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Breaking down the Supreme Court's ruling ending affirmative action in college admissions

Video vocabulary

ripcord

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US / ˈrɪpkɔ:d /

UK / ˈrɪpkɔ:rd /

A1
  • noun
  • Cord that is pulled to open a parachute

amendment

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US / əˈmendmənt /

UK / əˈmɛndmənt /

B1
  • noun
  • A change, addition, or improvement to something

analyst

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US / ˈænəlɪst /

UK / ˈænəlɪst /

B1
  • noun
  • Someone who is skilled at studying details of data

policy

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US / 'pɒləsɪ /

UK / ˈpɑlɪsi /

A2
  • noun
  • Document stating terms of an insurance agreement
  • Course of action proposed by an organization, etc.

skin

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US / skɪn /

UK / skɪn /

A2
  • noun
  • Outer covering of an animal used for leather; hide
  • Outer covering of a fruit or vegetable
  • Outer layer of an animal or human
  • Outer part of an object, such as a plane
  • verb
  • To defeat someone easily and completely
  • To hurt yourself, accidentally cutting yourself
  • To remove the outer covering from an animal

newshour

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US / /

UK / /

A1

think

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US / θɪŋk /

UK / θɪŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To have an idea about something without certainty
  • To have an idea, opinion or belief about something

carolina

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US / ˌkærə'laɪnə /

UK / ˌkærə'laɪnə /

A1
  • noun
  • Area of the states of North Carolina and South Carolina

finally

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US / ˈfaɪnəli /

UK / ˈfaɪnəli /

A1
  • adverb
  • used especially at the beginning of a sentence to introduce the last point or idea
  • After a long time or some difficulty

keep

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US / ki:p /

UK / kip /

A1
  • noun
  • Large, strong tower in the middle of a castle
  • Money spent on you so you can live in a place
  • verb
  • To continue doing something; not to stop
  • To stop balls going in a goal in sports
  • To not give back or return something
  • (Of food) to not spoil or not rot
  • To take possession of something to own, e.g. a pet
  • To have and continue to hold something
  • To do something that you have promised or agreed
  • To stay in a certain place or condition
  • To maintain the rules

something

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US / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

UK / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In some degree or measure
  • noun
  • a person or thing of some value or consequence
  • pronoun
  • Thing that is not yet known or named
  • Approximately

abandon

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US / ə'bændən /

UK / əˈbændən /

B1
  • noun
  • Wild, carefree behavior
  • verb
  • To discard or intentionally get rid of an item
  • To withdraw your support, or leave someone
  • To stop doing or having (hope, plans); give up
  • To leave a place, car and not go back
  • To surrender to a desire, with little self-control

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

inspiration

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US / ˌɪnspə'reɪʃn /

UK / ˌɪnspəˈreʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Force making you feel you can do things, succeed

ignore

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US / ɪɡ'nɔ:(r) /

UK / ɪɡˈnɔr, -ˈnor /

A2
  • verb
  • To not listen to, look at, or pay attention to

major

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US / 'meɪdʒə(r) /

UK / ˈmedʒɚ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Main league; esp. referring to American baseball
  • Important, serious, or large in scope, size
  • noun
  • High-ranking officer in the army
  • Main subject you study at university
  • verb
  • To study a particular subject at university

leave

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US / li:v /

UK / liv /

A1
  • noun
  • Permission to do something
  • Vacation time; time off work
  • verb
  • To go away from; depart
  • To gift property to someone after you die
  • To allow something to continue happening
  • To let something remain unused or available
  • To let something or someone remain somewhere

afoul

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US / əˈfaʊl /

UK / əˈfaʊl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Especially of a ship's lines etc.

afternoon

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US / ˌɑ:ftəˈnu:n /

UK / ˌæftərˈnu:n /

A1
  • noun
  • Time after 12:00 and before the evening meal

college

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US / 'kɒlɪdʒ /

UK / 'kɑːlɪdʒ /

A2
  • noun
  • School or educational institution for adults

participate

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US / pɑ:ˈtɪsɪpeɪt /

UK / pɑ:rˈtɪsɪpeɪt /

B1
  • verb
  • To take part with others in doing something

along

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US / əˈlɒŋ /

UK / əˈlɔ:ŋ /

A1
  • adverb
  • As a companion; taken with someone
  • preposition
  • At a point on a line

essay

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US / 'eseɪ /

UK / ˈɛsˌe, ɛˈse /

B1
  • noun
  • Short piece of written opinion on a subject

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

majority

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US / mə'dʒɒrətɪ /

UK / məˈdʒɔrɪti, -ˈdʒɑr- /

B1
  • noun
  • Amount that is more than half of a group

recuse

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US / /

UK / /

A1
  • noun
  • Challenge or except to a judge as being incompetent or interested, in canon and civil law

school

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US / sku:l /

UK / skul /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being to do with schools and education
  • noun
  • Large group of fish that swim together
  • Education of a child
  • Building where you learn in classes with a teacher
  • A particular belief or idea about something
  • verb
  • To teach or train someone to know or do something

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

affirmative

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US / əˈfɜ:mətɪv /

UK / əˈfɜ:rmətɪv /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Saying 'yes'; confirming; agreeing to

constitution

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US / ˌkɔnstiˈtju:ʃən /

UK / ˌkɑnstɪˈtuʃən, -ˈtju- /

B1
  • noun
  • Statement of fundamental principles of a country
  • Condition of your health
  • Different parts that make something

coverage

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US / ˈkʌvərɪdʒ /

UK / ˈkʌvərɪdʒ /

A2
  • noun
  • Type of programs a radio or TV station broadcasts

sonia

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US / ˈsɒnjə /

UK / ˈsoʊnjə /

A1

john

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US / dʒɔn /

UK / dʒɑn /

A1
  • noun
  • A toilet.
  • A prostitute's client.
  • proper noun
  • (1165–1216), son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine; king of England 1199–1216; known as John Lack
  • The name of six kings of Portugal.

