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Why did Austria / Austria-Hungary decline?

Video vocabulary

blow

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US / bləʊ /

UK / blo /

A2
  • noun
  • Something that causes you difficulty or sadness
  • Act of making air come out of your mouth
  • A hit or strike from an object
  • verb
  • To move something using air
  • To make air come quickly out of your mouth
  • To clear something by forcing air through it

economic

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US / ˌi:kəˈnɒmɪk /

UK / ˌɛkəˈnɑmɪk, ˌikə- /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning trade, industry, and money

holy

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US / 'həʊlɪ /

UK / ˈholi /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good according to religious standards

problem

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US / ˈprɒbləm /

UK / ˈprɑbləm /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Causing trouble
  • noun
  • Something difficult to deal with or causes trouble
  • Question to show understanding of a math concept

raise

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US / reɪz /

UK / rez /

A1
  • noun
  • Increase in a bet above another when playing cards
  • Pay increase
  • verb
  • To increase a bet above another when playing cards
  • To gather donations for a cause or charity
  • To bring up and educate a child to maturity
  • To bring a dead person to life
  • To increase a quantity, size, intensity or price
  • To lift (e.g. your hand) to a higher position
  • To mention a topic /issue for discussion; bring up
  • To increase (salary, etc.)
  • To grow or care for plants or animals

austrian

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US / 'ɒstrɪən /

UK / 'ɔ:strɪrn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of Austria
  • noun
  • Person from Austria

boy

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US / bɔɪ /

UK / bɔɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • A young male person

industrialize

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US / ɪnˈdʌstriəlaɪz /

UK / ɪnˈdʌstriəˌlaɪz /

B1
  • verb
  • To make into something at an industrial level

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

prussia

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US / ˈprʌʃə /

UK / ˈprʌʃə /

A1
  • other
  • A former kingdom in north-central Europe including present-day northern Germany and northern Poland

undermine

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US / ˌʌndəˈmaɪn /

UK / ˌʌndərˈmaɪn /

B2
  • verb
  • To weaken or destroy secretly and usually slowly

dual

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US / ˈdju:əl /

UK / ˈdu:əl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of two similar things) existing/used side by side

break

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US / breɪk /

UK / brek /

A1
  • noun
  • Time you stop an activity before continuing
  • End of a relationship
  • An escape from a place such as a jail
  • (Lucky) advantage or benefit from something
  • Find a solution or answer to a problem or crime
  • Change in the weather
  • verb
  • To create a new record e.g. running the 100m dash
  • To form a crack in something
  • To burst or become damaged
  • To end a relationship
  • To escape from a place such as a jail
  • To train a wild animal e.g. a horse
  • To separate into pieces by force, or by dropping
  • To act against a law, rule, or promise
  • To become known suddenly, as in the news
  • To not do what you promised e.g. not keep promises
  • To solve a crime, or answer a problem
  • To stop functioning properly
  • To suddenly start, open or commence
  • To change in pitch suddenly, as in a voice
  • To fall on the shore, as in waves
  • To begin or change suddenly; the dawn or weather
  • To defeat by causing the person to lose their will

incompetence

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US / ɪnˈkɒmpɪtəns /

UK / ɪnˈkɑ:mpɪtəns /

B2
  • noun
  • Lack of skill or ability to do a task successfully

increase

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US / ɪn'kri:s /

UK / ɪnˈkris /

A1
  • noun
  • Fact of increasing; amount something grows by
  • verb
  • To make or become larger in size or amount

roman

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US / rɔmə /

UK / roˈmɑŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A resident of modern Rome
  • other
  • A typeface used in ancient Roman inscriptions
  • An inhabitant of the ancient Roman Empire
  • Characteristic of the modern type that most directly represents the type used in ancient Roman inscr
  • Of or relating to or supporting Romanism
  • Relating to or characteristic of people of Rome

government

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US / ˈgʌvənmənt /

UK / ˈɡʌvənmənt /

A1
  • noun
  • Group of people and system that rule a nation

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

could

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US / kəd /

UK / kʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Past form of 'can' to mean have ability
  • Used to ask for something politely, or to offer

busy

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US / 'bɪzɪ /

UK / ˈbɪzi /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Working hard doing something; full of activity
  • verb
  • To actively be occupied with doing something

bohemian

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US / bəʊˈhi:miən /

UK / boʊˈhi:miən /

A1
  • noun
  • A native or inhabitant of Bohemia in the Czech Republic
  • other
  • A nonconformist writer or artist who lives an unconventional life
  • Of or relating to Bohemia or its language or people
  • Unconventional in especially appearance and behavior

foot

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US / fʊt /

UK / fʊt /

A1
  • noun
  • Base of something such as a mountain or vase
  • Length of 12 inches or about 25 cm
  • Lowest part of the leg we use to stand on

enjoy

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US / ɪnˈdʒɔɪ /

UK / ɛnˈdʒɔɪ /

A1
  • verb
  • To take pleasure in something

know

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US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

anachronistic

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US / əˌnækrə'nɪstɪk /

UK / əˌnækrə'nɪstɪk /

C1
  • adjecitve
  • Not at the right time; out of synch with a period

century

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US / 'sentʃərɪ /

UK / ˈsɛntʃəri /

A1
  • noun
  • Period of 100 years

before

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US / bɪˈfɔ:(r) /

UK / bɪˈfɔr,-ˈfor /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a time earlier than the present; previously
  • conjunction
  • In advance of something happening
  • preposition
  • In front of someone or something

