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Is Bigger Better?

Video vocabulary

incredible

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US / ɪnˈkredəbl /

UK / ɪnˈkrɛdəbəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very good; amazing
  • Really good; amazing; great
  • Very hard to believe

kill

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US / kɪl /

UK / kɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Animal killed by a person or other animal
  • verb
  • To cause someone to experience a lot of pain
  • To end the life of a person or other living thing
  • To be very funny
  • To prevent something from continuing or operating
  • To do something unimportant to pass time quickly

mass

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US / mæs /

UK / mæs /

B1
  • noun
  • Religious ceremony in some Christian churches
  • Large amount or number of something
  • Main or largest part of something
  • Large number of people considered as a whole
  • Amount of matter that an object has
  • verb
  • To gather people or things into a large group

bulk

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US / bʌlk /

UK / bʌlk /

B1
  • noun
  • Most of something; majority of
  • Big size; largeness; heaviness

grow

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US / ɡrəʊ /

UK / ɡro /

A1
  • verb
  • To get bigger and more mature; make plants do this
  • To improve; to develop better skills over time
  • To develop and become bigger or taller over time

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

awesome

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US / 'ɔ:səm /

UK / ˈɔsəm /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Great; wonderful; stupendous

much

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US / mʌtʃ /

UK / mʌtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very; to a high level or degree
  • adverb
  • A lot; large amount; a high degree of
  • Nearly; basically
  • On many occasions; often
  • noun
  • A large amount; a great quantity

strong

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US / strɒŋ /

UK / strɔŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of tea or beer) dark or thick
  • Having big muscles; physically powerful

animal

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US / ˈænɪml /

UK / ˈænəməl /

A1
  • noun
  • A living creature that is not a plant or person

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

load

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US / ləʊd /

UK / lod /

A2
  • noun
  • Large, often heavy, amount of a thing to be moved
  • A burden; heavy responsibility
  • Many or much of something; a lot of
  • Items that fill a truck, machine
  • verb
  • To put in items for use (e.g. bullets in a gun)

talk

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US / tɔ:k /

UK / tɔk /

A1
  • noun
  • Style of speaking
  • Discussion between two countries
  • Giving information in front of people; lecture
  • Saying things or ideas to someone with words
  • verb
  • To make a formal speech about something
  • To say things or ideas to someone with words

counteract

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US / ˌkaʊntərˈækt /

UK / ˌkaʊntɚˈækt /

C1
  • verb
  • To reduce the impact doing something opposite

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

penetrate

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US / ˈpenɪtreɪt /

UK / ˈpɛnɪˌtret /

B1
  • verb
  • To enter or pass through something
  • To gain a market in a new area or country
  • To spread through many parts of something
  • To gain an understanding of something

ray

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US / reɪ /

UK / re /

B1
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • Lines of light coming from an object
  • Fish with a pointed tail and flat body

through

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US / θru: /

UK / θru /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • having finished using or doing something
  • adverb
  • From the beginning of something until the end
  • preposition
  • Over, in, across an entire thing or place
  • Allowing you to pass between, or to
  • By a particular way or process; by the use of

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

why

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US / waɪ /

UK / hwaɪ, waɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Question word to ask for a reason
  • exclamation
  • (Used to express surprise or approval)

wind

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US / wɪnd /

UK / wɪnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • (Musical instruments) that you blow into to play
  • noun
  • A current of air moving approximately horizontally, especially one strong enough to be felt
  • Something that has influence
  • verb
  • If a road, path, or river winds, it follows a route that turns repeatedly in different directions
  • To turn or cause something to turn
  • To twist around something

joint

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US / dʒɔɪnt /

UK / dʒɔɪnt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Shared; involving working together; in common
  • noun
  • Body parts where bones meet and can move together
  • Point at which two things meet (e.g. a road)
  • A club or restaurant; place where you are

leverage

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US / 'li:vərɪdʒ /

UK / ˈlɛvərɪdʒ, ˈlivə- /

B2
  • noun
  • An advantage which gives you influence or power
  • verb
  • To use an advantage which gives you influence

suffocate

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US / ˈsʌfəkeɪt /

UK / ˈsʌfəˌket /

C1
  • verb
  • To (cause to) die from lack of air to breathe
  • To stop a thing developing, e.g. by too many rules

breathing

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US / ˈbri:ðɪŋ /

UK / ˈbriðɪŋ /

A2
  • verb
  • To move air into and out of your lungs
  • To say something very softly
  • To stop moving so one can rest