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

open

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US / 'əʊpən /

UK / ˈopən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Available for use; accessible
  • Not being hidden; available for others to see
  • Being available for customers to enter or use
  • Allowing everyone to use or take part in
  • Not secret anymore
  • Not closed or shut
  • Willing to accept new ideas and thoughts
  • noun
  • Name for a tennis or golf competition
  • verb
  • To make accessible or able to be used, e.g. road
  • To start the activities or services of a business
  • To make a space or hole appear in something
  • To move or change so that it is no longer closed
  • To start something, e.g. a new business

pull

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US / pʊl /

UK / pʊl /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of breathing in smoke, as from a pipe
  • Force something has that draws other things to it
  • Using your hands to move something to you
  • verb
  • To breathe in smoke, as from a pipe
  • To hold something and move it toward you
  • To remove something by force

body

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US / ˈbɒd.i /

UK / ˈbɑdi /

A1
  • noun
  • An object distinct from other objects
  • A group of people involved in an activity together
  • Main part of something
  • A person's physical self

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

order

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US / 'ɔ:də(r) /

UK / ˈɔrdɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Religious or social group, as of nuns
  • Instructions to others to do what you want
  • State in which things are neat and organized
  • What you ask to buy, e.g. food in restaurant
  • Social or political control of an area
  • verb
  • To put things in a sequence, e.g. a, b, c
  • To give instructions to others to do what you want
  • To ask for something you want to buy, e.g. a meal

obliviousness

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US / /

UK / /

B2
  • noun
  • State of not having realized/remembered something

run

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US / rʌn /

UK / rʌn /

A1
  • noun
  • Journey between two places made by ship or car
  • Series of similar things or successes and failures
  • Act of running; exercise of running
  • verb
  • To depart or travel according to a schedule
  • To cause an animal to move in a certain direction
  • (Of an engine) to be operating
  • To start or use a computer program
  • To flow in a certain direction, like a liquid
  • To manage or operate a business
  • To operate or drive something
  • (Of a road) to go from one place to another
  • To move your legs faster than walking

believe

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US / bɪ'li:v /

UK / bɪˈliv /

A1
  • verb
  • To think or accept that something is true
  • To have a particular opinion about something

bit

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US / bɪt /

UK / bɪt /

A1
  • noun
  • Device put in a horse's mouth to control it
  • Small piece of something
  • verb
  • (E.g. of fish) to take bait and be caught

country

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US / ˈkʌntri /

UK / ˈkʌntri /

A1
  • noun
  • An area of land that is controlled by a government
  • Open land that is away from towns and cities

nice

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US / naɪs /

UK / naɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being attractive or of high quality or value
  • Good or enjoyable
  • Being kind or friendly

thank

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US / θæŋk /

UK / θæŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To tell someone you are grateful to them

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

america

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US / ə'merɪkə /

UK / əˈmɛrɪkə /

A1
  • noun
  • The United States of America; North America and/or South America

court

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US / kɔ:t /

UK / kɔrt, kort /

A2
  • noun
  • Place king or queen meet people, makes laws etc.
  • Place where legal cases are decided
  • Large, flat area, to play tennis or basketball
  • verb
  • To act in a way to shows you wish to marry someone
  • To encourage dangerous behavior
  • To pay attention to someone to get their support

identity

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US / aɪ'dentətɪ /

UK / aɪˈdɛntɪti /

B1
  • noun
  • Collection of qualities that makes a person

severe

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US / sɪ'vɪə(r) /

UK / səˈvɪr /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very bad; harsh
  • Being very serious or extremely bad
  • (Of clothes, etc.) plain; simple; not decorated

supreme

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US / su:ˈpri:m /

UK / sʊˈprim /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Greatest in degree/nature/quality; absolute best
  • Holding the highest power, status or authority

racial

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US / ˈreɪʃl /

UK / ˈreʃəl /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Of or relating to race

underrepresented

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US / ˌʌndəreprɪ'zentɪd /

UK / ˌʌndəˌreprɪ'zentɪd /

C2
  • adjecitve
  • Insufficient amount of support or representation

take

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US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
  • verb
  • To accept something that is offered
  • To use a method of traveling, e.g. a bus or train
  • To use a camera to make (a photo)
  • To pick up something and go away with it
  • To study a subject in school
  • To attempt to pass (an exam)
  • To require a certain amount of time, money, space

case

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US / keɪs /

UK / kes /

A1
  • noun
  • Container used to carry things, e.g. clothes
  • Set of facts about a crime
  • Set of facts about an event
  • Example or instance of something
  • verb
  • To find out about a place, as in planning to steal

colorblind

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US / 'kɒlərblaɪnd /

UK / 'kɒlərblaɪnd /

A1
  • other

crown

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US / kraʊn /

UK / kraʊn /

B1
  • noun
  • A gold ring put on a King or Queen’s head
  • An artificial cap on a tooth
  • Top part of something
  • other
  • To put a crown on to make someone a king/queen
  • verb
  • To officially give someone the winners title
  • To be made king or queen of a country
  • To be at the top of something

great

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US / ɡreɪt /

UK / ɡret /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very large in size
  • Very important
  • Very good; fantastic; wonderful
  • adverb
  • Very good; better than before
  • noun
  • Successful and well-admired person

lesson

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US / 'lesn /

UK / ˈlɛsən /

A1
  • noun
  • Something done to learn or teach something; class
  • Wisdom or knowledge received from an experience

mean

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US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular meaning or value

action

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US / 'ækʃn /

UK / ˈækʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Something that a person or thing does
  • verb
  • To act to do something

advocate

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US / 'ædvəkeɪt /

UK / ˈædvəˌket /

B1
  • noun
  • A lawyer who protects a clients interests
  • Person who supports a movement for changes
  • verb
  • To request change
  • To publicly support a belief

analysis

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US / əˈnæləsɪs /

UK / əˈnælɪsɪs /

B1
  • noun
  • Careful study to better understand something

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

constitutionality

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US / ˌkɒnstɪˌtju:ʃəˈnæləti /

