together
  • verb
  • To combine or collect objects or people together

model

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US / ˈmɒdl /

UK / ˈmɑ:dl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being an excellent example of
  • noun
  • Person who wears fashion to show it to the public
  • A small scale copy of a full original
  • verb
  • To wear and display clothes at a fashion show
  • To make a small scale copy of a full original

world

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US / wɜ:ld /

UK / wɜrld /

A1
  • noun
  • All the humans, events, activities on the earth
  • Political division due to some kind of similarity

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

mechanism

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US / 'mekənɪzəm /

UK / ˈmɛkəˌnɪzəm /

B1
  • noun
  • Part of a machine that performs a certain function
  • System or process for achieving a certain result

six

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US / sɪks /

UK / sɪks /

A1
  • number
  • 6

increase

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US / ɪn'kri:s /

UK / ɪnˈkris /

A1
  • noun
  • Fact of increasing; amount something grows by
  • verb
  • To make or become larger in size or amount

linkage

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US / ˈlɪŋkɪdʒ /

UK / ˈlɪŋkɪdʒ /

A2
  • noun
  • A system of connections joining items

tightly

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US / ˈtaɪtli /

UK / ˈtaɪtlɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a manner that doesn't allow movement

strongly

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US / strɒŋlɪ /

UK / ˈstrɔŋlɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • With strength or in a strong manner

datum

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US / ˈdeɪtəm /

UK / ˈdetəm, ˈdætəm, ˈdɑtəm /

B1
  • noun
  • Item of factual information

percent

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US / pə'sent /

UK / pɚˈsɛnt /

A2
  • adverb
  • One one-hundredth of a whole; the symbol %

social

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US / ˈsəuʃəl /

UK / ˈsoʃəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Involving activity with people, e.g. in free time
  • Liking being with other people; friendly
  • Living together and depending on each other

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

community

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US / kə'mju:nətɪ /

UK / kəˈmjunɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • Group of people who share a common idea or area

choice

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US / tʃɔɪs /

UK / tʃɔɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Of good quality or taste; desirable
  • noun
  • Decision between two or more possibilities

homophobic

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US / ˌhəʊməˈfəʊbɪk /

UK / ˌhoʊməˈfoʊbɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Prejudiced against homosexual people

low

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US / ləʊ /

UK / lo /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having a small quantity, supply, or amount
  • Being unhappy or unpleasant in attitude
  • Not high; being near the ground, or bottom
  • (Of a voice, sound) being soft; quiet
  • noun
  • Situation of not having a lot of something

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

fear

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US / fɪə(r) /

UK / fɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unpleasant feeling caused by being aware of danger
  • verb
  • To be afraid of or nervous about something

male

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US / meɪl /

UK / ˈmel /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Characteristic of boys or men
  • noun
  • A member of the sex that fertilizes eggs

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

defective

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US / dɪˈfektɪv /

UK / dɪˈfɛktɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Having a defect; faulty

heterosexual

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US / ˌhetərəˈsekʃuəl /

UK / ˌhɛtəroˈsɛkʃuəl /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex
  • noun
  • Person attracted to members of the opposite sex

link

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US / lɪŋk /

UK / lɪŋk /

A2
  • noun
  • Any one of the rings that are part of a chain
  • Connection between two or more things or people
  • Webpage item you click to go to another webpage
  • verb
  • To join or connect together

project

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US / prəˈdʒekt /

UK / prəˈdʒɛkt /

A1
  • noun
  • A planned piece of work for specific purpose
  • Group of homes built by government for poor people
  • verb
  • To predict what will happen in the future
  • To show something on a screen using light
  • To stick out past the edge of something

society

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US / sə'saɪətɪ /

UK / səˈsaɪɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • A group who meet to share values or interests
  • Group of people living together
  • Upper class of a community

son

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US / sʌn /

UK / sʌn /

A1
  • noun
  • Male child; friendly way of addressing a boy

attachment

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US / əˈtætʃmənt /

UK / əˈtætʃmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of connecting one thing to another
  • File added to an email message
  • Strong affection for someone or something

epigenetic

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US / epɪdʒɪ'netɪk /

UK / ˌepədʒə'netɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • (Biology) of or relating to epigenesis

show

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US / ʃəʊ /

UK / ʃo /

A1
  • noun
  • False display of love, emotion or action
  • An event for displaying or promoting goods
  • Play, opera or theater production
  • Presentation that is broadcast on TV or radio
  • verb
  • To be easily seen or displayed
  • To display your emotions or feelings
  • To let someone see something; display
  • To explain or teach how something is done
  • To lead someone somewhere; point them to something
  • To prove something to be true, correct
  • To reveal or allow something to be seen

prevalence

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US / 'prevələns /

UK / ˈprɛvələns /

B2
  • noun
  • Fact of being widespread or common

ninety

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US / 'naɪntɪ /

UK / ˈnaɪnti /

A1
  • number
  • 90

could

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US / kəd /

UK / kʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Past form of 'can' to mean have ability
  • Used to ask for something politely, or to offer

