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Why changes to clothing norms are a point of contention on Capitol Hill

Video vocabulary

tradition

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US / trəˈdɪʃn /

UK / trəˈdɪʃən /

B1
  • noun
  • An event, custom or way common to a people or race
  • Way of thinking or behaving used for a long time

trend

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US / trend /

UK / trɛnd /

A2
  • noun
  • Current style or fashion
  • Direction things are moving in; current style
  • General direction that is taken
  • verb
  • To be current and popular
  • To move up or down

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

stanford

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US / ˈstænfəd /

UK / ˈstænfərd /

A1

john

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US / dʒɔn /

UK / dʒɑn /

A1
  • noun
  • A toilet.
  • A prostitute's client.
  • proper noun
  • (1165–1216), son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine; king of England 1199–1216; known as John Lack
  • The name of six kings of Portugal.

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

other

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US / 'ʌðə(r) /

UK / ˈʌðər /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A thing different from that mentioned
  • determiner
  • (Something) else; not the first (one)
  • pronoun
  • Being the one and only thing of that category

quote

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US / kwəʊt /

UK / kwot /

A2
  • noun
  • Written statement of the cost of something
  • The (often wise or famous) words of another person
  • verb
  • To tell someone how much a task will cost
  • To repeat precisely what a person said or wrote

associate

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US / ə'səʊʃɪeɪt /

UK / əˈsoʊʃiˌeɪt /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Part of a job title indicating a junior position
  • noun
  • Partner in professional work, e.g. in law
  • verb
  • To spend time with other people; mix with
  • To form a connection in your mind between things

day

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US / deɪ /

UK / de /

A1
  • noun
  • A period of 24 hours beginning at midnight
  • The period of time when it is light outside
  • Person's name

certain

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US / ˈsə:tn /

UK / ˈsɚtn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Definite, fixed
  • Referring to an unspecified amount or quantity
  • Being sure about something; without doubt

ever

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US / 'evə(r) /

UK / ˈɛvɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At any time; at all times in the future

valley

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US / 'vælɪ /

UK / ˈvæli /

A2
  • noun
  • Area between mountains with river running through

code

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US / kəʊd /

UK / kod /

A2
  • noun
  • A password made of a set of letters or numbers
  • Set of rules for behavior
  • A secret language using secret symbols
  • Written part of a computer program
  • verb
  • To express information in a series of numbers
  • To write a secret message using secret symbols
  • To write programs using computer languages

dignity

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US / ˈdɪgnəti /

UK / ˈdɪgnəti /

B1
  • noun
  • Person of high rank deserving respect
  • Quality or state of deserving respect

side

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US / saɪd /

UK / saɪd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In addition to the central or most important thing
  • Next to, or very close to, the right or left of
  • noun
  • Position or opinion that is opposite to another
  • Right or left part of a person's body
  • Feature of someone's personality
  • Straight edge of an object
  • One of two or more groups fighting each other
  • verb
  • To decide to agree with one point, not the other

attack

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US / ə'tæk /

UK / əˈtæk /

A2
  • noun
  • Act intended to hurt someone physically, mentally
  • verb
  • To try to destroy, beat, or injure

debate

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US / dɪ'beɪt /

UK / dɪˈbet /

A2
  • noun
  • General public discussion of a topic
  • A formal event where two sides discuss a topic
  • verb
  • To consider options before making a decision
  • To take part in a formal discussion

stick

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US / stɪk /

UK / stɪk /

A2
  • noun
  • Long thin piece of wood from a tree
  • verb
  • To push a sharp or pointed object into something
  • To join together using glue or paste
  • To remain in one place or position for a long time

write

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US / raɪt /

UK / raɪt /

A1
  • verb
  • To compose letters and words on paper or a screen
  • To invent or create a computer program
  • To create a song or piece of music

creep

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US / kri:p /

UK / krip /

B1
  • noun
  • Scary or disliked person
  • verb
  • To move quietly so as not to be seen

longstanding

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US / ˌlɒŋ'stændɪŋ /

UK / 'lɒŋ'stændɪŋ /

C2
  • adjecitve
  • Having existed for a long time

matter

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US / 'mætə(r) /

UK / ˈmætɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Material all things are made of that fills space
  • Problem or reason for concern
  • verb
  • To be of great importance; to count

once

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US / wʌns /

UK / wʌns /

A1
  • adverb
  • One time; one instance
  • At a time in the past
  • conjunction
  • When; as soon as

formality

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US / fɔ:'mælətɪ /

UK / fɔrˈmælɪti /

B1
  • noun
  • Rules, behavior (often having little meaning)

many

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US / 'menɪ /

UK / ˈmɛni /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer a large number of things

forth

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US / fɔ:θ /

UK / fɔrθ, forθ /

B1
  • adverb
  • So as to be seen; out
  • Outward or forward in space, time

here

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • adverb
  • In this place; at this location, position or time

age

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US / eɪdʒ /

UK / edʒ /

A1
  • verb
  • To keep food, wine for a long time to improve it
  • To get older
  • noun
  • Period of time in history
  • Number of years a person or thing has lived

continue

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US / kən'tɪnju: /

UK / kənˈtɪnju /

A1
  • verb
  • To do something without stopping, or after pausing
  • To start doing again after a break, pause, or stop

exactly

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US / ɪgˈzæktli /

UK / ɪɡˈzæktli /

A1
  • adverb
  • No more and no less than; precisely

school

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US / sku:l /

UK / skul /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being to do with schools and education
  • noun
  • Large group of fish that swim together
  • Education of a child
  • Building where you learn in classes with a teacher
  • A particular belief or idea about something
  • verb
  • To teach or train someone to know or do something