UK / ˌkɑ:nstəˌtu:ʃəˈnæləti /

C2
  • noun
  • Degree whether a law is allowed by a constitution

president

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US / ˈprezɪdənt /

UK / ˈprɛzɪdənt,-ˌdɛnt /

A2
  • noun
  • Person in charge of a country, or organization

biden

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US / baɪd /

UK / baɪd /

A1

own

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US / əʊn /

UK / on /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Belong to oneself
  • determiner
  • Yours, his, hers, etc.; not belonging to another
  • pronoun
  • (Something) belong to myself
  • verb
  • To have something as your property

education

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US / ˌedʒuˈkeɪʃn /

UK / ˌɛdʒəˈkeʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Academic field studying the practice of teaching
  • Process of giving or receiving teaching

nothing

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US / 'nʌθɪŋ /

UK / ˈnʌθɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • Item of little or no value, importance, interest
  • Number or value of zero
  • pronoun
  • Not anything, not a single thing

such

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US / sʌtʃ /

UK / sʌtʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Being similar to
  • (Thing) as previously stated or referred to
  • adverb
  • (Used to emphasize the quality of an adjective)

benefit

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US / 'benɪfɪt /

UK / ˈbɛnəfɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Good result or effect, something advantageous
  • verb
  • To have a good effect or be helpful

cake

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US / keɪk /

UK / keɪk /

A1
  • noun
  • Sweet baked food made from flour, eggs, fat, sugar
  • verb
  • To cover with a thing that becomes hard when dried
  • To become dried into a hardened mass

fact

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US / fækt /

UK / fækt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that is known or proved to be true

few

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US / fju: /

UK / fju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Not many, a small number

jackson

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US / 'dʒæksən /

UK / 'dʒæksən /

A1
  • proper noun
  • An industrial city in south central Michigan; population 33,518 (est. 2008).
  • The capital of Mississippi, an industrial and commercial city in the central part of the state, on t
  • A commercial city in western Tennessee; population 63,158 (est. 2008).

much

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US / mʌtʃ /

UK / mʌtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very; to a high level or degree
  • adverb
  • A lot; large amount; a high degree of
  • Nearly; basically
  • On many occasions; often
  • noun
  • A large amount; a great quantity

pursuit

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US / pəˈsju:t /

UK / pɚˈsut /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of following someone to catch them
  • Process of attempting to achieve a goal
  • Activity, hobby or sport, done for enjoyment

system

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US / 'sɪstəm /

UK / ˈsɪstəm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Working in an organized, logical way
  • noun
  • Set of organized, planned ideas that work together

determinative

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US / dɪˈtɜːmɪnətɪv /

UK / dɪˈtɜːrməˌnetɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Having the power or quality of deciding

ruling

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US / ˈru:lɪŋ /

UK / ˈrulɪŋ /

A2
  • noun
  • A legal decision about a court case
  • verb
  • To decide legally, especially in court
  • To have control or influence
  • To mark with a straight line

discussion

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US / dɪˈskʌʃn /

UK / dɪˈskʌʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Any long communication about a particular topic

everybody

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US / ˈevribɒdi /

UK / ˈɛvriˌbɑdi, -ˌbʌdi /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Every person; everyone

specifically

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US / spəˈsɪfɪkli /

UK / spəˈsɪfɪkli /

A2
  • adverb
  • As regards a particular thing; closely related to
  • In particular

start

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US / stɑ:t /

UK / stɑrt /

A1
  • noun
  • First time or place that a thing exists; beginning
  • First opportunity to achieve something, e.g. a job
  • Sudden action or movement because you are scared
  • other
  • Beginning of something in place or time
  • verb
  • To do, be or happen for the first time; begin
  • To turn something on

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

door

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US / dɔ:(r) /

UK / dɔr,dor /

A1
  • noun
  • You walk through this when you go in a room

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

herself

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US / hɜ:ˈself /

UK / hɚˈsɛlf /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Female person that did the original action

tolerate

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US / ˈtɒləreɪt /

UK / ˈtɑ:ləreɪt /

B1
  • verb
  • To be able to adjust to changes of various kinds
  • To be able to survive under specific conditions
  • To let people do, say or believe what they wish
  • To be able to drink (e.g. alcohol) without effects

text

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US / tekst /

UK / tɛkst /

A1
  • noun
  • Any form in which writing exists
  • Reading or audio passage, often a story or article
  • Written part of a book or other work
  • verb
  • To send a message by phone or other device

through

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US / θru: /

UK / θru /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • having finished using or doing something
  • adverb
  • From the beginning of something until the end
  • preposition
  • Over, in, across an entire thing or place
  • Allowing you to pass between, or to
  • By a particular way or process; by the use of

benign

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US / bɪˈnaɪn /

UK / bɪˈnaɪn /

C1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of cancer) not harmful or too serious
  • Kind and gentle

divide

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US / dɪ'vaɪd /

UK / dɪˈvaɪd /

A2
  • verb
  • To split numbers by another number, e.g. 6 / 2 = 3
  • To separate something into equal pieces

eat

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US / i:t /

UK / it /

A1
  • verb
  • To put food in your mouth

ideological

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US / ˌaɪdɪə'lɒdʒɪkl /

UK / ˌaɪdiəˈlɑdʒɪkəl, ˌɪdi- /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • In conformity with fixed ideas or beliefs