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

last

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US / lɑ:st /

UK / læst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Most recent; the latest
  • The one before
  • adverb
  • Final; with nothing following; after all others
  • Most recent; the latest
  • determiner
  • The one at the end
  • verb
  • To remain or continue for a certain period of time

plan

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US / plæn /

UK / plæn /

A1
  • noun
  • Drawing of how something should be done or made

modernization

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US / ˌmɒdənaɪ'zeɪʃn /

UK / ˌmɑdɚnəˈzeʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • The process of making something up-to-date

part

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US / pɑ:t /

UK / pɑ:rt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To some degree; half; not fully
  • noun
  • Division of a book
  • Ratio of something, e.g. 3 of gin, 1 of tonic
  • A line in a person's hair, made with a comb
  • Character an actor plays on stage, movie, or TV
  • Some, but not all of a specific thing
  • Role in causing something to happen
  • verb
  • To make a line in a person's hair, by using a comb
  • To move two things apart creating a space
  • To leave someone, or to break off a relationship

ruler

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US / ˈru:lə(r) /

UK / ˈrulɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Someone who has control over a country or area
  • Straight instrument used for measuring things

agriculture

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US / ˈægrɪkʌltʃə(r) /

UK / ˈæɡrɪˌkʌltʃɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • The science of farming

end

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US / end /

UK / ɛnd /

A1
  • noun
  • The point where a process or activity stops
  • A point that marks the limit of something; finish
  • Goal or desired result
  • The tip, edge or limit of something
  • verb
  • To be the last part of something

away

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US / ə'weɪ /

UK / əˈwe /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not present
  • adverb
  • Disappear completely
  • Doing something with a lot of energy
  • Not here; far from here; in a different direction
  • To a different area, location

defeat

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US / dɪ'fi:t /

UK / dɪˈfit /

B1
  • noun
  • When you lose a fight, game or competition
  • verb
  • To beat an enemy, team, disease

month

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US / mʌnθ /

UK / mʌnθ /

A1
  • noun
  • One of 12 28-31 day periods in the year

world

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US / wɜ:ld /

UK / wɜrld /

A1
  • noun
  • All the humans, events, activities on the earth
  • Political division due to some kind of similarity

anything

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US / ˈeniθɪŋ /

UK / ˈɛniˌθɪŋ /

A1
  • pronoun
  • A thing of any kind

europe

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US / ˈjʊərəp /

UK / ˈjʊrəp /

A1
  • noun
  • A continent including Germany, France and Spain
  • other
  • The second smallest continent (actually a vast peninsula of Eurasia); the British use 'Europe' to re

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

jewel

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US / 'dʒu:əl /

UK / ˈdʒuəl /

B1
  • noun
  • Precious stone like a diamond; gem

out

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US / aʊt /

UK / aʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • No longer stylish (e.g. fashion)
  • Away from home, business, or the usual place
  • In a direction/movement away from inside or center
  • noun
  • Act when a batter cannot continue playing
  • verb
  • To tell people a secret

over

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US / 'əʊvə(r) /

UK / ˈovɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Finished; no longer happening
  • Towards the ground/away from a standing position
  • noun
  • A set of six consecutive balls bowled in cricket
  • other
  • Finished
  • preposition
  • Showing the relation when a thing is above another
  • On or covering something
  • Above or across something
  • More than you need
  • From one side to the other
  • In the direction of; toward

come

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US / kʌm /

UK / kʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To arrive at a place
  • (Of mail) to be delivered
  • To move toward someone; go with someone
  • To reach a certain point or state

decide

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US / dɪ'saɪd /

UK / dɪˈsaɪd /

A2
  • verb
  • To make a choice or choose after thinking about it
  • To make a legal judgment in court
  • to affect the result of something

german

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US / ˈdʒɜːmən /

UK / ˈdʒɜːrmən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of Germany
  • noun
  • Person from Germany

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

sardinia

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US / sɑ:ˈdinjə /

UK / sɑrˈdɪniə, -ˈdɪnjə /

A1
  • other
  • An island in the Mediterranean to the west of Italy

policy

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US / 'pɒləsɪ /

UK / ˈpɑlɪsi /

A2
  • noun
  • Document stating terms of an insurance agreement
  • Course of action proposed by an organization, etc.

abolition

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US / ˌæbəˈlɪʃn /

UK / ˌæbəˈlɪʃən /

B2
  • noun
  • Act of abolishing a bad practice or institution

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

major

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US / 'meɪdʒə(r) /

UK / ˈmedʒɚ /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Main league; esp. referring to American baseball
  • Important, serious, or large in scope, size
  • noun
  • High-ranking officer in the army
  • Main subject you study at university
  • verb
  • To study a particular subject at university

hope

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US / həʊp /

UK / hop /

A1
  • noun
  • When you wish something will happen; what you wish
  • verb
  • To expect and want something to happen

propose

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US / prə'pəʊz /

UK / prəˈpoz /

A2
  • verb
  • To make an offer of marriage
  • To offer or put forward an idea for consideration

romania

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US / rʊ'meɪnɪə /

UK / rəʊˈmeɪnɪə /

A1
  • proper noun
  • A country in southeastern Europe with a coastline on the Black Sea; population 19,500,000 (estimated

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

hungarian

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US / hʌŋˈɡeəriən /

UK / hʌŋˈɡeriən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of Hungary

viennese

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US / ˌvɪəˈniːz /

UK / viˈɛˌnis /

A1
  • other
  • Of or relating to or characteristic of Vienna or its inhabitants

environment

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US / ɪn'vaɪrənmənt /

UK / ɛnˈvaɪrənmənt, -ˈvaɪən- /

A1
  • noun
  • Natural world in which plants and animals live
  • The entire surrounding conditions of something

austria

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US / 'ɒstrɪə /

UK / 'ɔ:strɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • A mountainous republic in central Europe; under the Habsburgs (-) austria maintained control of the

join

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US / dʒɔɪn /

UK / dʒɔɪn /

A1
  • verb
  • To bring something close to another, to become one
  • To become a member of
  • To participate in an activity with others

perhaps

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US / pəˈhæps /

UK / pɚˈhæps /

A1
  • adverb
  • Possibly, but not certainly; maybe

two

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • number
  • 2

conflict

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US / 'kɒnflɪkt /

UK / ˈkɑnˌflɪkt /

A2
  • noun
  • Argument or struggle between two or more parties
  • verb
  • To have opposite ideas; to disagree; To not match

keep

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US / ki:p /

UK / kip /

A1
  • noun
  • Large, strong tower in the middle of a castle
  • Money spent on you so you can live in a place
  • verb
  • To continue doing something; not to stop
  • To stop balls going in a goal in sports
  • To not give back or return something
  • (Of food) to not spoil or not rot
  • To take possession of something to own, e.g. a pet
  • To have and continue to hold something
  • To do something that you have promised or agreed
  • To stay in a certain place or condition
  • To maintain the rules

saxony

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US / ˈsæksəni /

UK / ˈsæksəni /

A1
  • other
  • An area in Germany around the upper Elbe river; the original home of the Saxons

soundly

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US / ˈsaʊndli /

UK / ˈsaʊndlɪ /

B2
  • adverb
  • (Sleep) deeply; (beaten)

something

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US / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