play

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US / pleɪ /

UK / pleɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Loose, free movement between two objects
  • Single action in a sports game
  • Performance in which people act in a theater
  • verb
  • To act as a character in a movie, or on stage
  • To perform music on an instrument
  • To use a device, e.g. a video game
  • To do something for enjoyment and fun
  • To do or perform a game or sport

discuss

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US / dɪˈskʌs /

UK / dɪˈskʌs /

A1
  • verb
  • To talk about seriously or in great detail

congress

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US / 'kɒŋɡres /

UK / ˈkɑŋɡrɪs /

B1
  • noun
  • Meeting of elected or appointed representatives
  • American governing body of elected representatives

wane

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US / weɪn /

UK / wen /

B2
  • verb
  • To become smaller, weaker or less

surprised

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US / səˈpraɪzd /

UK / sərˈpraɪzd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Feeling a shock when something unexpected happens
  • verb
  • To do something that another person didn't expect

state

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US / steɪt /

UK / stet /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning region within a country
  • noun
  • Region within a country, with its own government
  • Situation or condition something is in
  • verb
  • To say; declare as fact

man

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US / mæn /

UK / mæn /

A1
  • noun
  • Humans in general, including male and female
  • An adult male human being
  • Male who acts in a masculine way; not like a woman
  • verb
  • To control or operate (a machine); be in charge of
  • To operate a machine (a boat, etc.)

live

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US / lɪv /

UK / liv /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being broadcast as events happen, not recorded
  • Carrying electric current; able to give a shock
  • Glowing because burning; hot
  • Not yet killed (for food)
  • adverb
  • (Music, drama) as it is performed
  • verb
  • To be alive
  • To experience a particular type of life
  • To make your home in a house or town

half

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US / hɑ:f /

UK / hæf, hɑf /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not complete
  • adverb
  • Partly; somewhat
  • noun
  • One of two equal periods of game time in a sport
  • The part you get when one is divided into two;

clothing

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US / ˈkləʊðɪŋ /

UK / ˈkloʊðɪŋ /

A2
  • noun
  • Things you wear on your body, e.g. shirt or dress
  • verb
  • To put a certain type of clothing on someone; dress

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

jacket

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US / 'dʒækɪt /

UK / ˈdʒækɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Light, thin coat worn over a shirt or top
  • Outer covering that fits over and protects it

convey

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US / kən'veɪ /

UK / kənˈve /

B1
  • verb
  • To carry or transport something
  • To make aware or tell others information
  • Law to transfer property legally between people

barb

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US / bɑ:b /

UK / bɑrb /

B2
  • noun
  • Sharp point which curves backwards

aspect

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US / 'æspekt /

UK / ˈæspɛkt /

A2
  • noun
  • Way something looks or seems to be
  • An element, feature, or quality of something

bank

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US / bæŋk /

UK / bæŋk /

A1
  • noun
  • A financial institution that keeps or lends money
  • The side of a river
  • A row of things in lines (e.g. computers)
  • verb
  • To put or keep your money in a bank
  • To turn a plane when flying; (of a plane) to turn

hall

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US / hɔ:l /

UK / hɔl /

A2
  • noun
  • Area just inside the entrance of a building
  • Large room/building for public events/gatherings
  • Large, impressive older home
  • Part of the name of a building

bad

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US / bæd /

UK / bæd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not good; wrong
  • Lacking in good morals; evil
  • No longer fresh; spoiled

authenticity

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US / ˌɔ:θenˈtɪsəti /

UK / ˌɔθənˈtɪsətɪ /

B1
  • noun
  • Quality of being genuine, not a fake or copy

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

might

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US / maɪt /

UK / maɪt /

A1
  • other
  • Used to politely request an action
  • Used to express that something could happen
  • Power, strength, force or influence

mention

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US / 'menʃn /

UK / ˈmɛnʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of referring to or talking about something
  • verb
  • To refer to or talk or write about something

let

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US / let /

UK / lɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To allow someone to do something
  • Introducing a suggestion to do something together
  • To rent a house, etc. to others

lead

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US / li:d /

UK / lid /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being the main part in movies or plays
  • noun
  • Wire for electricity, computer, etc.; cable
  • Information that could help to solve a crime
  • Main part in a play or movie
  • Heavy, gray metal element
  • Rope used to tie something to stop it escaping
  • Act of being at the front in a race or game
  • verb
  • To show the way or guide others
  • To be at the front of a race or game
  • To travel in front of; go in advance of others

big

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US / bɪɡ /

UK / bɪɡ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Popular
  • Serious
  • Large

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

woman

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US / ˈwʊmən /

UK / ˈwʊmən /

A1
  • noun
  • Adult female human being

pant

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US / pænt /

UK / pænt /

C1
  • noun
  • Short, loud breath, taken with the mouth open
  • verb
  • To breathe loudly and rapidly, with an open mouth

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

kind

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US / kaɪnd /

UK / kaɪnd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In a caring and helpful manner
  • friendly and considerate
  • noun
  • One type of thing

nation

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US / 'neɪʃn /

UK / ˈneʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Area or region controlled by a government and army

line

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US / laɪn /

UK / laɪn /

A1
  • noun
  • Border that divides two places or regions
  • Long crease in the skin, often from age
  • Mark that is long, straight and very thin
  • Row of words, letters or numbers that are written
  • Telephone connection
  • People waiting one behind the other; queue
  • Long thin wire, e.g. for electrical signal
  • verb
  • To put material along the inside of something

