Subtitles section
Repeat sentence
Subtitles mode
Full screen
Previous
Next
x 1.0
Playback speed
More

Scientists grow synthetic human embryo without eggs, sperm, or womb

Video vocabulary

access

Copy vocabulary

US / 'ækses /

UK / ˈæksɛs /

A2
  • noun
  • Way to enter a place, e.g. a station or stadium
  • verb
  • To be able to use or have permission to use

derive

Copy vocabulary

US / dɪˈraɪv /

UK / dɪˈraɪv /

B1
  • verb
  • To come from another thing

then

Copy vocabulary

US / ðen /

UK / ðɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • A time that is not now
  • Following another thing in time or arrangement
  • Following on reasonably from what was just stated
  • At that time, not now

each

Copy vocabulary

US / i:tʃ /

UK / itʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Every one of two or more things
  • pronoun
  • Per one person or thing

cell

Copy vocabulary

US / sel /

UK / sɛl /

A2
  • noun
  • Smallest unit of living things in biology
  • Group of people - often from a secret organization
  • Prisoner's room in a jail
  • Shortened form of 'cellphone'

ethical

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈeθɪkl /

UK / ˈɛθɪkəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Morally right; following principles of goodness
  • Involving the choice between right and wrong

happen

Copy vocabulary

US / 'hæpən /

UK / ˈhæpən /

A1
  • verb
  • To take place or occur

big

Copy vocabulary

US / bɪɡ /

UK / bɪɡ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Popular
  • Serious
  • Large

might

Copy vocabulary

US / maɪt /

UK / maɪt /

A1
  • other
  • Used to politely request an action
  • Used to express that something could happen
  • Power, strength, force or influence

material

Copy vocabulary

US / məˈtɪəriəl /

UK / məˈtɪriəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Relevant; (of evidence) important or significant
  • Belonging to the world of physical things
  • noun
  • Cloth; fabric
  • Supplies or data needed to do a certain thing
  • Substance from which a thing is made of

the

Copy vocabulary

US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

goal

Copy vocabulary

US / ɡəʊl /

UK / ɡol /

A2
  • noun
  • Something you try to do or achieve; an aim
  • (Sports) net into which you put a ball to score
  • (Sports) act of scoring by putting a ball in a net

protocol

Copy vocabulary

US / 'prəʊtəkɒl /

UK / ˈprotəˌkɔl, -ˌkol, -ˌkɑl /

B1
  • noun
  • Written agreement between countries
  • Set of rules computers use to exchange data
  • Set of rules regarding correct procedure

into

Copy vocabulary

US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

turn

Copy vocabulary

US / tɜ:n /

UK / tɚn /

A1
  • noun
  • Place where changing of direction happens
  • Your time or chance to perform a duty
  • Your chance to play or do in say a game
  • Unexpected change, as in the weather
  • verb
  • To become (a particular age)
  • To become a different quality, color, etc.
  • To change the direction of something, e.g. a car
  • To move in an opposite direction or position
  • To shape metal with a spinning tool

also

Copy vocabulary

US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

alternative

Copy vocabulary

US / ɔ:lˈtɜ:nətɪv /

UK / ɔlˈtɚnətɪv, æl- /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • A different choice
  • noun
  • Something different you can choose

five

Copy vocabulary

US / faɪv /

UK / faɪv /

A1
  • number
  • 5

hormone

Copy vocabulary

US / 'hɔ:məʊn /

UK / ˈhɔrˌmon /

B2
  • noun
  • Chemical produced by the body to control functions

how

Copy vocabulary

US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

kind

Copy vocabulary

US / kaɪnd /

UK / kaɪnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In a caring and helpful manner
  • friendly and considerate
  • noun
  • One type of thing

therefore

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈðeəfɔ:(r) /

UK / ˈðerfɔ:(r) /

A1
  • adverb
  • And so; for that reason

year

Copy vocabulary

US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

you

Copy vocabulary

US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

half

Copy vocabulary

US / hɑ:f /

UK / hæf, hɑf /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not complete
  • adverb
  • Partly; somewhat
  • noun
  • One of two equal periods of game time in a sport
  • The part you get when one is divided into two;

state

Copy vocabulary

US / steɪt /

UK / stet /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning region within a country
  • noun
  • Region within a country, with its own government
  • Situation or condition something is in
  • verb
  • To say; declare as fact