precedent

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US / ˈpresɪdənt /

UK / ˈprɛsɪdənt /

B1
  • noun
  • A similar action happening before now

wait

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US / weɪt /

UK / wet /

A1
  • verb
  • To delay or not do something until later
  • To spend time until an expected thing happens
  • To remain in a place until a thing happens

skeptical

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US / 'skeptɪkəl /

UK / 'skeptɪkəl /

C2
  • adjecitve
  • Doubting that something is true/probable/useful

consider

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US / kən'sɪdə(r) /

UK / kənˈsɪdər /

A1
  • verb
  • To think carefully about something

asian

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US / ˈeɪʃn /

UK / ˈeɪʃn /

A1
  • noun
  • A native or inhabitant of Asia
  • other
  • Of or relating to or characteristic of Asia or the peoples of Asia or their languages or culture

white

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US / waɪt /

UK / hwaɪt, waɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Belonging to a race of people with light skin
  • Of the color of fresh snow and milk
  • noun
  • Person's name
  • Lightest color; The color of fresh snow.

should

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US / ʃʊd /

UK / ʃʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate what is proper or reasonable

race

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US / reɪs /

UK / res /

A2
  • noun
  • Speed contest between people, animals or vehicles
  • People who share physical features or culture
  • verb
  • To take part in a running or swimming competition
  • To move or go at a very fast pace
  • To take someone, something to a place very quickly

sort

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US / sɔ:t /

UK / sɔrt /

A1
  • noun
  • Group or class of similar things or people
  • verb
  • To organize things by putting them into groups
  • To deal with things in an organized way

here

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • adverb
  • In this place; at this location, position or time

chief

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US / tʃi:f /

UK / tʃif /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • The one highest in authority or importance
  • noun
  • Leader of a race or group of people
  • The one highest in authority or importance

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

many

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US / 'menɪ /

UK / ˈmɛni /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer a large number of things

strike

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US / straɪk /

UK / straɪk /

A2
  • noun
  • A punch or hit
  • Fact of not hitting the ball when playing baseball
  • Refusal to work to get more pay, protest something
  • verb
  • To hit something
  • To suddenly become (e.g. rich)
  • To have an idea occur to you

skill

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US / skɪl /

UK / skɪl /

A2
  • noun
  • Ability to do something well

write

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US / raɪt /

UK / raɪt /

A1
  • verb
  • To compose letters and words on paper or a screen
  • To invent or create a computer program
  • To create a song or piece of music

use

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US / ju:s /

UK / ju:s /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to employ something
  • Need to enable it to work
  • Permission to do something with something
  • Act of spending money
  • Operation of a machine for its function
  • verb
  • To have; to eat, drink, consume etc.
  • To need to operate or work
  • To operate a machine, e.g. a computer
  • To treat a person badly
  • To do something with, for a task or purpose

reason

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US / 'ri:zn /

UK / ˈrizən /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to think about facts and form a judgment
  • Explanation for why something occurred or was done
  • verb
  • To think and make conclusions in a logical manner

plus

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US / plʌs /

UK / plʌs /

A2
  • noun
  • A benefit or advantage
  • preposition
  • In addition; add
  • In addition to; Indicates a number above
  • Having a value greater than zero

past

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US / pɑ:st /

UK / pæst /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • No longer current or new
  • adverb
  • So as to go beyond, or further than something
  • noun
  • Time that existed before now, e.g. long ago
  • preposition
  • After a particular time
  • At a later point in distance; beyond

feel

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US / fi:l /

UK / fil /

A1
  • verb
  • To be aware of or experience an emotion, sensation
  • To sense through direct contact; touch

those

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US / ðəʊz /

UK / ðoz /

A1
  • determiner
  • The people or things we are talking about
  • pronoun
  • The objects far from the speaker

roberts

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US / ˈrɔbəts /

UK / ˈrɑbəts /

A1
  • other
  • A Welsh pirate credited with having taken more than ships

applicant

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US / ˈæplɪkənt /

UK / ˈæplɪkənt /

B1
  • noun
  • Someone formally expressing interest e.g. in a job

upend

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US / ʌpˈend /

UK / ʌpˈɛnd /

C2
  • verb
  • To overturn or turn up on end

setback

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US / 'setbæk /

UK / ˈsɛtˌbæk /

C1
  • noun
  • Unfortunate happening that hinders or frustrates

talk

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US / tɔ:k /

UK / tɔk /

A1
  • noun
  • Style of speaking
  • Discussion between two countries
  • Giving information in front of people; lecture
  • Saying things or ideas to someone with words
  • verb
  • To make a formal speech about something
  • To say things or ideas to someone with words

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

line

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US / laɪn /

UK / laɪn /

A1
  • noun
  • Border that divides two places or regions
  • Long crease in the skin, often from age
  • Mark that is long, straight and very thin
  • Row of words, letters or numbers that are written
  • Telephone connection
  • People waiting one behind the other; queue
  • Long thin wire, e.g. for electrical signal
  • verb
  • To put material along the inside of something

why

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US / waɪ /

UK / hwaɪ, waɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Question word to ask for a reason
  • exclamation
  • (Used to express surprise or approval)

opinion

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US / əˈpɪnjən /

UK / əˈpɪnjən /

A2
  • noun
  • Court judge's statement why a decision was made
  • A person's thoughts on a topic

twice

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US / twaɪs /

UK / twaɪs /

A1
  • adverb
  • Two times

irrelevant

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US / ɪˈreləvənt /

UK / ɪˈrɛləvənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Not important; not related to the topic