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

home

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US / həʊm /

UK / hom /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A sports team's own field or place of play
  • adverb
  • Into the correct or intended position
  • noun
  • House, apartment or building to be rented or sold
  • Institution for sick or elderly people
  • Place where a person or a family lives
  • Country where a person lives or was born
  • Region that is native to peoples, plant or animals
  • verb
  • To move towards a particular target location

why

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US / waɪ /

UK / hwaɪ, waɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Question word to ask for a reason
  • exclamation
  • (Used to express surprise or approval)

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

spend

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US / spend /

UK / spɛnd /

A2
  • verb
  • To use money to pay for something
  • To use time in order to do something
  • To use up something completely

short

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US / ʃɔ:t /

UK / ʃɔrt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Less than what is needed
  • Suddenly stopping what you are saying or doing
  • verb
  • (Of electric circuit) to spark because faulty
  • adjecitve
  • Measuring a small distance
  • Happening for a small amount of time
  • Unfriendly or rude

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

since

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US / sɪns /

UK / sɪns /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a point before the present time
  • conjunction
  • For this reason; because
  • preposition
  • From the time in the past that

start

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US / stɑ:t /

UK / stɑrt /

A1
  • noun
  • First time or place that a thing exists; beginning
  • First opportunity to achieve something, e.g. a job
  • Sudden action or movement because you are scared
  • other
  • Beginning of something in place or time
  • verb
  • To do, be or happen for the first time; begin
  • To turn something on

senator

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US / ˈsenətə(r) /

UK / ˈsɛnətɚ /

B2
  • noun
  • An elected politician belonging to the senate

pantsuit

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US / ˈpæntsuːt /

UK / ˈpæntsuːt /

A1
  • noun
  • Pair of pants and a matching jacket worn by women

limit

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US / 'lɪmɪt /

UK / ˈlɪmɪt /

A2
  • noun
  • Point beyond which it is not possible to go
  • verb
  • To stop or prevent an increase past a point

funding

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US / ˈfʌndɪŋ /

UK / ˈfʌndɪŋ /

A2
  • verb
  • To supply money for something

express

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US / ɪk'spres /

UK / ɪkˈsprɛs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Sent by a fast mail service
  • Traveling at high speed
  • noun
  • Fast train or bus
  • verb
  • To send something by fast mail
  • To state or show what you think or how you feel

susan

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US / ˈsuːzn /

UK / ˈsuːzn /

A1

question

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US / 'kwestʃən /

UK / ˈkwɛstʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Issue or problems you are dealing with
  • What you ask about; issue
  • verb
  • To ask for or try to get information
  • To have or express concerns or uncertainty

professionalism

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US / prəˈfeʃənəlɪzəm /

UK / prəˈfɛʃənəˌlɪzəm /

A2
  • noun
  • Expertness characteristic of a professional person

object

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US / 'ɒbdʒɪkt /

UK / ˈɑbdʒɪkt /

A2
  • noun
  • Something you can see or touch, but is not alive
  • Goal or purpose of a particular plan or activity
  • The thing that the action of a verb acts upon
  • verb
  • To disagree; to protest against an idea or plan

constituent

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US / kənˈstɪtjuənt /

UK / kənˈstɪtʃuənt /

C2
  • noun
  • Necessary part or element of something else

those

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US / ðəʊz /

UK / ðoz /

A1
  • determiner
  • The people or things we are talking about
  • pronoun
  • The objects far from the speaker

hunt

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US / hʌnt /

UK / hʌnt /

A2
  • noun
  • A search for animals to kill for food
  • Person's name
  • verb
  • To search for wild animals to kill (for food)
  • To look for very carefully; search for

dress

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US / dres /

UK / drɛs /

A1
  • noun
  • Women's garment with a top part and a skirt
  • Clothing suitable for a time period or occasion
  • verb
  • To prepare food (e.g. salad) before cooking or eating
  • To decorate something for display e.g. a mannequin
  • To put clothes on
  • To clean, care for and apply a cover to a wound

middle

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US / 'mɪdl /

UK / ˈmidl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Equal distance from extremes
  • noun
  • Place that is halfway between two things

joke

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US / dʒəʊk /

UK / dʒoʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • A funny or amusing statement
  • Something or someone not taken seriously
  • verb
  • To say or do things that are meant to be funny

under

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US / ˈʌndə(r) /

UK / ˈʌndɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In the same place as another thing, but lower
  • adverb
  • In a lower quantity or price than expected
  • preposition
  • According to the terms of an agreement or law
  • Managed or controlled by the authority of
  • Being of a lesser quality or amount than expected
  • Influenced or affected by something or someone
  • Less or lower in age, amount, size or number

evolve

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US / ɪ'vɒlv /

UK / ɪˈvɑlv /

B1
  • verb
  • To develop certain features
  • To develop or change slowly over time
  • To slowly change or develop into something better

wear

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US / weə(r) /

UK / wer /

A1
  • noun
  • Clothing designed for a purpose e.g. skiing
  • Damage from continual use over a long period
  • verb
  • To have clothes, glasses, shoes etc. on your body
  • To display an expression or emotion on the face
  • To become weaker or damaged from continued use

trust

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US / trʌst /

UK / trʌst /

A2
  • noun
  • Wealth or property held by one person for another
  • The belief that someone is honest
  • Care or responsibility of a person
  • verb
  • To expect confidently
  • To have confidence or faith
  • To be confident someone is honest and reliable
  • To believe someone to be honest and reliable

public

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US / 'pʌblɪk /

UK / ˈpʌblɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Owned by the government
  • Concerning society in general
  • Being available or accessible to people in general
  • Known or able to be known by all people

often

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US / ˈɔfən /

UK / ˈɔfən,ˈɑfən,ˈɔftən,ˈɑf- /

A1
  • adverb
  • Many times; frequently; on many occasions

know

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US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

could

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US / kəd /

UK / kʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Past form of 'can' to mean have ability
  • Used to ask for something politely, or to offer

openly

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US / ˈəʊpənli /

UK / ˈoʊpənli /

A2
  • adverb
  • In an open way

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

before

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US / bɪˈfɔ:(r) /

UK / bɪˈfɔr,-ˈfor /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a time earlier than the present; previously
  • conjunction
  • In advance of something happening
  • preposition
  • In front of someone or something