testosterone

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US / tesˈtɔstərəun /

UK / tɛsˈtɑstəˌron /

C1
  • noun
  • Natural chemical responsible for the male sex

neglect

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US / nɪ'ɡlekt /

UK / nɪˈɡlɛkt /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of failing to do something important, required
  • State or condition of not receiving proper care
  • verb
  • To not do something that is important or required
  • To fail to take care of something; ignore

focus

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US / 'fəʊkəs /

UK / ˈfokəs /

A2
  • noun
  • Main purpose or center of interest or activity
  • verb
  • To see clearly by adjusting your eyes or a camera
  • To keep your attention, concentration on one thing

furthermore

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US / ˌfɜ:ðəˈmɔ:(r) /

UK / ˌfɜ:rðərˈmɔ:r /

B1
  • adverb
  • In addition to what has been said

scientist

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US / ˈsaɪəntɪst /

UK / ˈsaɪəntɪst /

A2
  • noun
  • Person who is trained in a science

next

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US / nekst /

UK / nɛkst /

A1
  • adverb
  • The one that follows another in time or order
  • At a time or place directly after the present one
  • noun
  • The one that follows after
  • adjecitve
  • Immediately after the previous one
  • First occurrence after the present one

clear

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US / klɪə(r) /

UK / klɪr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Empty; without anything in it or on it
  • Being certain and without doubt
  • Being without any streaks, spots, or cracks
  • Easy to understand; well-explained; obvious
  • adverb
  • Completely; entirely; through the whole of
  • Away from; free from
  • verb
  • To recover from or remove a problem
  • To get rid of the entire contents of
  • To give permission for something to happen
  • To make a place or surface empty by removing
  • To prove that someone is not guilty or to blame

video

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US / 'vɪdɪəʊ /

UK / ˈvɪdiˌo /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of a moving film, with sound
  • noun
  • Recording capturing action with sound
  • verb
  • To make a moving film of, with sound

law

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US / lɔ: /

UK / lɔ /

A1
  • noun
  • Field of study that relates to the legal profession
  • A rule made and enforced by a government
  • System or rules made by the government

homosexual

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US / ˌhəʊməˈsekʃuəl /

UK / ˌhoʊməˈsekʃuəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Attracted to people of the same sex

genome

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US / ˈdʒi:nəʊm /

UK / ˈdʒi:noʊm /

B2
  • noun
  • Complete set of genetic material in an organism

wilson

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US / 'wɪlsn /

UK / 'wɪlsən /

A1
  • proper noun
  • An industrial city in east central North Carolina; population 48,433 (est. 2008).

whether

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US / ˈweðə(r) /

UK / ˈhwɛðɚ, ˈwɛð- /

A1
  • conjunction
  • If something will happen or not

weekly

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US / 'wi:klɪ /

UK / ˈwikli /

A2
  • adverb
  • Happening, published, or done once a week
  • noun
  • Magazine or newspaper published once a week

pattern

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US / 'pætn /

UK / ˈpætən /

A2
  • noun
  • Model to follow in making or doing something
  • Colors or shapes which are repeated on objects
  • Regular repeated behavior
  • verb
  • To copy the way something else is made

effect

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US / ɪ'fekt /

UK / ɪˈfɛkt /

A1
  • noun
  • An advantage, benefit
  • Change brought about by a cause; result

baseline

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US / ˈbeɪslaɪn /

UK / ˈbeɪslaɪn /

C1
  • noun
  • Imaginary standard by which things are compared

altruism

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US / ˈæltruɪzəm /

UK / ˈæltruˌɪzəm /

C1
  • noun
  • Selfless concern for the well-being of others

advantage

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US / əd'vɑ:ntɪdʒ /

UK / ædˈvæntɪdʒ /

A2
  • noun
  • Thing making the chance of success higher
  • A positive point about something

reproduce

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US / ˌri:prə'dju:s /

UK / ˌriprəˈdus, -ˈdjus /

B1
  • verb
  • To make a copy of something
  • To have children/young; grow roots/new plants

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

our

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to us

mother

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US / ˈmʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈmʌðɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Female who has a child or children; female parent
  • verb
  • To take care of someone as if they were your child

development

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US / dɪ'veləpmənt /

UK / dɪˈvɛləpmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Act or process of growing bigger or more advanced
  • A new event related to a previous event

belief

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US / bɪˈli:f /

UK / bɪˈlif /

A1
  • noun
  • Being sure that something exists or is true
  • Trust in an idea or set of ideas
  • A particular opinion about something

would

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate something imagined
  • Used to ask or request something politely
  • Verb used to indicate possibility, request etc.
  • Used to indicate a preference
  • Used to indicate a reaction
  • Indicates something that occurred repeatedly
  • Used to indicate willingness or ability to do

study

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US / 'stʌdɪ /

UK / ˈstʌdi /

A1
  • noun
  • Room that a person studies or reads in
  • Piece of research
  • Topic or subject you research or learn about
  • verb
  • To focus on learning something usually at school

member

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US / ˈmembə(r) /

UK / ˈmɛmbɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Part of the body of a human, animal
  • Person or thing belonging to a group or team

compare

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US / kəm'peə(r) /

UK / kəmˈpɛr /

A1
  • verb
  • To consider how similar and different things are

recent

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US / 'ri:snt /

UK / ˈrisənt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or beginning not long ago