ground

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US / graʊnd /

UK / ɡraʊnd /

A1
  • noun
  • Connection of electrical equipment to earth
  • Place where people play particular sports
  • Solid surface of the earth that we stand on
  • verb
  • To break (coffee, etc.) into tiny bits with machine
  • To make loud jarring noise by pressing hard
  • To make sharp or smooth through friction
  • To press together with force making a sound
  • To punish someone by not allowing them to go out
  • To hit the bottom
  • (Of boat) to hit the bottom so it cannot move
  • To prevent a plane from taking off
  • To place the ball over the goal line in rugby

criticize

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US / ˈkrɪtɪsaɪz /

UK / ˈkrɪtɪˌsaɪz /

B1
  • verb
  • To assess the work of others
  • To say that someone or something is bad

she

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US / ʃɪ /

UK / ʃi /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Female person or animal mentioned before
  • (Refers to female person mentioned before)

house

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US / haʊs /

UK / haʊs /

A1
  • noun
  • Place where a specific activity or business occurs
  • Building in which a family, person lives
  • verb
  • To give someone a place to live
  • To contain or store something

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

people

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US / 'pi:pl /

UK / ˈpipəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Persons sharing culture, country, background, etc.
  • Men, Women, Children

govern

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US / ˈgʌvn /

UK / ˈgʌvərn /

B1
  • verb
  • To officially control land and make policies

conservative

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US / kənˈsɜ:vətɪv /

UK / kənˈsɚvətɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of an estimate, price) set fairly low
  • Resistant to change
  • noun
  • Person with traditional ideas; doesn't like change

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

student

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US / ˈstju:dnt /

UK / ˈstudnt, ˈstjud- /

A1
  • noun
  • Person studying at school

practice

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US / 'præktɪs /

UK / ˈpræktɪs /

A2
  • noun
  • The office and place for legal or medical work
  • Doing something many times to become better at it
  • verb
  • To work as a doctor or lawyer
  • To live according to the teachings of a religion
  • To do something many times to improve a skill

include

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US / ɪnˈklu:d /

UK / ɪnˈklud /

A1
  • verb
  • To make someone, something part of a group

liberal

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US / 'lɪbərəl /

UK / ˈlɪbərəl, ˈlɪbrəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Open-minded; willing to hear others' opinions
  • Political party for freedom and social change
  • Supporting progress and social change
  • Not being strict
  • noun
  • Someone who is open-minded and favors progress

impose

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US / ɪmˈpəʊz /

UK / ɪmˈpoʊz /

A2
  • verb
  • To make someone to do or endure something

down

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US / daʊn /

UK / daʊn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being sad, sick, or unhappy
  • Not operating, working, or functioning as expected
  • adverb
  • In a sitting or lying position
  • Towards or on the ground, floor, or bottom
  • Written or copied onto a piece of paper or book
  • noun
  • A period of play in American Football
  • The soft, smooth hairs that cover a bird's body
  • preposition
  • Along something's path, course, or direction
  • Going from a higher position to a lower position
  • verb
  • To eat or drink very quickly and without stopping

tell

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US / tel /

UK / tɛl /

A1
  • verb
  • To (strongly) advise a person to do something
  • To be able to guess
  • To say or communicate information to someone
  • To inform, but without speaking; indicate
  • To have a negative effect on someone
  • To order someone to do something; command
  • To recognize something based on certain signs
  • To report something to an authority
  • To explain something or teach someone something

both

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US / bəuθ /

UK / boθ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time
  • pronoun
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time

very

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US / 'verɪ /

UK / ˈvɛri /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a large degree or amount
  • adverb
  • A lot; much; many
  • Used to stress or emphasize a noun

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

otherwise

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US / ˈʌðəwaiz /

UK / ˈʌðɚˌwaɪz /

A2
  • adverb
  • In an additional or different way
  • Unless; or

geoff

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US / hɑ:ˈməʊniəs /

UK / hɑrˈmoniəs /

A1

background

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US / ˈbækgraʊnd /

UK / ˈbækˌɡraʊnd /

A2
  • noun
  • Images, color, or information behind the main one
  • Someone's personal work and educational history
  • A position not as important as the main event
  • Past events that influence things in the present

announce

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US / əˈnaʊns /

UK / əˈnaʊns /

A2
  • verb
  • To make a public statement about a plan, decision

achievement

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US / əˈtʃi:vmənt /

UK / əˈtʃivmənt /

A2
  • noun
  • Something good that you have successfully done

work

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US / wɜ:k /

UK / wɚk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Activity completed in order to make money
  • noun
  • The product of some artistic or literary endeavor
  • Everything created by an author, artist, musician
  • Activity you do in order to make money
  • Place of employment
  • Final product or result of a some labor or effort
  • verb
  • To bring into a specific state of success
  • To be functioning properly, e.g. a car
  • To do your job in your company or workplace
  • To make an effort to do something
  • To operate a machine or device

washington

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US / 'wɒʃɪŋtən /

UK / 'wɑ:ʃɪŋtənˌ 'wɔ:ʃɪŋ- /

A1
  • other
  • A state in northwestern United States on the Pacific

build

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US / bɪld /

UK / bɪld /

A1
  • noun
  • Your physical shape; physique
  • verb
  • To establish e.g. a reputation, over time
  • To construct a house, office, factory

thomas

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US / 'tɒməs /

UK / 'tɑməs /

A1
  • other
  • A radio broadcast journalist during World War I and World War II noted for his nightly new broadcast

oppose

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US / əˈpəʊz /

UK / əˈpoʊz /

A2
  • verb
  • To fight against someone in a contest or game

way

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US / weɪ /

UK / we /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to emphasize the amount of something
  • noun
  • Particular aspect of something being thought about
  • One of various choices that could be made
  • Particular existing condition or state
  • (Often long) distance or length of time
  • How something is done
  • Route to go to a place
  • Small street
  • Usual behavior, emotions or habits of someone