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

serve

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US / sɜ:v /

UK / sɚv /

A2
  • verb
  • To act in a particular position or office
  • To hit the first ball to an opponent in tennis etc.
  • To be used for a particular purpose
  • To give someone food or drinks
  • To give a person or group a service that is needed
  • To spend a particular amount of time in prison
  • To help customers find products and making sales
  • To give an official paper to appear in court

low

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US / ləʊ /

UK / lo /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having a small quantity, supply, or amount
  • Being unhappy or unpleasant in attitude
  • Not high; being near the ground, or bottom
  • (Of a voice, sound) being soft; quiet
  • noun
  • Situation of not having a lot of something

choice

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US / tʃɔɪs /

UK / tʃɔɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Of good quality or taste; desirable
  • noun
  • Decision between two or more possibilities

workwear

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US / ˈwɜːkweə /

UK / /

A1
  • noun
  • Heavy-duty clothes for manual or physical work

upper

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US / ˈʌpə(r) /

UK / ˈʌpɚ /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Located above others of the same kind
  • Being the northern part of a region
  • Being closer to the source of a river
  • noun
  • Drug that improves mood or increases energy
  • Something happy or encouraging
  • Top part of a shoe, other than the flat bottom

center

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US / 'sentə /

UK / ˈsɛntɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Community place people go health or social reasons
  • Place in the middle of something
  • Person or thing that is attracting attention
  • verb
  • To direct focus toward something

traditionally

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US / trə'dɪʃənəlɪ /

UK / trə'dɪʃənəlɪ /

B2
  • adverb
  • Something done in a customary, traditional manner

hundred

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US / 'hʌndrəd /

UK / ˈhʌndrɪd /

A1
  • number
  • 100

group

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US / ɡru:p /

UK / ɡrup /

A1
  • noun
  • Two or more musicians who play music together
  • Number of people or things gathered together
  • verb
  • To combine or collect objects or people together

blur

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US / blɜ:(r) /

UK / blɚ /

B2
  • verb
  • To make something unclear or out of focus
  • To dull the distinction between things

away

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US / ə'weɪ /

UK / əˈwe /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not present
  • adverb
  • Disappear completely
  • Doing something with a lot of energy
  • Not here; far from here; in a different direction
  • To a different area, location

history

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US / 'hɪstrɪ /

UK / ˈhɪstəri /

A2
  • noun
  • Established pattern or record
  • Study of past events as an academic subject

fashion

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US / 'fæʃn /

UK / ˈfæʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Style of dress or activity popular at some time
  • Industry that creates new styles of clothes
  • Way of behaving; manner
  • Trend that is popular at a given time
  • Way of doing something; manner
  • verb
  • To make things into a particular shape

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

silicon

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US / ˈsɪlɪkən /

UK / ˈsɪlɪkən, -ˌkɑn /

B2
  • noun
  • Mineral used in making steel and computer parts

his

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US / hɪz /

UK / hɪz /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Something belonging to a male person

government

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US / ˈgʌvənmənt /

UK / ˈɡʌvənmənt /

A1
  • noun
  • Group of people and system that rule a nation

majority

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US / mə'dʒɒrətɪ /

UK / məˈdʒɔrɪti, -ˈdʒɑr- /

B1
  • noun
  • Amount that is more than half of a group

maine

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US / meɪn /

UK / meɪn /

A1
  • other
  • A state in New England

large

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US / lɑ:dʒ /

UK / lɑ:rdʒ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Big; of great size; broad, tall, wide, or fat

arizona

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US / ˌæriˈzəunə /

UK / ˌærɪˈzonə /

A1
  • proper noun
  • A state in the southwestern US, on the border with Mexico; population 6,500,180 (est. 2008); capital

over

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US / 'əʊvə(r) /

UK / ˈovɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Finished; no longer happening
  • Towards the ground/away from a standing position
  • noun
  • A set of six consecutive balls bowled in cricket
  • other
  • Finished
  • preposition
  • Showing the relation when a thing is above another
  • On or covering something
  • Above or across something
  • More than you need
  • From one side to the other
  • In the direction of; toward

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

decorum

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US / dɪˈkɔ:rəm /

UK / dɪˈkɔrəm, -ˈkor- /

A1
  • noun
  • Propriety and good taste in conduct or appearance

exclude

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US / ɪk'sklu:d /

UK / ɪk'sklu:d /

A2
  • verb
  • To prevent someone from taking part in something

emphasize

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US / 'emfəsaɪz /

UK / ˈɛmfəˌsaɪz /

B2
  • verb
  • To stress the items that are important

where

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US / hwɛə /

UK / hwɛr, wɛr /

A1
  • conjunction
  • At or in the place which
  • In whatever place
  • pronoun
  • Word you use to ask the location of something

picture

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US / 'pɪktʃə(r) /

UK / ˈpɪktʃɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • General situation or state of being
  • Mental image of what something is or looks like
  • Movie; film
  • Painting, drawing or photograph on paper or screen
  • verb
  • To understand or imagine something
  • To imagine someone or something in an image

perhaps

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US / pəˈhæps /

UK / pɚˈhæps /

A1
  • adverb
  • Possibly, but not certainly; maybe

only

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US / ˈəunli /

UK / ˈonli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just one; just that amount or thing; not more than
  • Not very important or serious
  • Just that type of thing, person
  • Short time ago; not before a certain time
  • conjunction
  • Except; but