UK / ˈsʌmθɪŋ /

A1
  • adverb
  • In some degree or measure
  • noun
  • a person or thing of some value or consequence
  • pronoun
  • Thing that is not yet known or named
  • Approximately

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

time

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US / taɪm /

UK / taɪm /

A1
  • noun
  • Speed at which music is played; tempo
  • Point as shown on a clock, e.g. 3 p.m
  • Number of hours, minutes needed to do something
  • Occasion when something happens
  • Period or occasion that something occurred
  • Period in history or the past
  • Something measured in minutes, hours, days, etc.
  • How long an event takes; duration
  • verb
  • To check speed at which music is performed
  • To choose a specific moment to do something
  • To measure how long an event takes, e.g. a race
  • To schedule something to occur at a specific moment

why

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US / waɪ /

UK / hwaɪ, waɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Question word to ask for a reason
  • exclamation
  • (Used to express surprise or approval)

through

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US / θru: /

UK / θru /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • having finished using or doing something
  • adverb
  • From the beginning of something until the end
  • preposition
  • Over, in, across an entire thing or place
  • Allowing you to pass between, or to
  • By a particular way or process; by the use of

absolutist

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US / ˈæbsəluːtɪst /

UK / ˈæbsəluːtɪst /

B2
  • noun
  • Supporter of absolute systems/ideas/things

difficult

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US / 'dɪfɪkəlt /

UK / ˈdɪfɪˌkʌlt, -kəlt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Hard; not easy; you need to work hard to do it

franz

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US / 'fræntɪk /

UK / ˈfræntɪk /

A1

question

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US / 'kwestʃən /

UK / ˈkwɛstʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Issue or problems you are dealing with
  • What you ask about; issue
  • verb
  • To ask for or try to get information
  • To have or express concerns or uncertainty

shoot

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US / ʃu:t /

UK / ʃut /

A2
  • noun
  • Emerging new part of a plant
  • verb
  • To kick or throw a ball at a goal
  • To fire a gun; injure or kill someone with a gun
  • To (cause to) fly away forcefully
  • To use a camera to record a film/take a photograph

begin

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US / bɪ'ɡɪn /

UK / ˈbeɡɪn /

A1
  • verb
  • To do the first part of an action; to start

kill

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US / kɪl /

UK / kɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Animal killed by a person or other animal
  • verb
  • To cause someone to experience a lot of pain
  • To end the life of a person or other living thing
  • To be very funny
  • To prevent something from continuing or operating
  • To do something unimportant to pass time quickly

soon

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US / su:n /

UK / sun /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a time not long from now

fact

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US / fækt /

UK / fækt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that is known or proved to be true

industrial

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US / ɪnˈdʌstriəl /

UK / ɪnˈdʌstriəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning making things in factories

loyal

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US / ˈlɔɪəl /

UK / ˈlɔɪəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Always showing support for; faithful

land

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US / lænd /

UK / lænd /

A1
  • noun
  • Region or country
  • Earth; the ground
  • verb
  • To arrive or cause a boat to arrive at the shore
  • To obtain or get something that you wanted
  • To (cause to) come down to the ground safely
  • To cause to arrive in a specific place or state

notable

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US / ˈnəʊtəbl /

UK / ˈnoʊtəbl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Being famous or well-known
  • Deserving notice or mention; important

since

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US / sɪns /

UK / sɪns /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a point before the present time
  • conjunction
  • For this reason; because
  • preposition
  • From the time in the past that

within

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US / wɪˈðɪn /

UK / wɪðˈɪn, wɪθ- /

A1
  • adverb
  • Inside the limits of an area, time or range
  • preposition
  • From the inside of something

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

massively

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US / 'mæsɪvlɪ /

UK / 'mæsɪvlɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • To a very large degree or in a large manner

pace

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US / peɪs /

UK / pes /

A2
  • noun
  • Rate of speed at which something moves or happens
  • Single step, often used to measure a distance
  • verb
  • To set and control your speed, as in a race
  • To walk with slow purposeful steps

split

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US / splɪt /

UK / splɪt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • No longer married or in a relationship
  • (Injured) by cutting it open, as in someone's lip
  • (Of a decision) when people cannot decide a winner
  • noun
  • Difference of opinion in a group causing a break
  • Separation or a break in something
  • verb
  • To become divided or broken along a straight line
  • To cause a cut in (lip, etc.)
  • To have difference of opinion in a group
  • To separate into two or more pieces
  • To divide something in an even or fair way

turmoil

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US / ˈtɜ:mɔɪl /

UK / ˈtɚˌmɔɪl /

B2
  • noun
  • Very confused situation where things are not clear

though

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US / ðəu /

UK / ðo /

A1
  • adverb
  • Although, despite the fact that

pop

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US / pɒp /

UK / pɑp /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Type of music or art popular with many people
  • noun
  • Sweet soda drink
  • verb
  • To cause something to open or burst suddenly
  • To go to or in a place for a brief period of time

french

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US / frentʃ /

UK / frentʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of France
  • noun
  • Person's name

joseph

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US / ˈdʒəuzif /

UK / ˈdʒozəf, -səf /

A1
  • noun
  • (New Testament) Husband of Mary and (in Christian belief)
  • other
  • Leader of the Nez Perce in their retreat from United States troops

middle

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US / 'mɪdl /

UK / ˈmidl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Equal distance from extremes
  • noun
  • Place that is halfway between two things

special

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US / 'speʃl /

UK / ˈspɛʃəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being additional or extra
  • Different, better or greater than normal
  • noun
  • Heavily discounted sales item

even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

independent

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US / ˌɪndɪˈpendənt /

UK / ˌɪndɪˈpɛndənt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Making your own decisions; acting by yourself
  • noun
  • A person not connected to a political party

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

people

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US / 'pi:pl /

UK / ˈpipəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Persons sharing culture, country, background, etc.
  • Men, Women, Children