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

brother

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US / ˈbrʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈbrʌðɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • A boy or man who shares a parent with you

attraction

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US / ə'trækʃn /

UK / əˈtrækʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Theme park or fairground; place worth visiting
  • The act of making someone become interested in

related

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US / rɪ'leɪtɪd /

UK / rɪˈletɪd /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Connected to; in association with
  • verb
  • To demonstrate a logical relationship between
  • To understand or sympathize with, e.g. a problem
  • To tell a story, or tell about a particular event

research

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US / rɪ'sɜ:tʃ /

UK / rɪˈsɚtʃ, ˈriˌsɚtʃ /

A2
  • noun
  • Study done to discover new ideas and facts
  • Work done to find or discover knowledge
  • verb
  • To study in order to discover new ideas and facts

give

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US / ɡɪv /

UK / ɡɪv /

A1
  • noun
  • Degree of flexibility in something, a material
  • verb
  • To hand over or present something to someone
  • To cause someone to have or experience something

generally

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US / /

UK / /

A2
  • adverb
  • Usually; as a rule; by, to or for most people

fifty

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US / 'fɪftɪ /

UK / ˈfɪfti /

A1
  • number
  • 50

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

subscribe

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US / səb'skraɪb /

UK / səbˈskraɪb /

B1
  • verb
  • To regularly pay to receive a service

same

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US / seɪm /

UK / sem /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in quality and amount
  • Identical; not different
  • Not changing; constant

historically

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US / hɪ'stɒrɪklɪ /

UK / hɪsˈtɔrɪkl:ɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • In history; in the past

child

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US / tʃaɪld /

UK / tʃaɪld /

A1
  • noun
  • A very young person, between about 2 and 15

behaviour

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US / bɪˈheɪvjə(r) /

UK / bɪˈhevjɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • The way a person or thing acts; manner

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

regulate

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US / ˈregjuleɪt /

UK / ˈrɛɡjəˌlet /

A2
  • verb
  • To control something with rules or laws
  • To set/adjust (a clock, etc.); restrict motion in

many

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US / 'menɪ /

UK / ˈmɛni /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer a large number of things

after

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US / 'ɑ:ftə(r) /

UK / ˈæftɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Later than another time, or behind something
  • conjunction
  • Following something before
  • preposition
  • When an event happened or time has passed

ant

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US / ænt /

UK / ænt /

B1
  • noun
  • Insect with six legs that lives in large groups

accuracy

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US / ˈækjərəsi /

UK / ˈækjərəsi /

A2
  • noun
  • Being exactly right; correctness

lesbian

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US / ˈlezbiən /

UK / ˈlezbiən /

B2
  • noun
  • Homosexual woman

heritability

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US / herɪtə'bɪlɪtɪ /

UK / herɪtə'bɪlɪtɪ /

C2
  • noun
  • Science fact of being able to be inherited

gene

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US / dʒi:n /

UK / dʒin /

B1
  • noun
  • Part of cell controlling development of a thing

embryo

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US / ˈembriəʊ /

UK / ˈɛmbriˌo /

B2
  • noun
  • Tiny plant stored inside a seed
  • Early form of an unborn human or animal

ever

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US / 'evə(r) /

UK / ˈɛvɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At any time; at all times in the future

rid

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US / rɪd /

UK / rɪd /

A2
  • verb
  • To cause to no longer have (pest, problem)

past

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US / pɑ:st /

UK / pæst /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • No longer current or new
  • adverb
  • So as to go beyond, or further than something
  • noun
  • Time that existed before now, e.g. long ago
  • preposition
  • After a particular time
  • At a later point in distance; beyond

code

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US / kəʊd /

UK / kod /

A2
  • noun
  • A password made of a set of letters or numbers
  • Set of rules for behavior
  • A secret language using secret symbols
  • Written part of a computer program
  • verb
  • To express information in a series of numbers
  • To write a secret message using secret symbols
  • To write programs using computer languages

small

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US / smɔ:l /

UK / smɔl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Little in size; not big
  • (Of letters) not written in capital letters
  • Being insignificant or minor
  • (Of a business) with few people or things; local
  • (Of voice) being soft and quiet
  • (Of a child) being young

scientific

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US / ˌsaɪənˈtɪfɪk /

UK / ˌsaɪənˈtɪfɪk /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning academic study of the physical world

either

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US / ˈaɪðə(r) /

UK / ˈiðɚ, ˈaɪðɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One of two (used when there is a choice of two)
  • adverb
  • (After negative statements) likewise, in addition
  • conjunction
  • Used as the first of two connected things
  • determiner
  • Used as the first of two connected things
  • pronoun
  • The one or the other