join

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US / dʒɔɪn /

UK / dʒɔɪn /

A1
  • verb
  • To bring something close to another, to become one
  • To become a member of
  • To participate in an activity with others

detect

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US / dɪˈtekt /

UK / dɪˈtɛkt /

A2
  • verb
  • To discover or identify the presence of something

connection

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US / kəˈnekʃn /

UK / kəˈnɛkʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Something that joins things together; being joined
  • Person you know who can help you in some way
  • Changing vehicles when traveling

brand

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US / brænd /

UK / brænd /

A2
  • noun
  • A mark burned on an animal to show who owns it
  • Product made or designed by a named company
  • verb
  • To burn a mark on an animal to show who owns it
  • To describe someone as a liar, coward, etc.
  • To give a famous name to a product or service

something

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US / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

UK / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In some degree or measure
  • noun
  • a person or thing of some value or consequence
  • pronoun
  • Thing that is not yet known or named
  • Approximately

maintain

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US / meɪn'teɪn /

UK / menˈten /

A2
  • verb
  • To keep saying something a certain way
  • To keep (machine) working by checking, repairing
  • To keep, exist or continue without changing

carol

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US / 'kærəl /

UK / ˈkærəl /

B2
  • noun
  • Traditional song sung at Christmas

attire

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US / əˈtaɪə(r) /

UK / əˈtaɪr /

C1
  • noun
  • Clothing (especially fine clothes and fashion)
  • verb
  • To be dressed in a certain manner

thompson

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1

think

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US / θɪŋk /

UK / θɪŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To have an idea about something without certainty
  • To have an idea, opinion or belief about something

suit

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US / su:t /

UK / sut /

A1
  • noun
  • Set of clothes including jacket and pants or skirt
  • Law case involving a claim of some kind
  • Set of playing cards such as hearts or diamonds
  • verb
  • To be appropriate for a given situation
  • (Of clothes) to look good on someone

rebellion

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US / rɪ'beljən /

UK / rɪˈbɛljən /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of conflicting with someone in authority
  • Resisting and fighting against existing authority

lie

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US / laɪ /

UK / lai /

A2
  • noun
  • An untrue statement, when you know it is not true
  • verb
  • To be in a horizontal or flat position
  • To say something that you know is not true

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

floor

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US / flɔ:(r) /

UK / flɔr, flor /

A1
  • noun
  • Large area used for a particular purpose
  • Part of a room on which you stand
  • Particular level in a building; storey
  • verb
  • To hit or push someone to the ground
  • To surprise or confuse someone who can't respond

come

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US / kʌm /

UK / kʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To arrive at a place
  • (Of mail) to be delivered
  • To move toward someone; go with someone
  • To reach a certain point or state

arrive

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US / əˈraɪv /

UK / əˈraɪv /

A1
  • verb
  • To reach the place you are traveling to

culture

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US / 'kʌltʃə(r) /

UK / ˈkʌltʃɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Beliefs and customs of a particular group

certainly

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US / ˈsə:tnli /

UK / ˈsɚtnli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Sure; of course

back

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US / bæk /

UK / bæk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Farthest from the front e.g. in a classroom
  • adverb
  • Have returned to a place you were before
  • noun
  • The part of a chair that the upper body leans upon
  • Location at the rear of something
  • The reverse of side something
  • Area on the rear of your body
  • verb
  • To bet money on something
  • To go backwards in a car
  • To support and encourage someone or some cause

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

should

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US / ʃʊd /

UK / ʃʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate what is proper or reasonable

consider

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US / kən'sɪdə(r) /

UK / kənˈsɪdər /

A1
  • verb
  • To think carefully about something

reflect

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US / rɪ'flekt /

UK / rɪˈflɛkt /

A2
  • verb
  • To indicate or be a sign of something
  • To bounce back light, heat, sound from a surface
  • To show an image in glass, water, a mirror etc.
  • To think of something seriously and carefully

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

way

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US / weɪ /

UK / we /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to emphasize the amount of something
  • noun
  • Particular aspect of something being thought about
  • One of various choices that could be made
  • Particular existing condition or state
  • (Often long) distance or length of time
  • How something is done
  • Route to go to a place
  • Small street
  • Usual behavior, emotions or habits of someone

professor

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US / prəˈfesə(r) /

UK / prəˈfɛsɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Teacher who teaches at a college or university

return

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US / rɪ'tɜ:n /

UK / rɪ'tɜ:rn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Do again; repeated
  • noun
  • Faulty or unwanted product sent back to a company
  • Enter key; the main key on the computer keyboard
  • Profit made as a result of a business activity
  • Process of going back to a previous way or state
  • verb
  • To hit something back to the other player or team
  • To come back after being away from somewhere
  • To repay someone's actions, kindness etc.
  • To put, bring, take, give, or send something back
  • To occur again

who

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US / hu: /

UK / hu /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Which person
  • Used to introduce information about people

country

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US / ˈkʌntri /

UK / ˈkʌntri /

A1
  • noun
  • An area of land that is controlled by a government
  • Open land that is away from towns and cities

pennsylvania

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US / pensɪl'veɪnjə /

UK / ˌpensəl'veɪnjə /

A1
  • other
  • A Mid-Atlantic state; one of the original colonies

thank

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US / θæŋk /

UK / θæŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To tell someone you are grateful to them

add

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US / æd /

UK / æd /

A1
  • verb
  • To include as well
  • To put two things or numbers together, e.g. 2+2