check

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US / tʃek /

UK / tʃɛk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Decorated with squares made up of lines
  • noun
  • Paper showing how much you owe at a restaurant
  • Printed piece of paper you sign to pay for things
  • A mark on a form, equivalent to 'yes'; tick
  • Mark used to show that something is correct
  • Procedure to prevent errors or control something
  • verb
  • To confirm the details of something are correct
  • To leave your things with staff who look after it
  • To examine something to see if something is wrong
  • To examine in order to prevent errors/a problem

mouse

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US / maʊs /

UK / maʊs /

A2
  • noun
  • Small animal that has fur and a long tail
  • Computer device to control movement on a screen
  • Quiet, shy person

those

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US / ðəʊz /

UK / ðoz /

A1
  • determiner
  • The people or things we are talking about
  • pronoun
  • The objects far from the speaker

dive

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US / daɪv /

UK / daɪv /

B1
  • noun
  • Restaurant, bar or club with a bad reputation
  • Rapid fall through air
  • A jump into water head-first from a high place
  • Rapid fall in the value or price of something
  • verb
  • To swim deep under water with an air supply
  • To rapid fall through air
  • To jump into water head-first
  • (Of prices) to rapidly fall

effort

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US / ˈefət /

UK / ˈɛfət /

A2
  • noun
  • Amount of work used trying to do something

exoskeleton

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US / ˈeksəʊskelɪtn /

UK / ˌɛksoˈskɛlɪtn /

A1
  • noun
  • Exterior protective or supporting structure or shell of many animals (especially invertebrates) incl

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

layer

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US / ˈleiə /

UK / ˈleɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • One of several sheets of a material or object
  • verb
  • To put things one on top of another

another

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US / əˈnʌðə(r) /

UK / əˈnʌðɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One more, but not this
  • determiner
  • One more added
  • pronoun
  • One more (thing)

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

cameron

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US / 'kæmərəz /

UK / 'kæmərəz /

A1

large

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US / lɑ:dʒ /

UK / lɑ:rdʒ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Big; of great size; broad, tall, wide, or fat

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

secret

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US / 'si:krət /

UK / 'si:krət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • That you don't want others to know; private
  • noun
  • Information you do not want others to know

anything

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US / ˈeniθɪŋ /

UK / ˈɛniˌθɪŋ /

A1
  • pronoun
  • A thing of any kind

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

share

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US / ʃeə(r) /

UK / ʃɛr /

A2
  • noun
  • Part-ownership in a property, business or company
  • Part of a company you own, shown by a certificate
  • verb
  • To divide something between two or more people
  • To allow others to use your things equally
  • To give information, etc. to someone

couple

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US / 'kʌpl /

UK / ˈkʌpəl /

A2
  • noun
  • Two people in a romantic relationship
  • Two of something; two people; a pair
  • verb
  • To join something to something else
  • (Two animals) to engage in sexual relations
  • To put two people or things together

keep

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US / ki:p /

UK / kip /

A1
  • noun
  • Large, strong tower in the middle of a castle
  • Money spent on you so you can live in a place
  • verb
  • To continue doing something; not to stop
  • To stop balls going in a goal in sports
  • To not give back or return something
  • (Of food) to not spoil or not rot
  • To take possession of something to own, e.g. a pet
  • To have and continue to hold something
  • To do something that you have promised or agreed
  • To stay in a certain place or condition
  • To maintain the rules

something

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US / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

UK / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In some degree or measure
  • noun
  • a person or thing of some value or consequence
  • pronoun
  • Thing that is not yet known or named
  • Approximately

typically

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US / ˈtɪpɪkli /

UK / ˈtɪpɪklɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • In a normal or usual way

call

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US / kɔ:l /

UK / kɔl /

A1
  • noun
  • A order or request for action
  • The sound an animal makes, often when in danger
  • A correct prediction, e.g. a decision in a game
  • A short visit to a place or person
  • A decision by a referee or umpire in a game
  • verb
  • To make a request or order for action
  • (Animal) to make sounds to warn of danger
  • To announce the date of an election
  • To make a judgment about something
  • To give someone or something a name
  • To guess in advance the result or outcome
  • To visit a place or person for a short time
  • To phone someone
  • To speak, announce or shout in a loud voice

far

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US / fɑ:(r) /

UK / fɑr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A long way away
  • Being a long way away
  • adverb
  • To a large degree or extent

hoist

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US / hɔɪst /

UK / hɔɪst /

B2
  • noun
  • Piece of machinery with ropes, used for lifting
  • verb
  • To raise something with the help of machinery

height

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US / haɪt /

UK / haɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Distance of something from the bottom to the top

ten

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US / ten /

UK / tɛn /

A1
  • number
  • 10

directly

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US / dəˈrektli /

UK / dɪˈrɛktli, daɪ- /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a frank and honest way
  • Right away; immediately

first

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US / fɜ:st /

UK / fɚst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 1st; Coming before all others in time or place
  • noun
  • Something that has not happened before
  • Position of the winner of a competition