available

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US / əˈveɪləbl /

UK / əˈveləbəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Present and able to be used
  • Able to be used at a scheduled time

colony

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US / 'kɒlənɪ /

UK / ˈkɑləni /

B2
  • noun
  • Group (bees, etc.) that live in the same place
  • Country/settlement controlled by another country

use

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US / ju:s /

UK / ju:s /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to employ something
  • Need to enable it to work
  • Permission to do something with something
  • Act of spending money
  • Operation of a machine for its function
  • verb
  • To have; to eat, drink, consume etc.
  • To need to operate or work
  • To operate a machine, e.g. a computer
  • To treat a person badly
  • To do something with, for a task or purpose

straight

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US / streɪt /

UK / stret /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Not having curves, bends, or angles
  • Not gay; heterosexual
  • honest and direct
  • adverb
  • in a line; immediately; honestly and directly

true

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US / tru: /

UK / tru: /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Agreeing with the facts; not false; real or actual

population

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US / ˌpɒpjuˈleɪʃn /

UK / ˌpɑpjəˈleʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Number of people who live in a country, area etc.

popular

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US / ˈpɒpjələ(r) /

UK / ˈpɑ:pjələ(r) /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Liked or enjoyed by many people

survival

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US / səˈvaɪvl /

UK / sɚˈvaɪvəl /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of continuing to exist when facing difficulty

gay

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US / geɪ /

UK / ɡeɪ /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Happy and bright
  • Attracted to the same sex; homosexual; lesbian
  • noun
  • Person attracted to someone of the same sex

while

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US / waɪl /

UK / hwaɪl, waɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • In spite of the fact that; although
  • During the time that; at the same time
  • noun
  • Short amount of time

once

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US / wʌns /

UK / wʌns /

A1
  • adverb
  • One time; one instance
  • At a time in the past
  • conjunction
  • When; as soon as

four

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US / fɔ:(r) /

UK / fɔr, for /

A1
  • number
  • 4

science

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US / 'saɪəns /

UK / ˈsaɪəns /

A2
  • noun
  • Study of the physical world, based on facts

hostility

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US / hɒˈstɪləti /

UK / hɑ:ˈstɪləti /

B1
  • noun
  • Hostile action; an act of war

continue

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US / kən'tɪnju: /

UK / kənˈtɪnju /

A1
  • verb
  • To do something without stopping, or after pausing
  • To start doing again after a break, pause, or stop

political

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US / pəˈlɪtɪkl /

UK / pəˈlɪtɪkəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being active or interested in government matters
  • Diplomatic
  • Of the system of elections and government
  • Concerning government or public affairs
  • Involved in getting of power/influence in a group

number

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US / ˈnʌmbə(r) /

UK / ˈnʌmbɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Symbols such as 1, 2, 56, 793
  • Particular song or dance performed during a show
  • Total quantity or amount of things
  • verb
  • To put numbers on things
  • To assign a sequence within a group, series, set
  • To claim to be part of a larger group, series, set

ultimately

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US / ˈʌltɪmətli /

UK / ˈʌltəmɪtli /

B1
  • adverb
  • Done or considered as the final and most important

similar

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US / ˈsɪmələ(r) /

UK / ˈsɪməlɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Nearly the same; alike

statistically

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US / stə'tɪstɪklɪ /

UK / stə'tɪstɪklɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • With respect to statistics

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

analysis

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US / əˈnæləsɪs /

UK / əˈnælɪsɪs /

B1
  • noun
  • Careful study to better understand something

pheromone

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US / ˈferəməʊn /

UK / ˈferəmoʊn /

A1
  • noun
  • Substance in animals influencing related animals

family

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US / 'fæməlɪ /

UK / ˈfæmli /

A1
  • noun
  • Close group of people or organizations
  • A group of people who are related through blood
  • Group of related plants or animals

down

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US / daʊn /

UK / daʊn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being sad, sick, or unhappy
  • Not operating, working, or functioning as expected
  • adverb
  • In a sitting or lying position
  • Towards or on the ground, floor, or bottom
  • Written or copied onto a piece of paper or book
  • noun
  • A period of play in American Football
  • The soft, smooth hairs that cover a bird's body
  • preposition
  • Along something's path, course, or direction
  • Going from a higher position to a lower position
  • verb
  • To eat or drink very quickly and without stopping

dna

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US / ˌdiː en ˈeɪ /

UK / ˌdiː en ˈeɪ /

B2
  • noun
  • Chemical in living cells with genetic information

watch

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US / wɒtʃ /

UK / wɑtʃ /

A1
  • noun
  • Period of time someone is responsible for guarding
  • Device you wear on your wrist that shows the time
  • Official warning statement, e.g. of bad weather
  • verb
  • To keep in check, manage, or control something
  • To look at something for entertainment, e.g. TV
  • To guard a place or people; protect child, etc.
  • To look at carefully to work out what is happening
  • To protect and care for someone or something