capitol

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US / 'kæpɪtl /

UK / 'kæpɪtl /

A1
  • other
  • A building occupied by a state legislature
  • Government building in Washington where the United States Senate and the House of Representatives me

society

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US / sə'saɪətɪ /

UK / səˈsaɪɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • A group who meet to share values or interests
  • Group of people living together
  • Upper class of a community

old

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US / əʊld /

UK / old /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having existed for a long time, not young or new
  • Age of a person since birth

washington

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US / 'wɒʃɪŋtən /

UK / 'wɑ:ʃɪŋtənˌ 'wɔ:ʃɪŋ- /

A1
  • other
  • A state in northwestern United States on the Pacific

between

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US / bɪˈtwi:n /

UK / bɪˈtwin /

A1
  • preposition
  • From one person, thing, or place, to another
  • In the space that separates two objects
  • Among two or more people who share something

collins

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US / ˈkɒlɪnz /

UK / /

A1

institution

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US / ˌɪnstɪˈtju:ʃn /

UK / ˌɪnstɪˈtuʃən, -ˈtju- /

A2
  • noun
  • Organization created for a particular aim/purpose
  • Tradition, custom or system accepted by a group

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

very

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US / 'verɪ /

UK / ˈvɛri /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning a large degree or amount
  • adverb
  • A lot; much; many
  • Used to stress or emphasize a noun

change

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US / tʃeɪndʒ /

UK / tʃendʒ /

A1
  • noun
  • Exchange of one set of clothes for another
  • Money in the form of coins instead of paper
  • Money returned after giving too much
  • Act of making or becoming something else
  • verb
  • To exchange one set of clothes for another
  • To exchange one kind of money for another
  • To replace something with another thing
  • To make or become something else
  • To go from one train, bus, etc. and go to another

show

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US / ʃəʊ /

UK / ʃo /

A1
  • noun
  • False display of love, emotion or action
  • An event for displaying or promoting goods
  • Play, opera or theater production
  • Presentation that is broadcast on TV or radio
  • verb
  • To be easily seen or displayed
  • To display your emotions or feelings
  • To let someone see something; display
  • To explain or teach how something is done
  • To lead someone somewhere; point them to something
  • To prove something to be true, correct
  • To reveal or allow something to be seen

law

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US / lɔ: /

UK / lɔ /

A1
  • noun
  • Field of study that relates to the legal profession
  • A rule made and enforced by a government
  • System or rules made by the government

leader

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US / ˈli:də(r) /

UK / ˈlidɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Person who is in charge of a group or task
  • Person or group who is currently winning

now

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US / naʊ /

UK / naʊ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At the present time or moment
  • Right away or in the next possible moment
  • Used to refer to something that just happened
  • Time between the present and a moment in the past
  • conjunction
  • Resulting from or because of something

business

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US / ˈbɪznəs /

UK / ˈbɪznɪs /

A1
  • noun
  • A company formed for making profit
  • Matter that has to be dealt with; task; situation
  • Activity of working to make a profit

establish

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US / ɪˈstæblɪʃ /

UK / ɪˈstæblɪʃ /

A2
  • verb
  • To set or create something to last for a long time
  • To use facts, evidence to show truth or clarity

loosen

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US / 'lu:sn /

UK / ˈlusən /

B1
  • verb
  • To make something less tight

represent

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US / ˌreprɪ'zent /

UK / ˌrɛprɪˈzɛnt /

A2
  • verb
  • To depict art objects, figures, scenes; to portray
  • To show or describe something in a particular way
  • To act on behalf of others in government
  • To act or speak for another person or other people

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

generally

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US / /

UK / /

A2
  • adverb
  • Usually; as a rule; by, to or for most people

life

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US / laɪf /

UK / laɪf /

A1
  • noun
  • All the living things e.g. animals, plants, humans
  • Period of time things live, from birth to death

ford

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US / fɔ:d /

UK / fɔ:rd /

A1
  • noun
  • A shallow area in a stream that can be forded
  • other
  • Cross a river where it's shallow
  • Grandson of Henry Ford
  • Son of Henry Ford
  • Act of crossing a stream or river by wading or in a car or on a horse

want

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US / wɔnt /

UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

yet

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US / jet /

UK / jɛt /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a later time (used after ‘not’)
  • (Used to emphasize that thing is, will be greater)
  • Eventually; at a future time
  • Until now; up to the present
  • conjunction
  • Adding to what has been said, often as a contrast

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

quite

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US / kwaɪt /

UK / kwaɪt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Not very; fairly
  • Very; In a complete or total manner

become

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US / bɪ'kʌm /

UK / bɪˈkʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To begin to be; grow to be; develop into
  • To be suitable for a particular job or role

democratic

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US / ˌdeməˈkrætɪk /

UK / ˌdɛməˈkrætɪk /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • (Of government) giving the people power, a vote
  • Having certain aspects of democracy

insight

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US / 'ɪnsaɪt /

UK / ˈɪnˌsaɪt /

B1
  • noun
  • Power to understand people and things very well
  • Very good understanding of something

historically

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US / hɪ'stɒrɪklɪ /

UK / hɪsˈtɔrɪkl:ɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • In history; in the past

hood

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US / hʊd /

UK / hʊd /

B2
  • noun
  • Front part of the car that covers the engine
  • A head covering attached to a cape, sweater etc.

role

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US / rəʊl /

UK / rol /

A2
  • noun
  • Character played by an actor
  • Part you play in an activity; job; responsibility

sport

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US / spɔ:t /

UK / spɔː(r)t /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that is done for fun, e.g. football
  • Game or physical exercise with rules
  • Someone with a good attitude when things go badly
  • verb
  • To do something for fun, e.g. playing with animals
  • To wear, or show something off by wearing it

relaxed

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US / rɪˈlækst /

UK / rɪˈlækst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being calm or quiet; not worrying
  • verb
  • To calm or quiet yourself, or stop worrying
  • To release the tightness in muscles
  • To make a rule or law, less strict

same

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US / seɪm /

UK / sem /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in quality and amount
  • Identical; not different
  • Not changing; constant