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

hard

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US / hɑ:d /

UK / hɑː(r)d /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Difficult to do; difficult to understand
  • (Of facts) not able to be misunderstood; clear
  • (Of alcohol) strong
  • Involving or requiring lots of work, effort, care
  • Being full of pain, trouble, and problems
  • Strong
  • (Of edge) clear; sharp
  • Difficult to bend, break or cut; solid
  • adverb
  • With lots of force, power, or impact

force

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US / fɔ:s /

UK / fɔrs, fors /

A1
  • noun
  • Group of persons trained for military action; army
  • Pressure; attraction
  • The use of physical strength/violence to persuade
  • verb
  • To use physical strength or violence to persuade

snorkel

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US / 'snɔ:kl /

UK / 'snɔ:rkl /

C2
  • noun
  • A tube used for breathing when swimming
  • verb
  • To swim underwater using a breathing tube

then

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US / ðen /

UK / ðɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • A time that is not now
  • Following another thing in time or arrangement
  • Following on reasonably from what was just stated
  • At that time, not now

colbert

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US / ˈkoʊlbərt /

UK / /

A1
  • other
  • Butter creamed with parsley and tarragon and beef extract

own

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US / əʊn /

UK / on /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Belong to oneself
  • determiner
  • Yours, his, hers, etc.; not belonging to another
  • pronoun
  • (Something) belong to myself
  • verb
  • To have something as your property

essentially

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US / ɪˈsenʃəli /

UK / ɪˈsenʃəli /

A2
  • adverb
  • Basically; (said when stating the basic facts)

she

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US / ʃɪ /

UK / ʃi /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Female person or animal mentioned before
  • (Refers to female person mentioned before)

again

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US / ə'ɡen /

UK / əˈɡɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • One more time, once more

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

people

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US / 'pi:pl /

UK / ˈpipəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Persons sharing culture, country, background, etc.
  • Men, Women, Children

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

storey

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US / 'stɔ:rɪ /

UK / ˈstɔri, ˈstori /

B1
  • noun
  • One of many floors or levels in a building

case

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US / keɪs /

UK / kes /

A1
  • noun
  • Container used to carry things, e.g. clothes
  • Set of facts about a crime
  • Set of facts about an event
  • Example or instance of something
  • verb
  • To find out about a place, as in planning to steal

barely

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US / ˈbɛəli /

UK / ˈbɛrli /

A2
  • adverb
  • Only just; just possible

enough

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US / ɪˈnʌf /

UK / ɪˈnʌf /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Sufficient to answer the need
  • adverb
  • To a satisfactory degree
  • pronoun
  • Equal to what is needed; as much as required
  • Adequate number or amount

oxygen

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US / 'ɒksɪdʒən /

UK / ˈɑksɪdʒən /

B1
  • noun
  • A gas in the air that we need to breathe

mean

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US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular meaning or value

require

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US / rɪ'kwaɪə(r) /

UK / rɪˈkwaɪr /

A2
  • verb
  • To demand that someone does something
  • To need to do something, to make it necessary

shrink

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US / ʃrɪŋk /

UK / ʃrɪŋk /

B1
  • noun
  • A rude name for a psychiatrist
  • other
  • To make something smaller than it was before
  • verb
  • To become smaller
  • To make or become smaller than it was before

tend

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US / tend /

UK / tɛnd /

A2
  • verb
  • To move or act in a certain manner
  • To take care of
  • To regularly behave in a certain way

cell

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US / sel /

UK / sɛl /

A2
  • noun
  • Smallest unit of living things in biology
  • Group of people - often from a secret organization
  • Prisoner's room in a jail
  • Shortened form of 'cellphone'

air

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US / eə(r) /

UK / er /

A1
  • noun
  • Mixture of gases around the earth that we breathe
  • A person's manner intended to impress others
  • verb
  • To expose to the outside, to dry or freshen
  • To broadcast a TV or radio show
  • To open a subject to discussion and debate

collaboration

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US / kəˌlæbəˈreɪʃn /

UK / kəˌlæbəˈreɪʃn /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of working with someone to complete a task

fantastic

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US / fænˈtæstɪk /

UK / fænˈtæstɪk /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Strange or unusual in design or appearance
  • Very large, fast or great
  • Hard to believe; amazing