sexuality

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US / ˌsekʃuˈæləti /

UK / ˌsɛkʃuˈælɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • Whether someone is homosexual or heterosexual

theory

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US / ˈθiəri /

UK / ˈθiəri, ˈθɪri /

A2
  • noun
  • Ideas or principles that explain facts or events

result

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US / rɪ'zʌlt /

UK / rɪˈzʌlt /

A2
  • noun
  • Something produced through tests or experiments
  • Final score of a competition, election or game
  • verb
  • To be the outcome of other causes and effects

believe

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US / bɪ'li:v /

UK / bɪˈliv /

A1
  • verb
  • To think or accept that something is true
  • To have a particular opinion about something

human

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US / 'hju:mən /

UK / ˈhjumən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning or characteristic of people
  • noun
  • A person; a man, woman or child

queen

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US / kwi:n /

UK / kwin /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Big, female insect that is capable of laying eggs
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • Playing card, with the image of a queen on it
  • Piece in chess has the most freedom of movement
  • Big, female insect that is capable of laying eggs
  • Female royal ruler; the wife of a king
  • Very successful woman who is the best at something

modify

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US / ˈmɒdɪfaɪ /

UK / ˈmɑ:dɪfaɪ /

B1
  • verb
  • To make minor change to something

twin

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US / twɪn /

UK / twɪn /

A2
  • noun
  • Two children born from same mother at same time
  • One of two things that closely resemble each other

prove

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US / pru:v /

UK / pruv /

A2
  • verb
  • To demonstrate truth by providing evidence

old

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US / əʊld /

UK / old /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having existed for a long time, not young or new
  • Age of a person since birth

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

everyone

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US / ˈevriwʌn /

UK / ˈɛvriˌwʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Every person; everybody

produce

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US / prə'dju:s /

UK / prəˈdus, -ˈdjus, pro- /

A1
  • noun
  • Fresh foods such as fruits and vegetables
  • verb
  • To grow something naturally
  • To make something appear
  • To manufacture something using machines
  • To control the making a movie or television show

successive

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US / səkˈsesɪv /

UK / səkˈsɛsɪv /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Happening one after another in a series

who

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US / hu: /

UK / hu /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Which person
  • Used to introduce information about people

worker

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US / ˈwɜ:kə(r) /

UK / ˈwɜ:rkə(r) /

A1
  • noun
  • Person who works

condemn

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US / kənˈdem /

UK / kənˈdɛm /

B1
  • verb
  • To say that (a building) is too unsafe to be used
  • To state strongly that person, thing is bad, wrong

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

evidence

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US / 'evɪdəns /

UK / ˈɛvɪdəns /

A1
  • noun
  • Factual proof that helps to establish the truth

orientation

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US / ˌɔ:riənˈteɪʃn /

UK / ˌɔriɛnˈteʃən, -ən-, ˌor- /

B1
  • noun
  • Where you are in a location, e.g. facing east/west
  • Process of giving information about something new
  • A person's preferences, e.g. sexual preferences

possible

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US / ˈpɒsəbl /

UK / ˈpɑsəbəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being able or appropriate for a task or purpose
  • Having a chance of happening, or being true

less

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US / les /

UK / lɛs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Smaller in amount or degree
  • adverb
  • To a smaller degree
  • noun
  • A smaller amount
  • preposition
  • With the subtraction of

predict

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US / prɪ'dɪkt /

UK / prɪˈdɪkt /

A2
  • verb
  • To guess or estimate what will or might happen

specific

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US / spəˈsɪfɪk /

UK / spɪˈsɪfɪk /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Precise; particular; just about that thing
  • Concerning one particular thing or kind of thing

body

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US / ˈbɒd.i /

UK / ˈbɑdi /

A1
  • noun
  • An object distinct from other objects
  • A group of people involved in an activity together
  • Main part of something
  • A person's physical self

average

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US / 'ævərɪdʒ /

UK / ˈævərɪdʒ, ˈævrɪdʒ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Typical or normal; usual; ordinary
  • noun
  • Total of numbers divided by the number of items
  • verb
  • To add numbers then divide by the number of items

suggest

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US / səˈdʒest /

UK / səɡˈdʒɛst, səˈdʒɛst /

A1
  • verb
  • To mention something that could be done; propose

famous

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US / 'feɪməs /

UK / ˈfeməs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Excellent
  • Widely known; recognized by many people