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

number

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US / ˈnʌmbə(r) /

UK / ˈnʌmbɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Symbols such as 1, 2, 56, 793
  • Particular song or dance performed during a show
  • Total quantity or amount of things
  • verb
  • To put numbers on things
  • To assign a sequence within a group, series, set
  • To claim to be part of a larger group, series, set

first

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US / fɜ:st /

UK / fɚst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 1st; Coming before all others in time or place
  • noun
  • Something that has not happened before
  • Position of the winner of a competition

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

hungary

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US / 'hʌŋɡərɪ /

UK / 'hʌŋɡərɪ /

A1
  • other
  • A republic in central Europe

primary

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US / 'praɪmərɪ /

UK / ˈpraɪˌmɛri, -məri /

B2
  • adjecitve
  • Most important, most basic or essential
  • Happening first; earliest
  • of or for the teaching of young children

romanian

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US / rʊ'meɪnɪən /

UK / rʊ'meɪnɪrn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of Romania
  • noun
  • Person from Romania

despite

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US / dɪˈspaɪt /

UK / dɪˈspaɪt /

A2
  • preposition
  • Without being affected by something; in spite of

empire

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US / ˈempaɪə(r) /

UK / ˈɛmˌpaɪr /

B1
  • noun
  • Group of countries controlled by one government

fun

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US / fʌn /

UK / fʌn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Amusing and enjoyable
  • noun
  • Enjoyable or amusing quality or feeling

refuse

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US / rɪ'fju:z /

UK / ˈrefjus /

A2
  • noun
  • Garbage, waste
  • verb
  • To not accept, allow, or give something

force

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US / fɔ:s /

UK / fɔrs, fors /

A1
  • noun
  • Group of persons trained for military action; army
  • Pressure; attraction
  • The use of physical strength/violence to persuade
  • verb
  • To use physical strength or violence to persuade

during

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US / ˈdjʊərɪŋ /

UK / ˈdʊrɪŋ, ˈdjʊr- /

A1
  • preposition
  • At some point in the course of an event or thing

example

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US / ɪgˈzɑ:mpl /

UK / ɪɡˈzæmpəl /

A1
  • noun
  • Thing, person which represents a category

greatly

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US / ˈgreɪtli /

UK / ˈɡreɪtli /

A2
  • adverb
  • An extraordinary extent or degree

existence

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US / ɪɡ'zɪstəns /

UK / ɪɡˈzɪstəns /

A2
  • noun
  • State of being present, alive or real

happen

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US / 'hæpən /

UK / ˈhæpən /

A1
  • verb
  • To take place or occur

great

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US / ɡreɪt /

UK / ɡret /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very large in size
  • Very important
  • Very good; fantastic; wonderful
  • adverb
  • Very good; better than before
  • noun
  • Successful and well-admired person

mean

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US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular meaning or value

require

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US / rɪ'kwaɪə(r) /

UK / rɪˈkwaɪr /

A2
  • verb
  • To demand that someone does something
  • To need to do something, to make it necessary

beat

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US / bi:t /

UK / bit /

A2
  • noun
  • Regular movement or rhythm (e.g. heart or music)
  • verb
  • To move in regular motions in order to push blood
  • To strike or hit repeatedly and with great force
  • To mix ingredients together with a fork or machine
  • To play a drum
  • To win against another person or team; defeat

should

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US / ʃʊd /

UK / ʃʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate what is proper or reasonable

unless

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US / ənˈles /

UK / ʌnˈlɛs /

A2
  • conjunction
  • Negative of 'if'

after

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US / 'ɑ:ftə(r) /

UK / ˈæftɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Later than another time, or behind something
  • conjunction
  • Following something before
  • preposition
  • When an event happened or time has passed

episode

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US / 'epɪsəʊd /

UK / ˈɛpɪˌsod /

B1
  • noun
  • One separate event in a series of events
  • Show which is part of a larger story

mediator

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US / ˈmi:dieɪtə(r) /

UK / ˈmidiˌetɚ /

B2
  • noun
  • Person helping others to reach an agreement

side

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US / saɪd /

UK / saɪd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In addition to the central or most important thing
  • Next to, or very close to, the right or left of
  • noun
  • Position or opinion that is opposite to another
  • Right or left part of a person's body
  • Feature of someone's personality
  • Straight edge of an object
  • One of two or more groups fighting each other
  • verb
  • To decide to agree with one point, not the other

reason

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US / 'ri:zn /

UK / ˈrizən /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to think about facts and form a judgment
  • Explanation for why something occurred or was done
  • verb
  • To think and make conclusions in a logical manner

too

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition, also; with emphasis
  • Say that something is more than you want

combine

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US / kəmˈbaɪn /

UK / kəmˈbaɪn /

A2
  • verb
  • To mix several things together to form one thing

alienate

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US / 'eɪlɪəneɪt /

UK / ˈeljəˌnet, ˈeliə- /

B1
  • verb
  • To make someone feel they are not part of a group

ever

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US / 'evə(r) /

UK / ˈɛvɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At any time; at all times in the future

proposal

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US / prəˈpəʊzl /

UK / prəˈpozəl /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of asking someone to marry you
  • Offer or plan to people who can decide about it

tax

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US / tæks /

UK / tæks /

A2
  • noun
  • Money taken by a government from its people
  • verb
  • To require a lot of physical or mental effort
  • (Government) to take money from a country's people

point

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US / pɔɪnt /

UK / pɔɪnt /

A1
  • noun
  • An item to be discussed
  • Small spot or dot
  • Fact or detail
  • Feature of something
  • The size of the text on a page or screen
  • A certain time or stage in a process
  • Certain position in time or space
  • Idea or fact you try to convince people about
  • Measurement of scores in a game, sport
  • Sharp end of something, e.g. a pen or pin
  • verb
  • To face a certain direction, e.g. north
  • To indicate something with your finger to others

polity

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US / ˈpɒləti /

UK / ˈpɑ:ləti /

A1
  • noun
  • A society organized in a particular political way

emperor

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US / 'empərə(r) /

UK / ˈɛmpəɚ /

B1
  • noun
  • Man who rules an empire

reset

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US / ˌri:'set /

UK / riˈsɛt /

C1
  • verb
  • To return to the original start or formation

population

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US / ˌpɒpjuˈleɪʃn /

UK / ˌpɑpjəˈleʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Number of people who live in a country, area etc.