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

who

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US / hu: /

UK / hu /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Which person
  • Used to introduce information about people

scathing

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US / ˈskeɪðɪŋ /

UK / ˈskeðɪŋ /

C1
  • adjecitve
  • Harsh

its

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US / ɪts /

UK / ɪts /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to or belonging to ‘it’
  • determiner
  • Of something; belonging or related to something
  • other
  • Possessive form of “it”

everyone

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US / ˈevriwʌn /

UK / ˈɛvriˌwʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Every person; everybody

dissent

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US / dɪ'sent /

UK / dɪˈsɛnt /

B2
  • noun
  • Difference of opinion; a disagreement
  • verb
  • To differ in opinion

play

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US / pleɪ /

UK / pleɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Loose, free movement between two objects
  • Single action in a sports game
  • Performance in which people act in a theater
  • verb
  • To act as a character in a movie, or on stage
  • To perform music on an instrument
  • To use a device, e.g. a video game
  • To do something for enjoyment and fun
  • To do or perform a game or sport

program

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US / 'prəʊɡræm /

UK / ˈproˌɡræm, -ɡrəm /

A1
  • noun
  • Small book of events in a play, concert or movie
  • A plan or schedule of events
  • Series of classes at a college or university
  • A computer application
  • TV show
  • verb
  • To make someone act or think in a certain way
  • To write computer code for a piece of software

discuss

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US / dɪˈskʌs /

UK / dɪˈskʌs /

A1
  • verb
  • To talk about seriously or in great detail

conclude

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US / kənˈklu:d /

UK / kənˈklud /

A2
  • verb
  • To finish or cause to finish; end
  • To arrive at a judgment or opinion

state

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US / steɪt /

UK / stet /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning region within a country
  • noun
  • Region within a country, with its own government
  • Situation or condition something is in
  • verb
  • To say; declare as fact

legal

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US / 'li:ɡl /

UK / ˈliɡəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the law; allowed by law

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

sixth

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US / sɪksθ /

UK / sɪksθ /

A1
  • noun
  • 6th

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

harvard

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US / ˈhɑːvəd /

UK / ˈhɑrvərd /

A1

discriminate

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US / dɪ'skrɪmɪneɪt /

UK / dɪˈskrɪməˌnet /

B1
  • verb
  • To distinguish the differences between things
  • To treat people unfairly because of race, age etc.

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

let

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US / let /

UK / lɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To allow someone to do something
  • Introducing a suggestion to do something together
  • To rent a house, etc. to others

welcome

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US / 'welkəm /

UK / ˈwɛlkəm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being what was wanted or needed
  • noun
  • Friendly greeting to someone who has arrived
  • verb
  • To greet someone who has just arrived
  • To accept or receive something happily and gladly

university

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US / ˌju:nɪ'vɜ:sətɪ /

UK / ˌjunɪˈvɜrsəti /

A1
  • noun
  • High-level educational institution; college

sotomayor

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US / ˌsɒstəˈnju:təʊ /

UK / ˌsɑ:stəˈnu:toʊ /

A1

inspirational

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US / ˌɪnspəˈreɪʃənl /

UK / ˌɪnspə'reɪʃənl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Influencing someone to do something (good)

affect

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US / ə'fekt /

UK / əˈfɛkt /

A2
  • verb
  • To cause a change in something else

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

know

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US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

blow

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US / bləʊ /

UK / blo /

A2
  • noun
  • Something that causes you difficulty or sadness
  • Act of making air come out of your mouth
  • A hit or strike from an object
  • verb
  • To move something using air
  • To make air come quickly out of your mouth
  • To clear something by forcing air through it

tonight

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US / təˈnaɪt /

UK / təˈnaɪt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Night following this day
  • noun
  • This evening; the night of today

part

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US / pɑ:t /

UK / pɑ:rt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To some degree; half; not fully
  • noun
  • Division of a book
  • Ratio of something, e.g. 3 of gin, 1 of tonic
  • A line in a person's hair, made with a comb
  • Character an actor plays on stage, movie, or TV
  • Some, but not all of a specific thing
  • Role in causing something to happen
  • verb
  • To make a line in a person's hair, by using a comb
  • To move two things apart creating a space
  • To leave someone, or to break off a relationship

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

disappointment

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US / ˌdɪsəˈpɔɪntmənt /

UK / ˌdɪsəˈpɔɪntmənt /

B2
  • noun
  • Feeling or state of not being satisfied

almost

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US / 'ɔ:lməʊst /

UK / ˈɔlˌmost, ɔlˈmost /

A1
  • adverb
  • Only a little less than, nearly, not quite

serve

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US / sɜ:v /

UK / sɚv /

A2
  • verb
  • To act in a particular position or office
  • To hit the first ball to an opponent in tennis etc.
  • To be used for a particular purpose
  • To give someone food or drinks
  • To give a person or group a service that is needed
  • To spend a particular amount of time in prison
  • To help customers find products and making sales
  • To give an official paper to appear in court

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

negative

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US / 'neɡətɪv /

UK / ˈnɛɡətɪv /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being harmful, unwanted or unhelpful
  • In mathematics, being less than zero
  • Focusing on the bad aspects; pessimistic
  • noun
  • The opposite to a positive electrical charge
  • In grammar, containing words such as 'no' or 'not'
  • Reply to a question or statement that means 'no'
  • Image on camera film used to make a photo

constitutional

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US / ˌkɒnstɪˈtju:ʃənl /

UK / ˌkɑnstɪˈtuʃənəl, -ˈtju- /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Regarding laws that govern a nation and its people
  • Regarding the basic health, character of a person

choice

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US / tʃɔɪs /

UK / tʃɔɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Of good quality or taste; desirable
  • noun
  • Decision between two or more possibilities