notice

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US / 'nəʊtɪs /

UK / ˈnotɪs /

A1
  • noun
  • Time by when you must leave, e.g. if you are fired
  • Paper with an announcement, e.g. pinned to a board
  • verb
  • To become aware by sight, touch, or hearing

cover

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US / 'kʌvə(r) /

UK / ˈkʌvɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • A different version of another song
  • Bed sheets; blankets
  • (Police or military) protection from attack
  • Amount of money to be paid in an insurance claim
  • Thing you put over something to close or hide it
  • Front and back part of a book or magazine
  • Shelter built to protect from the natural elements
  • verb
  • To record a different version of another song
  • To include as part of its area
  • To put something over something to hide it
  • To discuss a subject in a talk or meeting
  • To form a layer over something so it is hidden
  • To have sufficient funds to pay for something
  • To include something within an agreed limit
  • To report news on TV, radio or in a newspaper
  • (Police or military) to protect from attack
  • To travel a certain distance in a given time
  • To wrap something with something, such as a cloth

extra

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US / 'ekstrə /

UK / 'ekstrə /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • More than necessary; additional
  • noun
  • Items more than you need; additional items
  • Person who has a small part in a movie
  • Special version of a newspaper

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

lung

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US / lʌŋ /

UK / lʌŋ /

B1
  • noun
  • One of the two organs we use to breathe

outer

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US / ˈaʊtə(r) /

UK / ˈaʊtɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Far away
  • Being farther away from the center
  • On or around something; away from the center

prior

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US / 'praɪə(r) /

UK / ˈpraɪɚ /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Existing or coming earlier in time
  • (Of a claim, etc.) more important than another one
  • noun
  • Monk or priest in charge of a monastery

without

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US / wɪˈðaʊt /

UK / wɪðˈaʊt, wɪθ- /

A1
  • preposition
  • Not with; not having

muscle

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US / 'mʌsl /

UK / ˈmʌsəl /

A2
  • noun
  • Physical power
  • Body tissue that moves parts of the body
  • verb
  • To use or muscles of force to get what you want

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

boost

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US / bu:st /

UK / bust /

B1
  • noun
  • An increase in something
  • verb
  • To increase something; to make something better
  • To push someone or something up from beneath them

hole

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US / həʊl /

UK / hol /

A2
  • noun
  • An empty space, as in the ground, in a sock etc.
  • Fault or weakness in a plan, idea or explanation
  • Opening into or through something
  • An awkward or difficult situation
  • Dirty or unpleasant place with poor facilities
  • verb
  • (Golf) to get the ball into the hole

often

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US / ˈɔfən /

UK / ˈɔfən,ˈɑfən,ˈɔftən,ˈɑf- /

A1
  • adverb
  • Many times; frequently; on many occasions

quickly

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US / ˈkwɪkli /

UK / ˈkwɪklɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Without taking a lot of time; fast

problem

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US / ˈprɒbləm /

UK / ˈprɑbləm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Causing trouble
  • noun
  • Something difficult to deal with or causes trouble
  • Question to show understanding of a math concept

blood

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US / blʌd /

UK / blʌd /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Related by birth; family
  • noun
  • Red liquid in the bodies of people and animals
  • verb
  • To be initiated into something, e.g. a secret club

oxygenate

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US / ˈɒksɪdʒəneɪt /

UK / ˈɑːksɪdʒəneɪt /

C2
  • verb
  • To treat or combine with oxygen

spider

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US / ˈspaɪdə(r) /

UK / ˈspaɪdɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Small creature with 8 legs that spins cobwebs

low

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US / ləʊ /

UK / lo /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having a small quantity, supply, or amount
  • Being unhappy or unpleasant in attitude
  • Not high; being near the ground, or bottom
  • (Of a voice, sound) being soft; quiet
  • noun
  • Situation of not having a lot of something

relatively

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US / ˈrelətɪvli /

UK / ˈrɛlətɪvlɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • In a manner comparing something to something else

manage

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US / ˈmænɪdʒ /

UK / ˈmænɪdʒ /

A1
  • verb
  • To survive hardships and difficulties; to cope
  • To run or operate a business by directing others

sheep

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US / ʃi:p /

UK / ʃip /

B1
  • noun
  • Animal with a woolly coat raised for meat or wool
  • Person who behaves as others do, without thinking