army

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US / 'ɑ:mɪ /

UK / ˈɑrmi /

A2
  • noun
  • Large group of soldiers organized to fight in wars

among

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US / əˈmʌŋ /

UK / əˈmʌŋ /

A1
  • preposition
  • In the center of several things

lose

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US / lu:z /

UK / luz /

A1
  • verb
  • To be unable to keep in check or control something
  • To decrease in value or quantity (e.g. weight)
  • To stop having certain qualities or abilities
  • To stop having or being entitled to
  • To fail to win something that is being contested
  • To be unable to find something you once had
  • To be dependent on someone (used with 'not')

new

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US / nju: /

UK / nu, nju /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not old, recently born, built or made
  • Being or doing something for the first time
  • Not felt, seen or known previously
  • Having been recently bought or obtained

refusal

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US / rɪˈfju:zl /

UK / rɪˈfjuzəl /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of not accepting, giving, or doing

small

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US / smɔ:l /

UK / smɔl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Little in size; not big
  • (Of letters) not written in capital letters
  • Being insignificant or minor
  • (Of a business) with few people or things; local
  • (Of voice) being soft and quiet
  • (Of a child) being young

position

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US / pəˈzɪʃn /

UK / pəˈzɪʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's opinion or attitude about something
  • Specific location where someone or something is
  • Where you play or your role on a sports team
  • Person's job or status level
  • Set of conditions affecting what you can (not) do
  • verb
  • To put in a particular location or direction

try

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US / traɪ /

UK / traɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • Act of putting the ball over the rugby goal line
  • verb
  • To make an effort, to attempt to do something
  • To examine someone or something in a court of law
  • To test to see if it is good or you like it
  • To make a person go through hardship; test
  • To examine something to see if it works

violence

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US / ˈvaɪələns /

UK / ˈvaɪələns /

B1
  • noun
  • Strong physical force of nature
  • Use of physical force to harm someone

sabotage

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US / 'sæbətɑ:ʒ /

UK / ˈsæbəˌtɑʒ /

B2
  • noun
  • Destroying or damaging so as to weaken enemy, etc.
  • verb
  • To destroy or damage, often secretly, to weaken

speak

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US / spi:k /

UK / spik /

A1
  • verb
  • To be able to use a certain language
  • To use words to tell information, express thoughts

heir

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US / eə(r) /

UK / er /

C1
  • noun
  • Person to receive power or money when someone dies

goal

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US / ɡəʊl /

UK / ɡol /

A2
  • noun
  • Something you try to do or achieve; an aim
  • (Sports) net into which you put a ball to score
  • (Sports) act of scoring by putting a ball in a net

instrumental

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US / ˌɪnstrəˈmentl /

UK / ˌɪnstrəˈmɛntl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Having a strong influence to get a desired result
  • Including musical instruments without singing

solution

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US / səˈlu:ʃn /

UK / səˈluʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Mix of a liquid and a solid or a gas
  • Way to solve or deal with a problem

throne

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US / θrəʊn /

UK / θron /

B1
  • noun
  • Special elaborate chair on which king/queen sits

accept

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US / ək'sept /

UK / ækˈsɛpt /

A1
  • verb
  • To agree to receive or take something offered
  • To admit that something is true or correct

diminish

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US / dɪˈmɪnɪʃ /

UK / dɪˈmɪnɪʃ /

B1
  • verb
  • To make something smaller or less important
  • To imply someone's reputation is less good
  • To become or cause to become less in size, value

level

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US / 'levl /

UK / ˈlɛvəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • (Sports) equal to another
  • Being steady and determined (e.g. a voice)
  • noun
  • Specific height of something
  • Amount of ability you have compared to others
  • Floor or deck within a building
  • Tool used to determine if something is lying flat
  • verb
  • To aim a gun at someone
  • To destroy a building; flatten an area completely
  • To make things flat or even
  • To make a score equal to another, in sports

slav

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US / slɑ:v /

UK / slɑv /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Speaking a Slavic language
  • noun
  • Any member of the people of eastern Europe or Asian Russia who speak a Slavonic language

state

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US / steɪt /

UK / stet /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning region within a country
  • noun
  • Region within a country, with its own government
  • Situation or condition something is in
  • verb
  • To say; declare as fact

little

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US / 'lɪtl /

UK / ˈlɪtl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being short in length of time
  • Not great in size, amount, or degree; small
  • Being very young or younger than others
  • adverb
  • By an amount or degree that is not very much
  • Not often; rarely
  • noun
  • A person's name

lead

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US / li:d /

UK / lid /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being the main part in movies or plays
  • noun
  • Wire for electricity, computer, etc.; cable
  • Information that could help to solve a crime
  • Main part in a play or movie
  • Heavy, gray metal element
  • Rope used to tie something to stop it escaping
  • Act of being at the front in a race or game
  • verb
  • To show the way or guide others
  • To be at the front of a race or game
  • To travel in front of; go in advance of others

seek

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US / si:k /

UK / sik /

A2
  • verb
  • To ask someone for help
  • To search for; try to find or do; look for
  • To try to achieve something

refashion

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US / /

UK / /

A1
  • transitive verb
  • Fashion (something) again or differently.

stability

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US / stəˈbɪləti /

UK / stəˈbɪlɪti /

A2
  • noun
  • Quality or state of being even or consistent

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

attempt

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US / ə'tempt /

UK / əˈtɛmpt /

A2
  • noun
  • Effort made to try to do or accomplish something
  • verb
  • To try to do something challenging or difficult

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

live

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US / lɪv /

UK / liv /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being broadcast as events happen, not recorded
  • Carrying electric current; able to give a shock
  • Glowing because burning; hot
  • Not yet killed (for food)
  • adverb
  • (Music, drama) as it is performed
  • verb
  • To be alive
  • To experience a particular type of life
  • To make your home in a house or town