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

wrongly

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US / ˈrɒŋli /

UK / ˈrɔ:ŋli /

A2
  • adverb
  • In error; unfairly; unjustly
  • In a way that is untrue, unfair or incorrect

recently

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US / ˈri:sntli /

UK / 'risṇtlɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just a while ago; not long ago

his

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US / hɪz /

UK / hɪz /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Something belonging to a male person

deem

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US / di:m /

UK / dim /

B2
  • verb
  • To judge something to be a certain thing, way

history

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US / 'hɪstrɪ /

UK / ˈhɪstəri /

A2
  • noun
  • Established pattern or record
  • Study of past events as an academic subject

hear

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • verb
  • To be aware of sound; to perceive with the ear
  • To be told or find out information or facts
  • To consider or listen to a court case

decade

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US / ˈdekeɪd /

UK / ˈdɛkˌed, dɛˈked /

B1
  • noun
  • Period of 10 years

conscious

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US / ˈkɒnʃəs /

UK / ˈkɑnʃəs /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Aware of what is going on around you

challenge

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US / 'tʃælɪndʒ /

UK / ˈtʃæləndʒ /

A2
  • noun
  • An activity you wish to try that may be hard to do
  • Act of formally inviting someone to compete
  • A question to determine correctness of something
  • verb
  • To formally invite someone to compete at something
  • To question the correctness of something

unexpected

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US / ˌʌnɪkˈspektɪd /

UK / ˌʌnɪkˈspektɪd /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Surprising because it was not expected

fundamental

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US / ˌfʌndəˈmentl /

UK / ˌfʌndəˈmɛntl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Forming a necessary part, base, or core
  • noun
  • A basic part of something
  • (Music) the lowest note in a harmony

life

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US / laɪf /

UK / laɪf /

A1
  • noun
  • All the living things e.g. animals, plants, humans
  • Period of time things live, from birth to death

good

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US / ɡʊd /

UK / ɡʊd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper, appropriate or right
  • (Of an amount) enough; plenty
  • Excellent; high quality
  • Acting well or properly; of moral character
  • In a positive or happy emotional state
  • noun
  • Advantage or benefit

give

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US / ɡɪv /

UK / ɡɪv /

A1
  • noun
  • Degree of flexibility in something, a material
  • verb
  • To hand over or present something to someone
  • To cause someone to have or experience something

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

unconstitutional

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US / ˌʌnˌkɒnstɪˈtju:ʃənl /

UK / ˌʌnˌkɑ:nstəˈtu:ʃənl /

C2
  • adjecitve
  • Not consistent with or according to a constitution

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

decision

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US / dɪ'sɪʒn /

UK / dɪˈsɪʒən /

A1
  • noun
  • Choice made after thinking; final judgment
  • Ability to make quick and confident choices

touchstone

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US / 'tʌtʃstəʊn /

UK / ˈtʌtʃˌston /

B2
  • noun
  • Reference point against which things are evaluated

prohibit

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US / prə'hɪbɪt /

UK / proˈhɪbɪt /

B1
  • verb
  • To make something impossible
  • To prevent, forbid to use or do something

opportunity

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US / ˌɒpə'tju:nətɪ /

UK / ˌɑpɚˈtunɪti, -ˈtju- /

A2
  • noun
  • Time, situation when a thing might be done; chance

address

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US / ə'dres /

UK / əˈdrɛs /

A1
  • noun
  • Exact street location of a place
  • A formal speech to a group of people
  • verb
  • To write the place someone lives on a letter
  • To refer to someone or something formally
  • To make a formal speech to a group of people
  • To try to find a solution to; think about

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

our

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US / 'aʊə(r) /

UK / aʊr /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to us

color

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US / 'kʌlə(r) /

UK / ˈkʌlɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Quality of things you can see, e.g. red, blue
  • Pink or red in your face, e.g. after being ill
  • The shade of someone's skin e.g. black, or yellow
  • verb
  • To change or affect someone's opinion
  • To make something colorful using colored pencils

admission

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US / ədˈmɪʃn /

UK / ædˈmɪʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of allowing someone to enter
  • Taking responsibility for an error or mistake

want

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US / wɔnt /

UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

construe

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US / kənˈstru: /

UK / kən'stru: /

C1
  • verb
  • To understand something in a particular way

uphold

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US / ʌp'həʊld /

UK / ʌpˈhold /

B2
  • verb
  • To support to keep it being used as it should
  • To maintain an argument in spite of opposition

measure

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US / ˈmeʒə(r) /

UK / ˈmɛʒɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Plan to achieve a desired result
  • Tool used to calculate the size of something
  • verb
  • To determine the value or importance of something
  • To calculate size, weight or temperature of

law

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US / lɔ: /

UK / lɔ /

A1
  • noun
  • Field of study that relates to the legal profession
  • A rule made and enforced by a government
  • System or rules made by the government

equal

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US / 'i:kwəl /

UK / ˈikwəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Same in shape, size, or number
  • verb
  • To add up or be the same as

deal

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US / di:l /

UK / dil /

A1
  • verb
  • To cope with something - usually troubles
  • To give (something bad e.g. news) to
  • To buy and sell illegal drugs
  • To give out (cards, etc.) to; distribute
  • To do business with someone or to sell products

alongside

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US / əˌlɒŋˈsaɪd /

UK / əˌlɔ:ŋˈsaɪd /

B1
  • preposition
  • Side by side with something

against

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US / əˈgenst /

UK / əˈɡenst /

A1
  • preposition
  • In physical contact with, as for support; next to
  • In opposition to; disagreeing with