uterus

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈju:tərəs /

UK / ˈjutərəs /

C1
  • noun
  • Inside part of female animals where young develop

this

Copy vocabulary

US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

make

Copy vocabulary

US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

outside

Copy vocabulary

US / ˌaʊtˈsaɪd /

UK / aʊtˈsaɪd, ˈaʊtˌsaɪd /

A2
  • adverb
  • Beyond the limits or edges of some place, thing
  • noun
  • Area around or near something, such as a building
  • preposition
  • Beyond the limits or edges of some place, thing

all

Copy vocabulary

US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

correctly

Copy vocabulary

US / kə'rektlɪ /

UK / kəˈrɛktlɪ /

A2
  • adverb
  • In an accurate or correct manner

similar

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈsɪmələ(r) /

UK / ˈsɪməlɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Nearly the same; alike

baby

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈbeɪbi /

UK / ˈbeɪbi /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Small in size; smaller than usual
  • noun
  • A very young child, who cannot yet speak
  • verb
  • To treat someone as if they were newly born

week

Copy vocabulary

US / wi:k /

UK / wik /

A1
  • noun
  • Period of seven days from Sunday to Saturday

that

Copy vocabulary

US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

what

Copy vocabulary

US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

label

Copy vocabulary

US / 'leɪbl /

UK / ˈlebəl /

A2
  • noun
  • A (luxury) brand owned by a company
  • A word or term used to describe a person, thing
  • A piece of paper or material to identify something
  • verb
  • To use a term to describe, often negatively
  • To attach material to identify something

migrate

Copy vocabulary

US / maɪˈgreɪt /

UK / ˈmaɪgreɪt /

B1
  • verb
  • To move from one country or place to live or work

even

Copy vocabulary

US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

again

Copy vocabulary

US / ə'ɡen /

UK / əˈɡɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • One more time, once more

about

Copy vocabulary

US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

mean

Copy vocabulary

US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular meaning or value

expand

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪk'spænd /

UK / ɪkˈspænd /

A2
  • verb
  • To make something larger in size, number, amount

medium

Copy vocabulary

US / 'mi:dɪəm /

UK / ˈmidiəm /

A2
  • noun
  • Method of expressing ideas or feelings
  • Something available in a middle size or condition
  • Person who claims to communicate with the dead

get

Copy vocabulary

US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

stem

Copy vocabulary

US / stem /

UK / stɛm /

B1
  • noun
  • Long thin central part of a plant, bearing leaves
  • Long thin part supporting something e.g. a light
  • Main part of a word, e.g. 'use' in 'useful'
  • verb
  • To remove the stem of a flower or fruit
  • To start from or be the origin of
  • To stop something bad from spreading or developing

small

Copy vocabulary

US / smɔ:l /

UK / smɔl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Little in size; not big
  • (Of letters) not written in capital letters
  • Being insignificant or minor
  • (Of a business) with few people or things; local
  • (Of voice) being soft and quiet
  • (Of a child) being young

try

Copy vocabulary

US / traɪ /

UK / traɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of putting the ball over the rugby goal line
  • verb
  • To make an effort, to attempt to do something
  • To examine someone or something in a court of law
  • To test to see if it is good or you like it
  • To make a person go through hardship; test
  • To examine something to see if it works

drug

Copy vocabulary

US / drʌɡ /

UK / drʌɡ /

A2
  • noun
  • Illegal substance taken for effect on the mind
  • Chemical used as a medicine
  • verb
  • To give drugs to someone to make them sleep

forth

Copy vocabulary

US / fɔ:θ /

UK / fɔrθ, forθ /

B1
  • adverb
  • So as to be seen; out
  • Outward or forward in space, time

gene

Copy vocabulary

US / dʒi:n /

UK / dʒin /

B1
  • noun
  • Part of cell controlling development of a thing

ever

Copy vocabulary

US / 'evə(r) /

UK / ˈɛvɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At any time; at all times in the future

embryo

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈembriəʊ /

UK / ˈɛmbriˌo /

B2
  • noun
  • Tiny plant stored inside a seed
  • Early form of an unborn human or animal

day

Copy vocabulary

US / deɪ /

UK / de /

A1
  • noun
  • A period of 24 hours beginning at midnight
  • The period of time when it is light outside
  • Person's name

sort

Copy vocabulary

US / sɔ:t /

UK / sɔrt /

A1
  • noun
  • Group or class of similar things or people
  • verb
  • To organize things by putting them into groups
  • To deal with things in an organized way