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

tricky

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US / 'trɪkɪ /

UK / ˈtrɪki /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Difficult, so needing skill to do or deal with
  • Likely to use tricks; dishonest or deceptive

debase

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US / dɪ'beɪs /

UK / dɪˈbes /

C1
  • verb
  • To lower the value of something

firm

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US / fɜ:m /

UK / fɚm /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Fairly hard or solid, not soft
  • Unchanging and strong
  • noun
  • Company that sells goods or services
  • verb
  • To make something become more solid or durable

first

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US / fɜ:st /

UK / fɚst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 1st; Coming before all others in time or place
  • noun
  • Something that has not happened before
  • Position of the winner of a competition

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

hard

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US / hɑ:d /

UK / hɑː(r)d /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Difficult to do; difficult to understand
  • (Of facts) not able to be misunderstood; clear
  • (Of alcohol) strong
  • Involving or requiring lots of work, effort, care
  • Being full of pain, trouble, and problems
  • Strong
  • (Of edge) clear; sharp
  • Difficult to bend, break or cut; solid
  • adverb
  • With lots of force, power, or impact

present

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US / 'preznt /

UK / ˈprɛznt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in attendance; being there; having turned up
  • noun
  • Gift
  • Verb tense indicating an action is happening now
  • Current time; now
  • verb
  • To introduce someone to others
  • To host a program on television or radio
  • To give a speech or presentation
  • To show something to someone who will examine it
  • To appear or happen
  • To give an award or prize to someone

case

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US / keɪs /

UK / kes /

A1
  • noun
  • Container used to carry things, e.g. clothes
  • Set of facts about a crime
  • Set of facts about an event
  • Example or instance of something
  • verb
  • To find out about a place, as in planning to steal

disrespect

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US / ˌdɪsrɪˈspekt /

UK / ˌdɪsrɪˈspɛkt /

B1
  • noun
  • Lack of respect
  • verb
  • To show disregard or a lack of respect for someone

mean

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US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular meaning or value

require

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US / rɪ'kwaɪə(r) /

UK / rɪˈkwaɪr /

A2
  • verb
  • To demand that someone does something
  • To need to do something, to make it necessary

suitable

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US / ˈsu:təbl /

UK / ˈsutəbəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Right for a particular purpose or occasion
  • (Of clothes) appropriate for a given occasion

argue

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US / ˈɑ:gju: /

UK / ˈɑ:rgju: /

A1
  • verb
  • To fight or disagree over something
  • To state your reasons for or against an idea

chamber

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US / 'tʃeɪmbə(r) /

UK / ˈtʃembɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Enclosed space that contains something
  • Large room that is used for official meetings

demise

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US / dɪˈmaɪz /

UK / dɪˈmaɪz /

B1
  • noun
  • Concerning a death

happen

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US / 'hæpən /

UK / ˈhæpən /

A1
  • verb
  • To take place or occur

interesting

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US / ˈɪntrəstɪŋ /

UK / ˈɪntrɪstɪŋ, -tərɪstɪŋ, -təˌrɛstɪŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Taking your attention; making you want to know
  • verb
  • To make someone want to know about something
  • To persuade to do, become involved with something

political

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US / pəˈlɪtɪkl /

UK / pəˈlɪtɪkəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being active or interested in government matters
  • Diplomatic
  • Of the system of elections and government
  • Concerning government or public affairs
  • Involved in getting of power/influence in a group

number

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US / ˈnʌmbə(r) /

UK / ˈnʌmbɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Symbols such as 1, 2, 56, 793
  • Particular song or dance performed during a show
  • Total quantity or amount of things
  • verb
  • To put numbers on things
  • To assign a sequence within a group, series, set
  • To claim to be part of a larger group, series, set

family

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US / 'fæməlɪ /

UK / ˈfæmli /

A1
  • noun
  • Close group of people or organizations
  • A group of people who are related through blood
  • Group of related plants or animals

then

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US / ðen /

UK / ðɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • A time that is not now
  • Following another thing in time or arrangement
  • Following on reasonably from what was just stated
  • At that time, not now

sympathy

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US / 'sɪmpəθɪ /

UK / ˈsɪmpəθi /

A2
  • noun
  • Feeling for other people when they are in trouble

workplace

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US / ˈwɜ:kpleɪs /

UK / ˈwɚkˌples /

B2
  • noun
  • Place where work is done

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

braun

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US / ˌbrætiˈslɑ:və /

UK / ˌbrætɪˈslɑvə, ˌbrɑtɪ- /

A1

even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

people

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US / 'pi:pl /

UK / ˈpipəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Persons sharing culture, country, background, etc.
  • Men, Women, Children