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

presume

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US / prɪˈzju:m /

UK / prɪˈzu:m /

A2
  • verb
  • To assume that something is true till proven false
  • To do something without having the right to do it

relative

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US / ˈrelətɪv /

UK / ˈrɛlətɪv /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Measured or considered in comparison to another
  • (Grammar) referring to words that appear earlier
  • noun
  • Members of the family
  • Humans or animals sharing the same family history

sister

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • noun
  • Female you share a parent with
  • Full-time female member of a (Christian) religion

than

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US / ðən /

UK / ðən /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to compare two things that are not equal

turn

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US / tɜ:n /

UK / tɚn /

A1
  • noun
  • Place where changing of direction happens
  • Your time or chance to perform a duty
  • Your chance to play or do in say a game
  • Unexpected change, as in the weather
  • verb
  • To become (a particular age)
  • To become a different quality, color, etc.
  • To change the direction of something, e.g. a car
  • To move in an opposite direction or position
  • To shape metal with a spinning tool

able

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US / 'eɪbl /

UK / ˈebəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Skilled; good at something
  • Having the ability to do something

discuss

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US / dɪˈskʌs /

UK / dɪˈskʌs /

A1
  • verb
  • To talk about seriously or in great detail

expose

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US / ɪk'spəʊz /

UK / ɪkˈspoʊz /

A2
  • noun
  • News article revealing secret information
  • verb
  • To make visible, without covering or protection
  • To allow light through a cameras lens onto film
  • To be talked about in the media
  • To make a secret known to the public
  • To experience something, often a harmful thing

may

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US / meɪ /

UK / me /

A1
  • noun
  • 5th month of the year
  • other
  • Used to express a desire
  • Expresses permission, possibility or probability
  • Used to show that a thing could be true

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

utero

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US / ˈjuːtərəʊ /

UK / ˈjuːtəroʊ /

A1
  • noun
  • Uterus, womb, hollow, muscular organ of the female reproductive system that contains and nourishes t

fit

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US / fɪt /

UK / fɪt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Good looking; physically attractive
  • Proper or acceptable; morally or socially correct
  • noun
  • Sudden loss of body control; attack (of crying)
  • verb
  • To install a machine, equipment etc.
  • To adjust or change to the right size or shape
  • To be the right size and shape that you want

lead

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US / li:d /

UK / lid /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being the main part in movies or plays
  • noun
  • Wire for electricity, computer, etc.; cable
  • Information that could help to solve a crime
  • Main part in a play or movie
  • Heavy, gray metal element
  • Rope used to tie something to stop it escaping
  • Act of being at the front in a race or game
  • verb
  • To show the way or guide others
  • To be at the front of a race or game
  • To travel in front of; go in advance of others

researcher

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US / rɪ'sɜ:tʃə(r) /

UK / rɪˈsətʃɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Someone who works to find new facts and ideas

rate

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US / reɪt /

UK / ret /

A1
  • noun
  • Current price or cost of something
  • Speed or frequency of events over time
  • verb
  • To assess something or consider its qualities

molecular

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US / mə'lekjələ(r) /

UK / məˈlɛkjəlɚ /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • About or caused by molecules

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

chemically

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US / 'kemɪklɪ /

UK / 'kemɪklɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • By means of a chemical process

female

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US / 'fi:meɪl /

UK / ˈfiˌmel /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Person of the sex that gives birth to babies

kind

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US / kaɪnd /

UK / kaɪnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In a caring and helpful manner
  • friendly and considerate
  • noun
  • One type of thing

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

woman

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US / ˈwʊmən /

UK / ˈwʊmən /

A1
  • noun
  • Adult female human being

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

accept

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US / ək'sept /

UK / ækˈsɛpt /

A1
  • verb
  • To agree to receive or take something offered
  • To admit that something is true or correct

genetic

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US / dʒəˈnetɪk /

UK / dʒəˈnɛtɪk /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Of, relating to, or controlled by genes

level

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US / 'levl /

UK / ˈlɛvəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • (Sports) equal to another
  • Being steady and determined (e.g. a voice)
  • noun
  • Specific height of something
  • Amount of ability you have compared to others
  • Floor or deck within a building
  • Tool used to determine if something is lying flat
  • verb
  • To aim a gun at someone
  • To destroy a building; flatten an area completely
  • To make things flat or even
  • To make a score equal to another, in sports

man

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US / mæn /

UK / mæn /

A1
  • noun
  • Humans in general, including male and female
  • An adult male human being
  • Male who acts in a masculine way; not like a woman
  • verb
  • To control or operate (a machine); be in charge of
  • To operate a machine (a boat, etc.)

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

sexual

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US / ˈsekʃuəl /

UK / ˈsɛkʃuəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Relating to men and women and their relationships
  • Of the physical activity that can produce babies

why

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US / waɪ /

UK / hwaɪ, waɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Question word to ask for a reason
  • exclamation
  • (Used to express surprise or approval)

controversy

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US / 'kɒntrəvɜ:sɪ /

UK / ˈkɑntrəˌvɚsi /

B1
  • noun
  • Strong public disagreement about something

generation

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US / ˌdʒenəˈreɪʃn /

UK / ˌdʒɛnəˈreʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Act or process of producing or causing something
  • People born and living at about the same time