use

Copy vocabulary

US / ju:s /

UK / ju:s /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to employ something
  • Need to enable it to work
  • Permission to do something with something
  • Act of spending money
  • Operation of a machine for its function
  • verb
  • To have; to eat, drink, consume etc.
  • To need to operate or work
  • To operate a machine, e.g. a computer
  • To treat a person badly
  • To do something with, for a task or purpose

actually

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈæktʃuəli /

UK / ˈæktʃuəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to add new (often different) information

normal

Copy vocabulary

US / 'nɔ:ml /

UK / ˈnɔrməl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Standard or regular way of doing something
  • Having standard mental or physical ability, health

knowledge

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈnɒlɪdʒ /

UK / ˈnɑlɪdʒ /

A1
  • noun
  • Information, understanding, or skill

concern

Copy vocabulary

US / kənˈsɜ:n /

UK / kənˈsɚn /

A2
  • noun
  • Company, firm or business
  • Feeling of worry or anxiety
  • verb
  • To be about a particular topic
  • To have a direct impact on someone
  • To be responsible or mixed up in; to be involved
  • To feel worry or anxiety

mouse

Copy vocabulary

US / maʊs /

UK / maʊs /

A2
  • noun
  • Small animal that has fur and a long tail
  • Computer device to control movement on a screen
  • Quiet, shy person

test

Copy vocabulary

US / test /

UK / test /

A1
  • noun
  • A medical examination
  • Action to establish the truth or nature of
  • Examination; questions to measure knowledge
  • verb
  • To be given a medical examination
  • To try to establish the truth or nature of
  • To ask a series of questions to measure knowledge

start

Copy vocabulary

US / stɑ:t /

UK / stɑrt /

A1
  • noun
  • First time or place that a thing exists; beginning
  • First opportunity to achieve something, e.g. a job
  • Sudden action or movement because you are scared
  • other
  • Beginning of something in place or time
  • verb
  • To do, be or happen for the first time; begin
  • To turn something on

source

Copy vocabulary

US / sɔ:s /

UK / sɔrs, sors /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Produces or provides what is wanted or needed
  • noun
  • Piece of information; a person giving information
  • Place from which something necessary comes
  • verb
  • To get, e.g. a raw material, from somewhere

correct

Copy vocabulary

US / kə'rekt /

UK / kəˈrɛkt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being suitable and appropriate for an occasion
  • True or accurate
  • verb
  • To fix a problem
  • To write marks on a piece of work to show mistakes
  • To punish in order to improve

differentiate

Copy vocabulary

US / ˌdɪfə'renʃɪeɪt /

UK / ˌdɪfəˈrɛnʃiˌet /

B1
  • verb
  • To see or show how things are not the same

talk

Copy vocabulary

US / tɔ:k /

UK / tɔk /

A1
  • noun
  • Style of speaking
  • Discussion between two countries
  • Giving information in front of people; lecture
  • Saying things or ideas to someone with words
  • verb
  • To make a formal speech about something
  • To say things or ideas to someone with words

technology

Copy vocabulary

US / tek'nɒlədʒɪ /

UK / tɛkˈnɑlədʒi /

A2
  • noun
  • Use or knowledge of science in industry etc.

just

Copy vocabulary

US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

time

Copy vocabulary

US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

short

Copy vocabulary

US / ʃɔ:t /

UK / ʃɔrt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Less than what is needed
  • Suddenly stopping what you are saying or doing
  • verb
  • (Of electric circuit) to spark because faulty
  • adjecitve
  • Measuring a small distance
  • Happening for a small amount of time
  • Unfriendly or rude

donate

Copy vocabulary

US / dəʊ'neɪt /

UK / ˈdoˌnet, doˈnet /

B1
  • verb
  • To give money, etc. to charity, party, etc.

for

Copy vocabulary

US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

period

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈpɪəriəd /

UK / ˈpɪriəd /

A1
  • noun
  • Set amount of time during which events take place
  • A way to emphasize what you will say
  • A full stop (.), marking the end of a sentence
  • A menstrual cycle
  • A set time for a class to be held

special

Copy vocabulary

US / 'speʃl /

UK / ˈspɛʃəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being additional or extra
  • Different, better or greater than normal
  • noun
  • Heavily discounted sales item

pregnancy

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈpregnənsi /

UK / ˈprɛɡnənsi /

B1
  • noun
  • When a woman carries her unborn baby inside her

black

Copy vocabulary

US / blæk /

UK / blæk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Color of the sky on a dark night
  • noun
  • A person with dark skin, often of African origin
  • Person's name
  • verb
  • To fill in something to make it a very dark color