whether

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US / ˈweðə(r) /

UK / ˈhwɛðɚ, ˈwɛð- /

A1
  • conjunction
  • If something will happen or not

sense

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US / sens /

UK / sɛns /

A1
  • noun
  • Certain mental feeling or emotion
  • Normal or clear state of mind
  • Meaning of a particular word, phrase or text
  • verb
  • To perceive using sight, sound, taste touch etc.
  • To recognize the presence of something

pleasure

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US / 'pleʒə(r) /

UK / ˈplɛʒɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Feeling of happiness, enjoyment, or satisfaction

really

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US / ˈri:əli /

UK / ˈriəˌli, ˈrili /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to stress something that is said; definitely
  • In a true or accurate manner
  • Very

understand

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US / ˌʌndə'stænd /

UK / ˌʌndɚˈstænd /

A1
  • verb
  • To know the meaning of language, what someone says

north

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US / nɔ:θ /

UK / nɔ:rθ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Coming from the opposite direction to the south
  • noun
  • Direction to your left when facing the rising sun
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • In a significant blow to affirmative action in higher education, the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled against race-conscious admissions programs at both Harvard University and the University of North Carolina. The court's conservative majority, in a decision split along ideological lines, argued that these programs unfairly discriminated against white and Asian American applicants and favored students from underrepresented backgrounds. Chief Justice John Roberts, known for his skepticism towards such policies, authored the majority opinion. He expressed the view that universities have wrongly prioritized race over other factors, such as challenges overcome, skills developed, and lessons learned. President Biden criticized the rulings, emphasizing the importance of pursuing a more equitable higher education system. Although this ruling was not unexpected given the court's past decisions, it does overturn two previous rulings in support of race-conscious admissions programs. To gain further insights into this ruling, we turn to NewsHour Supreme Court Analyst Marcia Coyle, who provides valuable perspective on its implications.
  • Subtitles section
  • Welcome to the NewsHour.
  • The U.S. Supreme Court today dealt a major blow to affirmative action in higher education, striking down race-conscious admissions programs at Harvard University and the University of North Carolina.
  • In rulings divided along ideological lines, the court's sixth justice conservative majority said the schools discriminated against white and Asian American applicants by using race-conscious policies that benefited students from underrepresented backgrounds.
  • Chief Justice John Roberts, who has long been skeptical of such policies, authored the majority opinion.
  • He wrote, many universities have concluded wrongly that the touchstone of an individual's identity is not challenges bested, skills built, or lessons learned, but the color of their skin.
  • Our constitutional history doesn't tolerate that choice.
  • This afternoon at the White House, President Joe Biden criticized the rulings and said the country cannot abandon its pursuit of a more equal system of higher education.
  • JOE BIDEN, President of the United States of America, said, I know today's court decision is a severe disappointment to so many people, including me, but we cannot let the decision be a permanent setback for the country.
  • We need to keep an open door of opportunities.
  • We start our coverage tonight with NewsHour Supreme Court Analyst Marcia Coyle.
  • Marcia, it's great to have you here.
  • MARCIA COYLE, Supreme Court Analyst, NewsHour Supreme Court, Washington, D.C.: Nice to be here, Jeff.
  • And we should say this ruling was not unexpected, but the court twice upheld race-conscious college admissions programs in the past 20 years, to include as recently as 2016.
  • Help us understand how this ruling today upends decades of its own precedent.
  • MARCIA COYLE, Supreme Court Analyst, NewsHour Supreme Court, Washington, D.C.: Well, there has really been a fundamental divide on the court for almost 40 years on the constitutionality of race preferences.
  • The conservatives believe that they are unconstitutional.
  • The liberal justices feel that race preferences that are benign, that do give benefits, are good.
  • And the court has said that's one of the very, very few reasons that the Constitution will allow race preferences.
  • So that's why today it did upend, in a sense, what it had been doing for many decades.
  • I want to read a bit more from Chief Justice Roberts' opinion.
  • In the majority opinion, he notes, nothing in this opinion should be construed as prohibiting universities from considering an applicant's discussion of how race affected his or her life, be it through discrimination,
  • Inspiration or otherwise.
  • So some people have taken that to mean that an applicant can write an essay about how race affected his or her life.
  • But in the court's opinion, how does the use of affirmative action in college admission practices run afoul of the Constitution?
  • Well, they cannot use it as a factor in admissions.
  • It can't be a dominant factor or the determinative factor.
  • It cannot be a plus factor.
  • It cannot be used in a negative way.
  • But the court did sort of leave the door open, and I think everyone's going to have to wait and see how this plays out, to admissions applications or essays in which an applicant talks about or discusses how race really affected that person's life,
  • Whether inspirational or not.
  • Justice Kintanji Brown-Jackson recused herself from the Harvard case because she had served for years on one of Harvard's governing bodies.
  • But she participated in the North Carolina case, and she wrote a scathing dissent, part of which reads this way, with, let them eat cake obliviousness, today the majority pulls the ripcord and announces colorblindness for all by legal fiat.
  • But deeming race irrelevant in law does not make it so in life.
  • Tell us more about what she wrote alongside what we heard from Justice Sonia Sotomayor, who also dissented.
  • Well, both of them believe that there's nothing in the text of the 14th Amendment that prohibits racial preferences or race conscious measures.
  • And they both oppose this idea of a colorblind constitution.
  • This is something Justice Thomas has been advocating for decades.
  • In fact, today was sort of his crowning achievement that it's finally been recognized by the majority.
  • Justice Jackson used her dissent to very specifically address how the University of North Carolina's admissions policy worked, and how it has, its policy has really inured to the benefit of everybody,
  • Not just those students who were getting the racial preference.
  • And she also felt, as Justice Sotomayor did, that the court was ignoring the facts of life on the ground in order to impose this colorblind rule.
  • Marcia Coyle, thank you so much for your analysis.
  • We appreciate it.
  • My pleasure, Jeff.