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

description

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US / dɪˈskrɪpʃn /

UK / dɪˈskrɪpʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Explanation of what something is like, looks like

shrunk

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US / ʃrʌŋk /

UK / ʃrʌŋk /

B1
  • verb
  • To become smaller
  • To make or become smaller than it was before

scale

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US / skeɪl /

UK / skel /

A2
  • noun
  • Size, level, or amount when compared
  • Small hard plates that cover the body of fish
  • Device that is used to weigh a person or thing
  • Range of numbers from the lowest to the highest
  • Dimensions or size of something
  • verb
  • To change the size of but keep the proportions
  • To climb something large (e.g. a mountain)
  • To remove the scales of a fish

whether

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US / ˈweðə(r) /

UK / ˈhwɛðɚ, ˈwɛð- /

A1
  • conjunction
  • If something will happen or not

minute

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US / 'mɪnɪt /

UK / ˈmɪnɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very very small
  • noun
  • Notes taken at a meeting to record what was said
  • Short period of time
  • Unit of time equal to 60 seconds
  • verb
  • To record in writing what is said at a meeting

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

opening

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US / ˈəʊpnɪŋ /

UK / ˈoʊpnɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • Free job; job you can apply for
  • Action of starting something, e.g. a new business
  • verb
  • To make accessible or able to be used, e.g. road
  • To start the activities or services of a business
  • To make a space or hole appear in something
  • To move or change so that it is no longer closed
  • To start something, e.g. a new business

our

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to us

now

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US / naʊ /

UK / naʊ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At the present time or moment
  • Right away or in the next possible moment
  • Used to refer to something that just happened
  • Time between the present and a moment in the past
  • conjunction
  • Resulting from or because of something

operate

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US / ˈɒpəreɪt /

UK / ˈɑ:pəreɪt /

A1
  • verb
  • To control or handle something, such as a machine
  • To control or manage something such as a business
  • To be working or being used
  • To perform surgery on someone

breathe

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US / bri:ð /

UK / brið /

A2
  • verb
  • To move air into and out of your lungs
  • To say something very softly
  • To stop moving so one can rest

skeleton

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US / ˈskelɪtn /

UK / ˈskɛlɪtn /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Outline of the basic of main part of something
  • noun
  • Structure of bones that supports the body
  • Frame that provides support for e.g. a building
  • Extremely bony or thin person or animal

apparatus

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US / ˌæpə'reɪtəs /

UK / ˌæpəˈretəs, -ˈrætəs /

B1
  • noun
  • Tools or instruments used for a specific activity

attach

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US / ə'tætʃ /

UK / əˈtætʃ /

A2
  • verb
  • To be associated or connected with

carry

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US / ˈkæri /

UK / ˈkæri /

A1
  • verb
  • To have a child, be pregnant
  • To have a disease you might give to others
  • (Of stores) to sell a particular product
  • To hold something and move it to another place
  • To travel a long distance (sound)
  • To support the weight or burden of something

internal

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US / inˈtə:nəl /

UK / ɪnˈtɚnəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being or happening in the body
  • Being, happening in a country, state, organization
  • Within or inside; interior; not external

tiny

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US / 'taɪnɪ /

UK / ˈtaɪni /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very, very small

bone

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US / bəʊn /

UK / bon /

A1
  • noun
  • Hard piece of your body that holds your muscles
  • verb
  • To remove bones from meat or fish

excited

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US / ɪkˈsaɪtɪd /

UK / ɪkˈsaɪtɪd /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Happy, interested or eager; enthusiastic
  • verb
  • To make something or someone become more active
  • To make someone feel happy, interested or eager

would

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate something imagined
  • Used to ask or request something politely
  • Verb used to indicate possibility, request etc.
  • Used to indicate a preference
  • Used to indicate a reaction
  • Indicates something that occurred repeatedly
  • Used to indicate willingness or ability to do

video

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US / 'vɪdɪəʊ /

UK / ˈvɪdiˌo /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of a moving film, with sound
  • noun
  • Recording capturing action with sound
  • verb
  • To make a moving film of, with sound

want

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US / wɔnt /

UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

weight

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US / weɪt /

UK / wet /

A2
  • noun
  • How heavy something is
  • Metal object to measure how heavy something is
  • Importance, power, and influence person, thing has
  • A source of worry, sadness, or emotional stress

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

fellow

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US / 'feləʊ /

UK / ˈfɛlo /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being of the same kind
  • noun
  • Man or a boy
  • Student paid to study and teach after college

good

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US / ɡʊd /

UK / ɡʊd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper, appropriate or right
  • (Of an amount) enough; plenty
  • Excellent; high quality
  • Acting well or properly; of moral character
  • In a positive or happy emotional state
  • noun
  • Advantage or benefit

single

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US / 'sɪŋɡl /

UK / ˈsɪŋɡəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being one only, without others
  • Only; merely
  • Not married or in a relationship
  • noun
  • One run in cricket or a hit baseball
  • An individual song from a CD or album
  • Person who is not married or in a relationship