such

Copy vocabulary

US / sʌtʃ /

UK / sʌtʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Being similar to
  • (Thing) as previously stated or referred to
  • adverb
  • (Used to emphasize the quality of an adjective)

put

Copy vocabulary

US / pʊt /

UK / pʊt /

A1
  • phrasal verb
  • to make a light stop shining by pressing or moving a switch
  • verb
  • To move or place a thing in a particular position
  • To rate something in importance or value
  • To write or say something in a certain manner

nine

Copy vocabulary

US / naɪn /

UK / naɪn /

A1
  • number
  • 9

only

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈəunli /

UK / ˈonli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just one; just that amount or thing; not more than
  • Not very important or serious
  • Just that type of thing, person
  • Short time ago; not before a certain time
  • conjunction
  • Except; but

real

Copy vocabulary

US / rɪəl /

UK / ˈriəl, ril /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Actually existing or happening, not imagined
  • Being important or special

environment

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪn'vaɪrənmənt /

UK / ɛnˈvaɪrənmənt, -ˈvaɪən- /

A1
  • noun
  • Natural world in which plants and animals live
  • The entire surrounding conditions of something

emphasize

Copy vocabulary

US / 'emfəsaɪz /

UK / ˈɛmfəˌsaɪz /

B2
  • verb
  • To stress the items that are important

where

Copy vocabulary

US / hwɛə /

UK / hwɛr, wɛr /

A1
  • conjunction
  • At or in the place which
  • In whatever place
  • pronoun
  • Word you use to ask the location of something

knock

Copy vocabulary

US / nɒk /

UK / nɑk /

A2
  • noun
  • Bad experience that reduces a person's confidence
  • Action of something solid hitting something hard
  • verb
  • To criticize someone in an unreasonable way
  • To hit something to get people's attention
  • To strike something hard, causing damage

far

Copy vocabulary

US / fɑ:(r) /

UK / fɑr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A long way away
  • Being a long way away
  • adverb
  • To a large degree or extent

call

Copy vocabulary

US / kɔ:l /

UK / kɔl /

A1
  • noun
  • A order or request for action
  • The sound an animal makes, often when in danger
  • A correct prediction, e.g. a decision in a game
  • A short visit to a place or person
  • A decision by a referee or umpire in a game
  • verb
  • To make a request or order for action
  • (Animal) to make sounds to warn of danger
  • To announce the date of an election
  • To make a judgment about something
  • To give someone or something a name
  • To guess in advance the result or outcome
  • To visit a place or person for a short time
  • To phone someone
  • To speak, announce or shout in a loud voice

lot

Copy vocabulary

US / lɒt /

UK / lɑt /

A1
  • noun
  • What happens to a person in life from chance; fate
  • A group of people seen together
  • Item for sale at an auction
  • Small area of land used for a purpose e.g. parking

back

Copy vocabulary

US / bæk /

UK / bæk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Farthest from the front e.g. in a classroom
  • adverb
  • Have returned to a place you were before
  • noun
  • The part of a chair that the upper body leans upon
  • Location at the rear of something
  • The reverse of side something
  • Area on the rear of your body
  • verb
  • To bet money on something
  • To go backwards in a car
  • To support and encourage someone or some cause

and

Copy vocabulary

US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

most

Copy vocabulary

US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

early

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈɜ:li /

UK / ˈɜ:rli /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Happening or appearing before
  • adverb
  • Coming/happening before others in a time sequence
  • Happening sooner than expected

out

Copy vocabulary

US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

from

Copy vocabulary

US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

differentiation

Copy vocabulary

US / ˌdɪfəˌrenʃɪ'eɪʃn /

UK / ˌdɪfəˌrɛnʃiˈeʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Difference between things different and distinct

think

Copy vocabulary

US / θɪŋk /

UK / θɪŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To have an idea about something without certainty
  • To have an idea, opinion or belief about something

skin

Copy vocabulary

US / skɪn /

UK / skɪn /

A2
  • noun
  • Outer covering of an animal used for leather; hide
  • Outer covering of a fruit or vegetable
  • Outer layer of an animal or human
  • Outer part of an object, such as a plane
  • verb
  • To defeat someone easily and completely
  • To hurt yourself, accidentally cutting yourself
  • To remove the outer covering from an animal