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

field

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US / fi:ld /

UK / fild /

A1
  • noun
  • Area of study, such as physics or biology
  • Piece of land used to grow crops/raise animals
  • Open area of land, especially without buildings
  • Grassed area where you play some sports
  • verb
  • To respond to something or answer a question
  • To catch or stop a ball during a game

pregnancy

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US / ˈpregnənsi /

UK / ˈprɛɡnənsi /

B1
  • noun
  • When a woman carries her unborn baby inside her

die

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US / daɪ /

UK / daɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Cube with dots numbering 1-6 on it used in games
  • verb
  • To cease to function or work
  • (Of a thing) to stop being used or done
  • (Of a person) to stop living

lower

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US / 'ləʊə(r) /

UK / ˈlaʊɚ, laʊr /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • In a position more near the bottom
  • verb
  • To move something downward to the ground

ucla

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US / ˌjuː siː el ˈeɪ /

UK / /

A1
  • abbreviation
  • UCLA is an acronym

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

chromosome

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US / ˈkrəʊməsəʊm /

UK / ˈkroʊməsoʊm /

C2
  • noun
  • Cell structures that carry the genetic material

exploit

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US / ɪk'splɔɪt /

UK / ɪkˈsplɔɪt /

B1
  • noun
  • Personal journey or series of events
  • verb
  • To selfishly take advantage of or treat badly
  • To use something in a very effective manner

overall

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US / ˌəʊvər'ɔ:l /

UK / ˈovɚˌrɔl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Viewed as a whole; in general, not as details

fact

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US / fækt /

UK / fækt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that is known or proved to be true

individual

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US / ˌɪndɪˈvɪdʒuəl /

UK / ˌɪndəˈvɪdʒuəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Made for use by one single person
  • Having a distinct manner different from others
  • noun
  • Single person, looked at separately from others

strong

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US / strɒŋ /

UK / strɔŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of tea or beer) dark or thick
  • Having big muscles; physically powerful

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

resource

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US / riˈsɔ:s /

UK / ˈriˌsɔrs, -ˌsors, -ˌzɔrs, -ˌzors, rɪˈsɔrs, -ˈsors, /

A2
  • noun
  • Something that can be used profitably; asset
  • An essential supply of something
  • Resourcefulness; ability to deal with problems
  • verb
  • To obtain (e.g. oil, gas) from its source

share

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US / ʃeə(r) /

UK / ʃɛr /

A2
  • noun
  • Part-ownership in a property, business or company
  • Part of a company you own, shown by a certificate
  • verb
  • To divide something between two or more people
  • To allow others to use your things equally
  • To give information, etc. to someone

thursday

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US / ˈθɜːzdeɪ /

UK / ˈθɜːrzdeɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Fourth day of the week; the day after Wednesday

affect

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US / ə'fekt /

UK / əˈfɛkt /

A2
  • verb
  • To cause a change in something else

cooperation

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US / kəʊˌɒpəˈreɪʃn /

UK / koˌɑpəˈreʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Working together to get something done

nine

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US / naɪn /

UK / naɪn /

A1
  • number
  • 9

only

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US / ˈəunli /

UK / ˈonli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just one; just that amount or thing; not more than
  • Not very important or serious
  • Just that type of thing, person
  • Short time ago; not before a certain time
  • conjunction
  • Except; but

two

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • number
  • 2

trigger

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US / 'trɪɡə(r) /

UK / ˈtrɪɡɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Lever on a gun that you pull to fire
  • Device that starts a process
  • verb
  • To start a process off e.g. a memory

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

soldier

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US / 'səʊldʒə(r) /

UK / ˈsoldʒɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Person working in an army to fight

another

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US / əˈnʌðə(r) /

UK / əˈnʌðɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One more, but not this
  • determiner
  • One more added
  • pronoun
  • One more (thing)

environment

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US / ɪn'vaɪrənmənt /

UK / ɛnˈvaɪrənmənt, -ˈvaɪən- /

A1
  • noun
  • Natural world in which plants and animals live
  • The entire surrounding conditions of something

hurt

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US / hɜ:t /

UK / hɚt /

A1
  • noun
  • Mental, emotional, or physical pain
  • verb
  • To cause pain, damage or injury

region

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US / 'ri:dʒən /

UK / ˈridʒən /

A2
  • noun
  • Part of a country, of the world, area, etc.

genetically

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US / dʒə'netɪklɪ /

UK / dʒə'netɪklɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • Caused or controlled, or by genes

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

uncle

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US / 'ʌŋkl /

UK / ˈʌŋkəl /

A2
  • noun
  • Brother of a parent or the husband of your aunt

biological

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US / ˌbaɪəˈlɒdʒɪkl /

UK / ˌbaɪəˈlɑdʒɪkəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being related to life and living things

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

base

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US / beɪs /

UK / bes /

A2
  • noun
  • Place military personnel live, train, and operate
  • Bottom part of an object that touches a surface
  • Unit of counting, e.g. 10 for counting
  • Most important idea or ingredient to add others
  • Origin or start from which something came
  • Main place where an organization or a person works
  • verb
  • To use as the starting point or origin for
  • To have as the main location for (company, etc.)