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

bug

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US / bʌɡ /

UK / bʌɡ /

B1
  • noun
  • An insect
  • Problem in the functioning of computer code
  • Electronic device to spy on someone
  • verb
  • To bother someone
  • To hide an electronic device to spy on someone

fast

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US / fɑ:st /

UK / fæst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In a way that is difficult to move or change
  • Moving or able to move quickly
  • Showing time that is later than the actual time
  • adverb
  • With a great deal of speed
  • noun
  • Period of time when a person chooses not to eat
  • verb
  • To refuse food for a long time

its

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US / ɪts /

UK / ɪts /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to or belonging to ‘it’
  • determiner
  • Of something; belonging or related to something
  • other
  • Possessive form of “it”

super

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US / ˈsu:pə(r) /

UK / ˈsupɚ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Of the highest quality; great; marvelous

critter

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US / ˈkrɪtə(r) /

UK / ˈkrɪtɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Regional term for 'creature' (especially for domestic animals)

heavy

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US / 'hevɪ /

UK / ˈhɛvi /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Greater in amount, degree, or severity than usual
  • Involving serious or strong emotions
  • Having a lot of weight

work

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US / wɜ:k /

UK / wɚk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Activity completed in order to make money
  • noun
  • The product of some artistic or literary endeavor
  • Everything created by an author, artist, musician
  • Activity you do in order to make money
  • Place of employment
  • Final product or result of a some labor or effort
  • verb
  • To bring into a specific state of success
  • To be functioning properly, e.g. a car
  • To do your job in your company or workplace
  • To make an effort to do something
  • To operate a machine or device

elephant

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US / ˈelɪfənt /

UK / ˈɛləfənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Large gray animal with a long nose and two tusks

else

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US / els /

UK / ɛls /

A1
  • adverb
  • Otherwise; if you fail to
  • (Of person place thing etc.) besides; in addition

passively

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US / 'pæsɪvlɪ /

UK / 'pæsɪvlɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • So as to quietly accept what happens

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

absorb

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US / əb'sɔ:b /

UK / əbˈsɔrb, -ˈzɔrb /

B1
  • verb
  • To take up all attention / energy of something
  • To take in a liquid; soak up

otherwise

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US / ˈʌðəwaiz /

UK / ˈʌðɚˌwaɪz /

A2
  • adverb
  • In an additional or different way
  • Unless; or

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

volume

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US / ˈvɒlju:m /

UK / ˈvɑljum, -jəm /

A2
  • noun
  • Number or amount of something e.g. sales
  • Amount of space that something takes up
  • One book that is part of a set of books
  • Level of sound produced by radio or television

red

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US / red /

UK / rɛd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being the color of blood

collab

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US / kɒ'læb /

UK / kɒ'læb /

A1
  • intransitive verb
  • Collaborate on a project.
  • noun
  • A collaboration.

oppose

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US / əˈpəʊz /

UK / əˈpoʊz /

A2
  • verb
  • To fight against someone in a contest or game

pretty

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US / 'prɪtɪ /

UK / ˈprɪti /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being attractive to the eye in a simple way
  • adverb
  • Very; to a great degree

crucial

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US / 'kru:ʃl /

UK / ˈkruʃəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Extremely important or necessary

link

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US / lɪŋk /

UK / lɪŋk /

A2
  • noun
  • Any one of the rings that are part of a chain
  • Connection between two or more things or people
  • Webpage item you click to go to another webpage
  • verb
  • To join or connect together

self

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US / self /

UK / sɛlf /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's own interests or desires
  • Person that someone really is
  • Particular aspect of someone's personality
  • Person, usually someone already been mentioned

rabbit

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US / ˈræbɪt /

UK / ˈræbɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Type of small animal with long ears and four legs

take

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US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
  • verb
  • To accept something that is offered
  • To use a method of traveling, e.g. a bus or train
  • To use a camera to make (a photo)
  • To pick up something and go away with it
  • To study a subject in school
  • To attempt to pass (an exam)
  • To require a certain amount of time, money, space

area

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US / 'eərɪə /

UK / ˈɛriə /

A1
  • noun
  • Amount of measured space
  • A specific section or space; part of a region
  • A subject or field of study

plus

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US / plʌs /

UK / plʌs /

A2
  • noun
  • A benefit or advantage
  • preposition
  • In addition; add
  • In addition to; Indicates a number above
  • Having a value greater than zero