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

atrocious

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US / əˈtrəʊʃəs /

UK / əˈtroʊʃəs /

C1
  • adjecitve
  • Extremely bad or cruel

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

one

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn /

A1
  • pronoun
  • You; we; people in general; someone
  • The thing or person previously referred to
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to people generally
  • Being a strong example of (something mentioned)
  • number
  • Number 1

stress

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US / stres /

UK / strɛs /

A2
  • noun
  • Emphasis on part of a word or sentence
  • Pressure on something or someone
  • A state of mental tension, worry due to problems
  • verb
  • To emphasize one or more parts of a word, sentence
  • To put pressure on something or someone
  • To say your opinion strongly
  • To be in a state of mental tension due to problems

turn

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US / tɜ:n /

UK / tɚn /

A1
  • noun
  • Place where changing of direction happens
  • Your time or chance to perform a duty
  • Your chance to play or do in say a game
  • Unexpected change, as in the weather
  • verb
  • To become (a particular age)
  • To become a different quality, color, etc.
  • To change the direction of something, e.g. a car
  • To move in an opposite direction or position
  • To shape metal with a spinning tool

than

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US / ðən /

UK / ðən /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to compare two things that are not equal

power

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US / 'paʊə(r) /

UK / ˈpaʊɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Legal or official right to perform certain actions
  • Ability to move forcefully and quickly
  • Energy of something (e.g. electricity or fuel)
  • Mathematical way to multiply a number
  • Condition of being in political control
  • Physical force, energy, and strength
  • verb
  • To give energy to something, e.g. by electricity
  • To move something forcefully and quickly

across

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US / əˈkrɔs /

UK / əˈkrɔs,əˈkrɑs /

A1
  • adverb
  • Distance from one side to another
  • (Go) from one side to the other of something

italy

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US / 'ɪtəlɪ /

UK / 'ɪtəlɪ /

A1
  • proper noun
  • A country in southern Europe; population 59,800,000 (estimated 2015); capital, Rome; official langua

happy

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US / ˈhæpi /

UK / ˈhæpi /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Feeling pleasure or joy; glad

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

gobble

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US / ˈgɒbl /

UK / ˈgɑ:bl /

C1
  • verb
  • To eat or swallow something quickly

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

outside

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US / ˌaʊtˈsaɪd /

UK / aʊtˈsaɪd, ˈaʊtˌsaɪd /

A2
  • adverb
  • Beyond the limits or edges of some place, thing
  • noun
  • Area around or near something, such as a building
  • preposition
  • Beyond the limits or edges of some place, thing

russian

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US / ˈrʌʃn /

UK / ˈrʌʃn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of Russia
  • noun
  • Person from Russia

suppress

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US / səˈpres /

UK / səˈprɛs /

B1
  • verb
  • To prevent the display of emotion or feeling
  • To use force to prevent something happening

treble

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US / ˈtrebl /

UK / ˈtrɛbəl /

C1
  • noun
  • Highest musical range of sounds

abdication

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US / ˌæbdɪ'keɪʃn /

UK / ˌæbdɪ'keɪʃn /

C1
  • noun
  • Act of formally give up being king of queen

bad

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US / bæd /

UK / bæd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not good; wrong
  • Lacking in good morals; evil
  • No longer fresh; spoiled

term

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US / tɜ:m /

UK / tɚm /

A1
  • noun
  • Conditions applying to an agreement, contract
  • Length of time something is expected to happen
  • Fixed period of weeks for learning at school
  • The (precise) name given to something
  • verb
  • To call; give a name to

three

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US / θri: /

UK / θri /

A1
  • number
  • Number 3

become

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US / bɪ'kʌm /

UK / bɪˈkʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To begin to be; grow to be; develop into
  • To be suitable for a particular job or role

ally

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US / 'ælaɪ /

UK / 'ælaɪ /

B1
  • noun
  • Someone who supports, helps, or defends you
  • verb
  • To join a group to offer or receive support

internal

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US / inˈtə:nəl /

UK / ɪnˈtɚnəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being or happening in the body
  • Being, happening in a country, state, organization
  • Within or inside; interior; not external

same

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US / seɪm /

UK / sem /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in quality and amount
  • Identical; not different
  • Not changing; constant

slow

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US / sləʊ /

UK / sloʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Lacking activity, busyness or excitement
  • (Clock) showing time earlier than the actual time
  • Having difficulty understanding simple things
  • Moving or happening without speed; not fast
  • verb
  • To move, with less speed than before
  • To move or go without much speed

transform

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US / træns'fɔ:m /

UK / trænsˈfɔrm /

C2
  • verb
  • To change the shape completely in a good way

vienna

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US / viˈenə /

UK / viˈɛnə /

A1
  • proper noun
  • The capital of Austria, in the northeastern part of the country on the Danube River; population 1,66

reform

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US / rɪ'fɔ:m /

UK / rɪˈfɔrm /

A2
  • noun
  • An improvement, especially in a person's behaviour or in the structure of something
  • verb
  • To re-shape something to a better condition
  • To (cause to) lead a non-criminal life
  • To improve society by removing abuse/injustice
  • To re-shape something into a different form

yet

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US / jet /

UK / jɛt /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a later time (used after ‘not’)
  • (Used to emphasize that thing is, will be greater)
  • Eventually; at a future time
  • Until now; up to the present
  • conjunction
  • Adding to what has been said, often as a contrast

want

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US / wɔnt /

UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

friend

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US / frend /

UK / frɛnd /

A1
  • noun
  • Person who you like and enjoy being with

equal

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US / 'i:kwəl /

UK / ˈikwəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Same in shape, size, or number
  • verb
  • To add up or be the same as

leader

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US / ˈli:də(r) /

UK / ˈlidɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Person who is in charge of a group or task
  • Person or group who is currently winning

now

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US / naʊ /

UK / naʊ /

A1
  • adverb
  • At the present time or moment
  • Right away or in the next possible moment
  • Used to refer to something that just happened
  • Time between the present and a moment in the past
  • conjunction
  • Resulting from or because of something

napoleonic

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US / nəˌpəʊlɪˈɒnɪk /

UK / nəˌpoʊliˈɑnɪk /

A1
  • other
  • Of or relating to or like Napoleon Bonaparte

war

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US / wɔ:(r) /

UK / wɔr /

A2
  • noun
  • Situation where armies fight each other

potentially

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US / pə'tenʃəlɪ /

UK / pəˈtɛnʃəlɪ /

B1
  • adverb
  • That could happen or become reality

italian

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US / ɪ'tælɪən /

UK / ɪˈtæljən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of Italy
  • noun
  • Person from Italy