its

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪts /

UK / ɪts /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to or belonging to ‘it’
  • determiner
  • Of something; belonging or related to something
  • other
  • Possessive form of “it”

human

Copy vocabulary

US / 'hju:mən /

UK / ˈhjumən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning or characteristic of people
  • noun
  • A person; a man, woman or child

they

Copy vocabulary

US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

very

Copy vocabulary

US / 'verɪ /

UK / ˈvɛri /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a large degree or amount
  • adverb
  • A lot; much; many
  • Used to stress or emphasize a noun

ago

Copy vocabulary

US / əˈgəʊ /

UK / əˈgoʊ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a specified length of time in the past

useful

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈju:sfl /

UK / ˈjusfəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • That can help with a particular task

naive

Copy vocabulary

US / naɪˈi:v /

UK / nɑˈiv /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Unsophisticated; innocent and unknowing

take

Copy vocabulary

US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
  • verb
  • To accept something that is offered
  • To use a method of traveling, e.g. a bus or train
  • To use a camera to make (a photo)
  • To pick up something and go away with it
  • To study a subject in school
  • To attempt to pass (an exam)
  • To require a certain amount of time, money, space

controllable

Copy vocabulary

US / kənˈtrəʊləbl /

UK / kənˈtroʊləbl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Able to be managed

model

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈmɒdl /

UK / ˈmɑ:dl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being an excellent example of
  • noun
  • Person who wears fashion to show it to the public
  • A small scale copy of a full original
  • verb
  • To wear and display clothes at a fashion show
  • To make a small scale copy of a full original

month

Copy vocabulary

US / mʌnθ /

UK / mʌnθ /

A1
  • noun
  • One of 12 28-31 day periods in the year

could

Copy vocabulary

US / kəd /

UK / kʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Past form of 'can' to mean have ability
  • Used to ask for something politely, or to offer

know

Copy vocabulary

US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

with

Copy vocabulary

US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

transplant

Copy vocabulary

US / trænsˈplɑ:nt /

UK / trænsˈplænt /

B2
  • noun
  • A medical operation to replace organs of the body
  • verb
  • To replace organ in the body by an operation

see

Copy vocabulary

US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

almost

Copy vocabulary

US / 'ɔ:lməʊst /

UK / ˈɔlˌmost, ɔlˈmost /

A1
  • adverb
  • Only a little less than, nearly, not quite

have

Copy vocabulary

US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

identical

Copy vocabulary

US / aɪˈdentɪkl /

UK / aɪˈdɛntɪkəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • The same in every way

end

Copy vocabulary

US / end /

UK / ɛnd /

A1
  • noun
  • The point where a process or activity stops
  • A point that marks the limit of something; finish
  • Goal or desired result
  • The tip, edge or limit of something
  • verb
  • To be the last part of something

engineer

Copy vocabulary

US / ˌendʒɪ'nɪə(r) /

UK / ˌɛndʒəˈnɪr /

A2
  • noun
  • Someone whose job is designing machines, buildings
  • Someone whose job is to repair or maintain engines

can

Copy vocabulary

US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

establish

Copy vocabulary

US / ɪˈstæblɪʃ /

UK / ɪˈstæblɪʃ /

A2
  • verb
  • To set or create something to last for a long time
  • To use facts, evidence to show truth or clarity

justify

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈdʒʌstɪfaɪ /

UK / ˈdʒʌstəˌfaɪ /

B1
  • verb
  • To give good reasons for something

box

Copy vocabulary

US / bɒks /

UK / bɑ:ks /

A1
  • noun
  • A marked area of a baseball field
  • A container with four straight sides and a lid
  • Area of seating in a theater separated from others
  • A 4 sided container or shape printed on a page
  • Entire amount of something inside a container
  • verb
  • To strike someone on the side of the head
  • To pack an object in a six-sided container
  • To fight with gloved hands as a sport

really

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈri:əli /

UK / ˈriəˌli, ˈrili /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to stress something that is said; definitely
  • In a true or accurate manner
  • Very

study

Copy vocabulary

US / 'stʌdɪ /

UK / ˈstʌdi /

A1
  • noun
  • Room that a person studies or reads in
  • Piece of research
  • Topic or subject you research or learn about
  • verb
  • To focus on learning something usually at school

bypass

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈbaɪpɑ:s /

UK / ˈbaɪˌpæs /

B2
  • noun
  • A road that goes around a town or village
  • verb
  • To go around something; avoid