too

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition, also; with emphasis
  • Say that something is more than you want

lose

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US / lu:z /

UK / luz /

A1
  • verb
  • To be unable to keep in check or control something
  • To decrease in value or quantity (e.g. weight)
  • To stop having certain qualities or abilities
  • To stop having or being entitled to
  • To fail to win something that is being contested
  • To be unable to find something you once had
  • To be dependent on someone (used with 'not')

small

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US / smɔ:l /

UK / smɔl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Little in size; not big
  • (Of letters) not written in capital letters
  • Being insignificant or minor
  • (Of a business) with few people or things; local
  • (Of voice) being soft and quiet
  • (Of a child) being young

thick

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US / θɪk /

UK / θɪk /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Difficult to see through, as fog
  • Full of (people, etc.)
  • (Of a liquid) that moves or pours slowly
  • Stupid; not smart
  • (Of person's accent) hard to understand
  • Having a large distance between two surfaces

popular

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US / ˈpɒpjələ(r) /

UK / ˈpɑ:pjələ(r) /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Liked or enjoyed by many people

science

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US / 'saɪəns /

UK / ˈsaɪəns /

A2
  • noun
  • Study of the physical world, based on facts

actually

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US / ˈæktʃuəli /

UK / ˈæktʃuəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to add new (often different) information

use

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US / ju:s /

UK / ju:s /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to employ something
  • Need to enable it to work
  • Permission to do something with something
  • Act of spending money
  • Operation of a machine for its function
  • verb
  • To have; to eat, drink, consume etc.
  • To need to operate or work
  • To operate a machine, e.g. a computer
  • To treat a person badly
  • To do something with, for a task or purpose

ant

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US / ænt /

UK / ænt /

B1
  • noun
  • Insect with six legs that lives in large groups

itself

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US / ɪtˈself /

UK / ɪtˈsɛlf /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Referring to it

many

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US / 'menɪ /

UK / ˈmɛni /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer a large number of things

four

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US / fɔ:(r) /

UK / fɔr, for /

A1
  • number
  • 4

probably

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US / ˈprɒbəbli /

UK / ˈprɑbəbli /

A1
  • adverb
  • That is likely to happen or be true

while

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US / waɪl /

UK / hwaɪl, waɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • In spite of the fact that; although
  • During the time that; at the same time
  • noun
  • Short amount of time

big

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US / bɪɡ /

UK / bɪɡ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Popular
  • Serious
  • Large

easily

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US / ˈi:zəli /

UK / ˈizəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Clearly; without doubt; certainly
  • Without difficulty

let

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US / let /

UK / lɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To allow someone to do something
  • Introducing a suggestion to do something together
  • To rent a house, etc. to others

little

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US / 'lɪtl /

UK / ˈlɪtl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being short in length of time
  • Not great in size, amount, or degree; small
  • Being very young or younger than others
  • adverb
  • By an amount or degree that is not very much
  • Not often; rarely
  • noun
  • A person's name

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

bale

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US / beɪl /

UK / bel /

B2
  • noun
  • Large amount of material wrapped or tied together
  • verb
  • To make something into a bale shape

fine

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US / faɪn /

UK / faɪn /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Good, acceptable or satisfactory
  • Of high quality; made with great skill
  • In a careful or exact manner; into small pieces
  • Being of high quality
  • Good; okay; no problem
  • (Of weather) good; not raining
  • noun
  • Money you have to pay because you broke a rule
  • verb
  • To pay money because you broke a law

lover

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US / 'lʌvə(r) /

UK / ˈlʌvɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Someone's romantic and often sexual partner
  • Someone having a great interest in something
  • Person who loves someone or is loved by someone

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

love

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US / lʌv /

UK / lʌv /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • A very strong feeling of affection
  • The person you care very deeply about
  • Strong, deep emotional and sexual attraction
  • verb
  • To care for and like someone very strongly, deeply
  • To like doing very much; enjoy greatly
  • To feel a strong emotional and romantic attraction

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

one

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  • You; we; people in general; someone
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strength