methyl

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US / 'meθɪl /

UK / 'meθɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Belonging to the alkyl group (formula CH3)

intelligence

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US / ɪn'telɪdʒəns /

UK / ɪnˈtɛlədʒəns /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of the spying services; acting in secrecy
  • noun
  • Collection of secret information about something
  • Ability to learn things or to consider situations

propose

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US / prə'pəʊz /

UK / prəˈpoz /

A2
  • verb
  • To make an offer of marriage
  • To offer or put forward an idea for consideration

status

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US / 'steɪtəs /

UK / ˈstetəs, ˈstætəs /

A2
  • noun
  • Position or rank relative to others in a society
  • Legal position of a person or thing
  • Current state or position of a thing

far

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US / fɑ:(r) /

UK / fɑr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A long way away
  • Being a long way away
  • adverb
  • To a large degree or extent

where

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US / hwɛə /

UK / hwɛr, wɛr /

A1
  • conjunction
  • At or in the place which
  • In whatever place
  • pronoun
  • Word you use to ask the location of something

trait

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US / treɪt /

UK / tret /

C2
  • noun
  • A particular characteristic that can produce a particular type of behavior
  • Subtitles section
  • Two to six percent of people self-identify as having predominantly homosexual attractions and, while there are many social and political theories on why, what does science say? Is being gay genetic and,
  • if so, do we all have a gay gene?
  • In the nineties, two studies using the human genome project found that gay men have a higher number of homosexual relatives compared to heterosexual men and that gay siblings have similar linkages on their X chromosome, showing a high level of genetic heritability.
  • A more recent study of four hundred and nine gay siblings also found linkages in a specific region of the X chromosome labelled Xq28 and in another region of chromosome 8.
  • Furthermore a 2014 analysis of fifty years of research found gay men are more likely to have gay brothers compared to straight men and lesbian women are more likely to have lesbian sisters, further suggesting the traits are genetically linked and passed on.
  • But, if homosexuality is, in fact, genetic, doesn't this create a paradox?
  • While some gay people, still have children, overall they have 80% less children than heterosexuals, so wouldn't the genes not be passed down and eventually die out?
  • Well, a recent UCLA study used epigenetics to propose that everyone has a gay gene, but it's whether or not the attachment of a methyl group to specific regions of DNA is triggered and turns it on.
  • Epigenetics is the study of how your environment can chemically modify your genes.
  • Like, how a queen ant's nutrition and pheromones can chemically alter an ant embryo to either produce a soldier or worker ant based on what's needed for the colony.
  • The UCLA study used gay and straight male twins and found that a specific methylation pattern was closely linked to sexual orientation.
  • The model was able to predict the sexuality of men with 70% accuracy, but this data used a small subset of people, and there is some controversy around the research.
  • Ultimately, a specific gay gene has not been found, but scientific evidence does suggest that human sexual orientation is strongly linked to genetics and tightly regulated at the molecular level.
  • It's even been found that giving birth to a son increases the odds of homosexuality in the next son by 33% relative to the baseline population.
  • If an older brother is from a different mother, there is no effect seen.
  • This has led some researchers to believe that male pregnancy triggers a biological mechanism that affects the mother's successive births.
  • A meta-analysis also found that statistically, homosexual men have more older brothers than heterosexual men.
  • Another study found that women exposed to high levels of testosterone in utero have higher rates of being not straight.
  • So, why does this happen?
  • The gay uncle hypothesis suggests that gay members of a family that don't reproduce still increase the prevalence of their family's genes in future generations by helping to provide resources for offspring that they're related to.
  • After all, it's not just survival of the fittest individual, but the fittest family.
  • Studies also show that there are lower levels of hostility and higher levels of emotional intelligence, compassion and cooperation in gay men, which may also increase altruism and survival in human groups.
  • Another hypothesis suggests that genes from homosexuality are ultimately coding for attraction meaning female relatives of gay men who share the same gene will also have stronger attractions to men, providing an evolutionary advantage.
  • And, studies have shown that these females have more babies on average.
  • The same would be true of lesbians and their straight male relatives.
  • The famous scientist E.O. Wilson once said "Homosexuality gives advantages to the group.
  • A society that condemns homosexuality condemns itself." Historically, science has not been kind to the queer community.
  • In the past, it was generally accepted that the brains and bodies of homosexuals were presumed to be of lower status, with a popular belief that homosexual behaviour was a result of defective development.
  • Even some LGBTQ2S people fear that scientific research could "other" the community and be used to exploit or hurt people.
  • Even from the available research, it's clear that most studies only focus on gay men and neglect other groups.
  • But more research on the genetic and epigenetic factors of homosexuality will decrease homophobic laws around the world by further proving that being gay is not a choice.
  • But, could we ever genetically get rid of homosexuality?
  • Watch our second video where we discuss if it's possible and the implications of continued study into this field.
  • And subscribe for more weekly science videos every Thursday.