limitation

Copy vocabulary

US / ˌlɪmɪˈteɪʃn /

UK / ˌlɪmɪˈteʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of controlling or reducing the size of

organ

Copy vocabulary

US / 'ɔ:ɡən /

UK / ˈɔrɡən /

B1
  • noun
  • Part of a person's body with a particular function
  • Large institution or body
  • Large wind instrument similar to a piano

structure

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈstrʌk.tʃə /

UK / ˈstrʌk.tʃɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • The way in which the parts of a system or object are arranged or organized, or a system arranged in
  • verb
  • To plan, organize, or arrange the parts of something

want

Copy vocabulary

US / wɔnt /

UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

development

Copy vocabulary

US / dɪ'veləpmənt /

UK / dɪˈvɛləpmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Act or process of growing bigger or more advanced
  • A new event related to a previous event

not

Copy vocabulary

US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

our

Copy vocabulary

US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to us

maybe

Copy vocabulary

US / ˈmeɪbi /

UK / ˈmebi /

A1
  • adverb
  • Possibly but not certainly; perhaps

themselves

Copy vocabulary

US / ðəmˈselvz /

UK / ðɛmˈsɛlvz, ðəm- /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Reflexive form of 'they'

whole

Copy vocabulary

US / həul /

UK / hol /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Complete or full; all of
  • Being in a good condition
  • noun
  • Complete amount or sum; total

formation

Copy vocabulary

US / fɔ:ˈmeɪʃn /

UK / fɔ:rˈmeɪʃn /

B1
  • noun
  • Process of creating; making a particular shape
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • Scientists have successfully grown a synthetic human embryo without the need for eggs, sperm, or a womb. The experiment involved using human stem cells that were derived from donated early embryos or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which are created by reprogramming adult skin cells back into a stem cell state. These techniques are well-established in the field. The researchers placed the stem cells in a specially formulated media, which stimulated their growth and development to an early embryonic stage known as the 'naive' state. Each aggregate of 120 cells was able to differentiate correctly and organize itself into the appropriate structures in around 1% of cases. The experiment progressed up to day 14 of human embryo development, which is when most organs begin to form. Understanding this critical period of organ formation is challenging due to the limitations in studying human embryos, as they are both small and ethically restricted. Therefore, the objective of this research is to create alternative models of human embryos using stem cells. These models can be engineered and manipulated to investigate the crucial roles of different hormones and genes in organ development. By improving the differentiation protocol used in these embryo models, researchers hope to uncover valuable cells that could potentially be transplanted or used for drug testing purposes.
  • Subtitles section
  • What we did, we took human stem cells that were derived years ago from donated early embryos or what's called IPS cells, cells that are taken from the skin and turned back into a stem cell state.
  • These are very established technologies.
  • And what we do this time is we put them in a special media that takes them to really, really early stages, what we call naive.
  • So we have to use these human naive stem cells.
  • And then we put each aggregate of 120 cells.
  • And again, in about 1% of the aggregates, we can see that they start, cells start differentiating correctly, migrating and sorting themselves into the correct structure.
  • And the farthest we could get is day 14 in human embryo development.
  • The human embryo makes all its organs basically by week five of pregnancy.
  • And we really don't know a lot.
  • It's a black box of how organ formation happens.
  • And it's almost impossible to study this period because the embryo is very small.
  • There are justified ethical limitations to really access such material.
  • Therefore, the goal is really, can we bypass and create some kind of alternative model from cells, from stem cells and try to make a model for a human embryo.
  • By making these models, and that are very similar, and we can start with stem cells that are engineered, labeled, knock out a gene and so forth, so we can really know which hormones and which genes are important for which organ.
  • And from that knowledge, we can try and go back and improve our differentiation protocol.
  • And maybe actually in these embryo models, which is in the end some kind of a differentiation protocols, there might be some cells that are useful actually that you can take and transplant or take them and expand them and transplant them or take them and test drugs on them and so forth.
  • So they could be also themselves as a source of cells.
  • I don't think we can ever really make a real identical embryo just because in the end, the uterus environment is really the most normal environment and it's controllable.
  • I want to emphasize that if you're talking about trying to make a whole baby pregnancy outside the uterus, that is just impossible because the human embryo is very big.
  • Pregnancy is nine months.
  • I mean, even in mouse where pregnancy is very short and the embryo are very small, we can only do so far 10 and a half days.
  • So that is not, it's not that it's not our goal.
  • It's actually also impossible and there are no concerns about that at all.