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giant

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follow

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attribute

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surface

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annie

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epic

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shine

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  • Introduction to Video Content
  • Is Bigger Better?In the natural world, strength is typically associated with size. However, there are exceptions to this rule that challenge our understanding of strength and scaling. One such exception is the leafcutter ant, a tiny creature that can effortlessly carry objects ten times its own weight. How is this possible?Contrary to popular belief, the ant's incredible strength is not solely attributed to the physics of scaling. While scaling does play a role, there is another secret weapon that makes these ants super strong – their exoskeletons.An exoskeleton is a rigid external covering found in insects, spiders, and other creatures. It serves multiple purposes, one of which is providing large surface areas for muscles to attach to. This allows insects to have numerous smaller muscles working a single joint, providing them with extraordinary strength and agility. In contrast, animals with internal skeletons typically have fewer, larger muscles at each joint.Furthermore, exoskeletons enable insects to attach their muscles relatively far from the joints they operate, minimizing effort and maximizing efficiency. In contrast, internal skeletons force muscles to be attached closer to the joints, reducing leverage and requiring more energy expenditure. This key difference in muscle attachment provides insects with a significant advantage in terms of strength and mobility.Additionally, exoskeletons also play a crucial role in an insect's respiratory system. They help facilitate the exchange of gases, allowing insects to efficiently take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide. This is vital for sustaining the powerful muscles necessary for their impressive feats of strength.So, while elephants and other large animals rely on thick muscles and bones to support their immense size, ants have evolved a different strategy. Their exoskeletons, with their unique structural and physiological advantages, allow them to achieve remarkable strength without the need for excessive bulk.In conclusion, the leafcutter ant demonstrates that strength is not solely determined by size. By harnessing the capabilities of their exoskeletons, these small creatures defy our expectations and showcase the incredible potential of nature's design.
  • Subtitles section
  • An elephant can barely carry its own weight, but a leafcutter ant can easily hoist something ten times heavier than itself.
  • The ant's incredible strength is typically attributed to the physics of scaling, but there's actually another secret weapon that makes them super strong.
  • Their exoskeletons.
  • Hi, I'm Cameron and this is MinuteEarth.
  • Let's talk about scaling for a minute.
  • Say you're a sheep and you can just barely manage to lift this hay bale.
  • If we took a shrink ray and shrunk you and the hay bale to a quarter of your height, shockingly you'd now be able to lift four of those hay bales.
  • That's because you'd be relatively stronger than your prior self.
  • As you got smaller, you'd lose weight faster than you'd lose strength.
  • But you still wouldn't be as strong as an ant, because ants, as you've probably noticed, are not just shrunken elephants, sheep, or anything else.
  • Large animals, like elephants, have relatively thick muscles and bones to counteract all of that mass, but ants don't need all that extra bulk.
  • Plus, they have exoskeletons.
  • First, an exoskeleton, whether on an insect, spider, or anything else that has one, provides large surface areas for muscles to attach to.
  • So insects can have many smaller muscles working a single joint, as opposed to animals with internal skeletons which often just have a couple of big muscles at a single joint.
  • What's more, exoskeletons tend to allow insects' muscles to be attached relatively far from the joints they operate, which makes using those muscles pretty low effort.
  • However, internal skeletons often force muscles to be attached closer to those joints, allowing the muscles less leverage and requiring more effort.
  • Exoskeletons also help insects breathe, which is crucial for keeping those strong muscles going.
  • We have lungs that absorb oxygen and then load it into red blood cells that carry oxygen to our muscles.
  • However, when our muscles are working hard, they can use oxygen faster than our blood can carry it.
  • Thus, we get winded.
  • Insects don't have this problem.
  • Their abdomens are covered in little openings that connect to tiny snorkels called trachea which allow air to directly oxygenate their muscles.
  • So if exoskeletons make animals so strong, why don't big animals have them?
  • Well, passively getting your oxygen through your exoskeleton works just fine for smaller animals, but larger critters have so much more volume that oxygen can't passively penetrate deep enough into their bodies quickly enough.
  • Essentially, an elephant in shining armor would suffocate.
  • Also, exoskeletons can't grow.
  • Because they have a non-living outer layer, they need to be shed.
  • Because an animal's exoskeleton is basically its breathing apparatus, animals can't take in oxygen while molting those exoskeletons.
  • That means that the bigger an exoskeleton-clad animal is, the longer it takes to molt, and the longer it has to go without oxygen.
  • Which again means that a big animal would likely suffocate.
  • While the exoskeleton provides a strength boost to tiny animals, it would handicap or even kill anything much larger than a mouse in most cases.
  • And that's probably a good thing.
  • Otherwise, we wouldn't be calling these ants, we would be calling them giant ants.
  • Sharing our love for awesome science stories, geeking out about bugs, and working with awesome people is what we live for, which is why we are so excited that we got to collab with our fellow science lovers at Popular Science on this video.
  • This is Annie Colbert, Editor-in-Chief of Popular Science, and it was fantastic to work with MinuteEarth too.
  • If you liked this video and you want to dive even deeper into the exoskeleton rabbit hole, follow the link in the description to check out the other half of this epic collaboration on PopSci.com.