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

output

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US / 'aʊtpʊt /

UK / ˈaʊtˌpʊt /

A2
  • noun
  • Amount of something that is produced
  • verb
  • To produce data or information, as a computer

semi

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US / ˈsemi /

UK / ˈsɛmaɪ, ˈsɛmi /

B1
  • noun
  • House that shares a wall with another house
  • prefix
  • A prefix meaning 'half'

relationship

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US / rɪˈleɪʃnʃɪp /

UK / rɪˈleʃənˌʃɪp /

A2
  • noun
  • Connection between two or more people or things
  • Way people interact or live with each other
  • Romantic or loving friendship between two people

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

desire

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US / dɪ'zaɪə(r) /

UK / dɪˈzaɪr /

A2
  • noun
  • Thing that is wished for or wanted
  • verb
  • To wish for, hope or want something

good

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US / ɡʊd /

UK / ɡʊd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper, appropriate or right
  • (Of an amount) enough; plenty
  • Excellent; high quality
  • Acting well or properly; of moral character
  • In a positive or happy emotional state
  • noun
  • Advantage or benefit

give

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US / ɡɪv /

UK / ɡɪv /

A1
  • noun
  • Degree of flexibility in something, a material
  • verb
  • To hand over or present something to someone
  • To cause someone to have or experience something

life

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US / laɪf /

UK / laɪf /

A1
  • noun
  • All the living things e.g. animals, plants, humans
  • Period of time things live, from birth to death

modernize

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US / 'mɒdənaɪz /

UK / ˈmɑdɚˌnaɪz /

A2
  • verb
  • To start using the newest tools/methods/technology

monarchy

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US / 'mɒnəkɪ /

UK / ˈmɑnəki, -ˌɑr- /

B2
  • noun
  • Nation that is ruled by a king or queen

patron

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US / 'peɪtrən /

UK / ˈpetrən /

B2
  • noun
  • Person buying products or services of a business
  • Someone who donates to an organization or activity

favour

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US / ˈfeɪvə(r) /

UK / ˈfevɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • What someone asks of you; helpful act; a kindness
  • verb
  • To prefer or promote over another

north

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US / nɔ:θ /

UK / nɔ:rθ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Coming from the opposite direction to the south
  • noun
  • Direction to your left when facing the rising sun

would

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate something imagined
  • Used to ask or request something politely
  • Verb used to indicate possibility, request etc.
  • Used to indicate a preference
  • Used to indicate a reaction
  • Indicates something that occurred repeatedly
  • Used to indicate willingness or ability to do

carve

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US / kɑ:v /

UK / kɑ:rv /

B1
  • verb
  • To cut a piece of cooked meat into thin slices
  • To make a cut in, e.g. to write your name on tree
  • To cut wood, etc., into a particular shape

fear

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US / fɪə(r) /

UK / fɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unpleasant feeling caused by being aware of danger
  • verb
  • To be afraid of or nervous about something

franco

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US / 'frɒŋkəʊ /

UK / 'frɑ:ŋkoʊ /

A1
  • other
  • Spanish general whose armies took control of Spain in and who ruled as a dictator until his death

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

possible

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US / ˈpɒsəbl /

UK / ˈpɑsəbəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being able or appropriate for a task or purpose
  • Having a chance of happening, or being true

acknowledge

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US / ək'nɒlɪdʒ /

UK / ækˈnɑlɪdʒ /

A2
  • verb
  • To say you have received a letter, gift, etc.
  • To say you accept the truth or value of something
  • to publicly express appreciation

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

its

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US / ɪts /

UK / ɪts /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to or belonging to ‘it’
  • determiner
  • Of something; belonging or related to something
  • other
  • Possessive form of “it”

return

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US / rɪ'tɜ:n /

UK / rɪ'tɜ:rn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Do again; repeated
  • noun
  • Faulty or unwanted product sent back to a company
  • Enter key; the main key on the computer keyboard
  • Profit made as a result of a business activity
  • Process of going back to a previous way or state
  • verb
  • To hit something back to the other player or team
  • To come back after being away from somewhere
  • To repay someone's actions, kindness etc.
  • To put, bring, take, give, or send something back
  • To occur again

multi

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US / 'mʌlti /

UK / ˈmʌlti /

B1
  • prefix
  • A prefix meaning 'many' or 'more than one'

nationalism

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US / ˈnæʃnəlɪzəm /

UK / ˈnæʃənəˌlɪzəm, ˈnæʃnə- /

A2
  • noun
  • Love of your country, e.g. leading to war

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

way

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US / weɪ /

UK / we /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to emphasize the amount of something
  • noun
  • Particular aspect of something being thought about
  • One of various choices that could be made
  • Particular existing condition or state
  • (Often long) distance or length of time
  • How something is done
  • Route to go to a place
  • Small street
  • Usual behavior, emotions or habits of someone

change

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US / tʃeɪndʒ /

UK / tʃendʒ /

A1
  • noun
  • Exchange of one set of clothes for another
  • Money in the form of coins instead of paper
  • Money returned after giving too much
  • Act of making or becoming something else
  • verb
  • To exchange one set of clothes for another
  • To exchange one kind of money for another
  • To replace something with another thing
  • To make or become something else
  • To go from one train, bus, etc. and go to another

military

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US / 'mɪlətrɪ /

UK / ˈmɪlɪˌtɛri /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the army or navy
  • noun
  • Army or armed forces

pressure

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US / 'preʃə(r) /

UK / ˈprɛʃɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Anxiety caused by difficult problems
  • Force, weight when pressing against a thing
  • Strong persuasion to do something
  • verb
  • To apply force to something
  • To persuade or force someone to do something

simple

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US / 'sɪmpl /

UK / ˈsɪmpəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not hard to understand or do; not complex
  • Having only a few parts; not complex
  • Being ordinary or normal
  • Being plain; without a lot added for style

work

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US / wɜ:k /

UK / wɚk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Activity completed in order to make money
  • noun
  • The product of some artistic or literary endeavor
  • Everything created by an author, artist, musician
  • Activity you do in order to make money
  • Place of employment
  • Final product or result of a some labor or effort
  • verb
  • To bring into a specific state of success
  • To be functioning properly, e.g. a car
  • To do your job in your company or workplace
  • To make an effort to do something
  • To operate a machine or device