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

norm

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US / nɔ:m /

UK / nɔ:rm /

B1
  • noun
  • Standard or regular way of doing something
  • An established standard of performance or behavior
  • verb
  • To make something average (statistics)

right

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US / raɪt /

UK / raɪt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Correct or true
  • The south side of you looking at the rising sun
  • adverb
  • Exactly in a place or time
  • Being appropriate for a particular event
  • In a straight or direct manner
  • noun
  • Something you are legally or morally allowed to do
  • Ideal of what is just and good
  • Political view based on conservatism
  • verb
  • To fix something previously wrong or unjust
  • To make upright, as a boat that has turned over

senate

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US / 'senət /

UK / ˈsɛnɪt /

B2
  • noun
  • A board of governors at a college or university

she

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US / ʃɪ /

UK / ʃi /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Female person or animal mentioned before
  • (Refers to female person mentioned before)
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • Changes to clothing norms have become a point of contention on Capitol Hill, with the Senate loosening a long-standing tradition requiring business attire in the upper chamber. While Pennsylvania Senator John Fetterman, known for wearing shorts and hooded sweatshirts around the Capitol, appreciates the change, many others do not. A group of Republican senators expressed their displeasure, stating that allowing casual clothing on the Senate floor disrespects the institution and the American families they represent. Some Democratic senators also object to the change.To discuss the implications of the change, we have Richard Thompson Ford, a professor at Stanford Law School and the author of Dress Codes: How the Laws of Fashion Made History. He believes that the relaxed dress code reflects the evolving norms of society. Dress codes have become increasingly casual in recent years, starting with Silicon Valley and spreading to banks and law firms across the nation. Given this trend, it is not surprising to see it reach the United States Congress.The dress codes and norms of Congress have evolved over time. In 1993, women were finally allowed to wear pants on the Senate floor, thanks to the efforts of Senator Barb Mikulski and Carol Mosley Braun, who led the Pantsuit Rebellion.The relaxed dress code has sparked mixed reactions among senators. Senator Susan Collins of Maine initially joked that she would wear a bikini on the Senate floor but later expressed her concerns about maintaining the dignity of the institution. The debate surrounding clothing norms highlights the deeper questions of tradition, respect, and societal change that permeate the halls of Congress.In this article, we will explore the different perspectives on the relaxed dress code in the Senate and analyze the implications of this change on the institution and its members.
  • Subtitles section
  • It's the other debate playing out in the halls of Congress, not about government funding, but about clothing, what with the Senate loosening a longstanding tradition requiring business attire in the upper chamber.
  • Pennsylvania Senator John Fetterman, known for wearing shorts and hooded sweatshirts around the Capitol, appreciates the change, but many others do not.
  • A group of Republican senators wrote to the majority leader that, quote, allowing casual clothing on the Senate floor disrespects the institution we serve and the American families we represent.
  • Some Democratic senators are openly objecting to the change as well.
  • Here to discuss the change and what it means is Richard Thompson Ford.
  • He's a professor at Stanford Law School and the author of Dress Codes, How the Laws of Fashion Made History.
  • Thank you for being with us.
  • Thanks for having me on the show.
  • In response to the relaxed dress code, Senator Susan Collins of Maine, she first joked that she was going to wear a bikini on the Senate floor, but then she added, I think there's a certain dignity that we should be maintaining in the Senate,
  • And to do away with the dress code debases the institution.
  • How do you see it?
  • Well, I see it as a change that's reflecting changes in society.
  • It's been, for many years, norms of dress have been getting more casual, starting perhaps with the Silicon Valley out where I live, but it's spread around the nation to banks and law firms.
  • And so I can't say I'm surprised that it's now come to the United States Congress.
  • The dress codes and norms of Congress, as you mentioned, they've evolved over the years.
  • Back in 1993, that was when women were allowed to wear pants on the Senate floor.
  • It was Senator Barb Mikulski and Carol Mosley Braun who led the Pantsuit Rebellion.
  • But still, senators traditionally stick to business attire, suits for the men and dresses or pantsuits for the women.
  • Are there limits to the decline of formality and what that conveys?
  • Well, I think there are limits and there should be limits.
  • The very tricky question is exactly where those limits lie.
  • And I do want to emphasize that these norms change over time historically, and they have for hundreds of years.
  • Ever since, let's say, the late Middle Ages, one can detect a trend of clothing changing over time and generally becoming more casual, so that even today, the kind of attire that we associate with formality,
  • Something like a jacket like this one, was once considered sportswear, suitable only for hunting in the country or playing sports.
  • And so this trend is just continuing in the present day.
  • And before Senator Federman arrived in Washington, it was Arizona Senator Kirsten Sinema who's attire choices were often the center of debate about appropriateness and so forth.
  • Certainly, wearing Carhartt hooded sweatshirts and shorts helped establish Federman's political brand.
  • But there are those who argue that at a time when public trust in government is waning, when decorum in Congress is at a low, that attire matters now in a way that it might not have previously.
  • Well, I have some sympathy for that argument.
  • And yet, at the same time, the question is, what are people conveying with their attire and what are we conveying with dress codes?
  • It's interesting that you mentioned the role of women, because, historically, norms of professionalism have excluded some groups of people.
  • They've excluded women or they've made it harder for women to join what were previously all-male institutions.
  • And they've made it harder for some other groups as well.
  • So, you know, you could make the case that John Federman represents a group of Americans and, in his attire, he's expressing a certain kind of authenticity, a connection with his constituents.
  • And that's why I'm not surprised that this kind of change has happened.
  • Big picture.
  • You know, COVID changed the way that people dress in the workplace.
  • Athleisure, sportswear has now crept into every aspect of American life, for better or for worse.
  • Returning to that question about the demise of formality, where do you see the American public right now, the American culture at large?
  • I think you're quite right to mention COVID.
  • We're starting to see a blurring of the lines between workwear and the kind of thing that you wear at home, because half of the workweek for many Americans now is spent at home.
  • So you have the old formal dress codes are kind of under attack from a number of sides.
  • Richard Thompson Ford, Stanford Law School professor and author of Dress Codes, How the Laws of Fashion Made History.
  • Thanks for your insights.
  • RICHARD THOMPSON FORD, Stanford Law School Professor and Author, How the Laws of Fashion RICHARD THOMPSON FORD, Stanford Law School Professor and Author, How the Laws of Fashion Thank you.