post

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US / pəʊst /

UK / post /

A1
  • noun
  • Message delivered or shared in an online group
  • Piece of wood, metal in the ground for support
  • Job or position within an organization or company
  • Place where a soldier, etc. is ordered to go
  • verb
  • To send a letter or package using stamps
  • To share a message on an internet discussion group
  • To send a soldier somewhere to do a job
  • To put a message in public for everyone to see

link

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US / lɪŋk /

UK / lɪŋk /

A2
  • noun
  • Any one of the rings that are part of a chain
  • Connection between two or more things or people
  • Webpage item you click to go to another webpage
  • verb
  • To join or connect together

succeed

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US / sək'si:d /

UK / səkˈsid /

A2
  • verb
  • To have achieved what you were trying to achieve
  • To take over position of one who has died or left
  • To come after or replace in a series

unity

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US / 'ju:nətɪ /

UK / ˈjunɪti /

B2
  • noun
  • Being in full agreement; being joined together
  • Quality of having parts that fit or work together

veto

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US / ˈvi:təʊ /

UK / ˈvito /

B2
  • noun
  • Act of not allowing while acting in authority
  • verb
  • To not allow while in a position of authority

centralize

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US / ˈsentrəlaɪz /

UK / ˈsɛntrəˌlaɪz /

B1
  • verb
  • To locate efforts, energy into one place or thing
  • To bring under the control of one person or group

doom

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US / du:m /

UK / dum /

B2
  • noun
  • Certain of the failure or destruction of
  • Very bad, unhappy future event or situation
  • verb
  • To make failure, defeat or death certain for

look

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US / lʊk /

UK / lʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's beauty or physical attractiveness
  • Particular style of dress, clothes, or appearance
  • The way someone, something appears to be
  • Act of searching for or examining something
  • verb
  • To appear to be; seem

pay

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US / peɪ /

UK / pe /

A1
  • noun
  • Money you receive from your job, work, etc.
  • verb
  • To give money for goods or work done
  • To give (attention, respect, etc.) to
  • To be punished or suffer for something you did
  • To make (a visit) to a person or place

thank

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US / θæŋk /

UK / θæŋk /

A1
  • verb
  • To tell someone you are grateful to them
  • Subtitles section
  • At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the Austrian Empire was the leading great power in Europe.
  • Yet, a century later, when it was time for the First World War, Austria's position had declined massively.
  • Which raises the question, why?
  • Why did the Austrian Empire and later Austria Hungary decline?
  • So, as of Napoleon's defeat, Austrian leadership was instrumental in deciding what a post war Europe would look like.
  • And Austria's goal was simple.
  • Reset things to how they were before the French Revolution.
  • Because this was the world that Austria knew and the one that Austria could succeed in.
  • Of course, this environment wouldn't last.
  • And there were three primary reasons that a century later, Austria's position amongst the great powers was greatly diminished.
  • Reason one was nationalism.
  • The idea that polities should be made up of the same people and the lands that they live in.
  • For a multi ethnic empire like Austria, this was a problem.
  • since it could potentially lead to parts of the empire wanting to break away, and boy did it.
  • After Serbia, Romania and Italy popped into existence, there were outside forces seeking unity with populations ruled by Vienna.
  • And in the middle of this, in the year of the Revolution, revolutions broke out all across the empire.
  • The German, Hungarian, Italian, Romanian and Bohemian parts of the empire saw revolutions and ethnic violence break out over the course of two months.
  • And the Hungarian revolution required the help of the Russian army to suppress.
  • and it led to the abdication of the emperor in favour of Franz Joseph.
  • To the north, nationalism undermined Austria's relationship with the German speaking world.
  • Napoleon's abolition of the smaller anachronistic German states as well as the ending of the Holy Roman Empire were permanent, and this worked well for Prussia.
  • Austria wanted to keep Saxony and its absolutist ruler independent from Prussia, and so, in return for Saxony not getting gobbled up, Prussia was given all of this.
  • which meant that Prussia was now on its way to becoming an industrial power.
  • However, Austria didn't industrialise at the same pace, and the Empire's leadership had little desire to change anything.
  • And why would they?
  • Since, as of the year of the year, despite the turmoil they'd been through, the Habsburgs were still doing okay.
  • In fact, they were now the mediators of ethnic conflict within the Empire.
  • The problem was that internal stability was now linked to foreign events, and Habsburg foreign policy was atrocious.
  • For example, the Austrians alienated their Russian allies when they refused to help them out during the Crimean War.
  • And when combined with military incompetence, this led to Austria losing land to Sardinia, which soon became Italy, as well as losing its influence in Germany after getting soundly beaten by Prussia in the year of the Great War.
  • This defeat was so bad that the empire's leaders were forced to refashion the Austrian Empire into the Austro Hungarian Empire.
  • The plan was that by giving Hungary equal footing with Austria, the Hungarians would remain loyal, but fun fact, no.
  • The splitting of the empire was a major long term blow to its position as a great power.
  • All across Europe, governments were centralising, which led to greater levels of economic planning, military coordination and industrial output.
  • And to make things even more difficult, Hungarian leadership was more than happy to veto and sabotage Viennese plans for reform.
  • Attempts to reform agriculture?
  • No.
  • Trying to increase taxes to pay for military modernisation?
  • No.
  • Perhaps the most notable example, though, was when Austrian leadership wanted to join France's side during the Franco Prussian War.
  • The Hungarians threatened to make life difficult for them, which meant no war.
  • Fearing that the empire was doomed unless it reformed, heir to the throne Franz Ferdinand and friends came up with two possible solutions.
  • Solution one was the United States of Greater Austria.
  • This would see the dual monarchy transform from this to this.
  • Solution number two was turning the jewel monarchy into the treble monarchy, in which a new kingdom for Slavs would be carved out of Austria and Hungary and made semi independent.
  • The problem was that there was no way that Hungary would ever accept these proposals, something Franz Ferdinand acknowledged, and also he was too busy being shot to see them ever proposed.
  • At which point, World War I. And when this happened, Austria's slow beginnings industrialising combined with Hungarian refusal to reform and modernise, as well as the internal pressures of nationalism meant that the stresses of World War I would kill the empire for good.
  • I hope you enjoyed this episode with a special thanks to my patrons...