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Why was Texas divided after it joined the USA? (Short Animated Documentary)

Video vocabulary

annex

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US / əˈneks /

UK / əˈnɛks, ˈænˌɛks /

B2
  • noun
  • An extension to a main building
  • verb
  • To take land from others to own or control it

bell

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US / bel /

UK / bɛl /

A2
  • noun
  • Metal object shaped like a cup that rings when hit
  • Electronic device that makes a ringing sound

dispute

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US / dɪ'spju:t /

UK / dɪˈspjut /

B1
  • noun
  • Argument with someone about something
  • A question or doubt about something
  • verb
  • To argue with someone about something
  • To disagree about who owns or controls something
  • To question the truth or reality of something

fair

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US / feə(r) /

UK / fɛr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Neither very good nor very bad; average
  • (Of skin) light colored; not dark
  • Quite good; quite a lot
  • Treating all people the same way
  • (Of hair) light colored; blonde
  • (Of weather) sunny; not raining
  • noun
  • Event for companies to show their products
  • Event to sell things to help a charity

forward

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US / 'fɔ:wəd /

UK / ˈfɔrwəd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Toward what is ahead; in front
  • Acting in a socially aggressive manner; pushy
  • adverb
  • Toward the front in place; in front
  • Toward a future time; to a more advanced state
  • verb
  • To send something to another address or person

john

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US / dʒɔn /

UK / dʒɑn /

A1
  • noun
  • A toilet.
  • A prostitute's client.
  • proper noun
  • (1165–1216), son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine; king of England 1199–1216; known as John Lack
  • The name of six kings of Portugal.

into

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US / 'ɪntə /

UK / ˈɪntu /

A1
  • preposition
  • Moving or going inside something
  • In the same direction as; in the direction of
  • So as to become; taking the state of

power

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US / 'paʊə(r) /

UK / ˈpaʊɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Legal or official right to perform certain actions
  • Ability to move forcefully and quickly
  • Energy of something (e.g. electricity or fuel)
  • Mathematical way to multiply a number
  • Condition of being in political control
  • Physical force, energy, and strength
  • verb
  • To give energy to something, e.g. by electricity
  • To move something forcefully and quickly

settle

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US / 'setl /

UK / ˈsɛtl /

A2
  • noun
  • Type of wooden seat
  • verb
  • To make (a child, etc.) feel calm/ready for sleep
  • To complete or finalize e.g. a contract or debt
  • To end some troubles by reaching an agreement
  • To become accustomed to a new environment
  • (Of liquids) to move to the bottom of a container

won

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US / wʌn /

UK / wʌn, won /

A1
  • verb
  • To gain something you want because of your efforts
  • To succeed in a game or contest

james

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US / dʒeimz /

UK / dʒemz /

A1
  • proper noun
  • The name of seven Stuart kings of Scotland.
  • The name of two kings of England, Ireland, and Scotland.

lead

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US / li:d /

UK / lid /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being the main part in movies or plays
  • noun
  • Wire for electricity, computer, etc.; cable
  • Information that could help to solve a crime
  • Main part in a play or movie
  • Heavy, gray metal element
  • Rope used to tie something to stop it escaping
  • Act of being at the front in a race or game
  • verb
  • To show the way or guide others
  • To be at the front of a race or game
  • To travel in front of; go in advance of others

little

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US / 'lɪtl /

UK / ˈlɪtl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being short in length of time
  • Not great in size, amount, or degree; small
  • Being very young or younger than others
  • adverb
  • By an amount or degree that is not very much
  • Not often; rarely
  • noun
  • A person's name

the

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US / ðə /

UK / ðə /

A1
  • article
  • Used to refer to something already mentioned
  • Used to show there is only one of something
  • determiner
  • Used to describe all of a family

make

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US / meɪk /

UK / mek /

A1
  • noun
  • Product made by a particular company; brand
  • verb
  • To arrange or prepare something e.g. dinner
  • To get to (a place) on time
  • To gain the status of (teacher, lawyer, etc.)
  • To create something by putting things together
  • To earn a certain amount of money at a job
  • To cause or force a person to do something
  • To cause something to happen or be formed

also

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US / 'ɔ:lsəʊ /

UK / ˈɔlso /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition; too; in a similar way

five

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US / faɪv /

UK / faɪv /

A1
  • number
  • 5

how

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US / haʊ /

UK / haʊ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To what degree? in what amount?
  • adverb
  • (Used to explain the way to do something)
  • exclamation
  • For what purpose or reason?
  • (Used to ask someone or something's condition)

simply

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US / ˈsɪmpli /

UK / ˈsɪmpli /

A1
  • adverb
  • In an easy or clear manner

year

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US / jə: /

UK / jɪr /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of time equal to 12 months or 365 or 366 days
  • Used to refer to the age of a person

you

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US / jʊ /

UK / ju /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Person someone is speaking or writing to
  • Person or people in general

answer

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US / 'ɑ:nsə(r) /

UK / ˈænsɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Reply to a question someone asks
  • Solution to a problem or test question
  • verb
  • To reply to a question someone asks
  • To solve a test question or a problem

broad

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US / brɔ:d /

UK / brɔd /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • General; not detailed
  • Wide; from the shorter two sides to the other

trinity

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US / ˈtrɪnəti /

UK / 'trɪnətɪ /

B2
  • noun
  • Christianity union of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit

congress

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US / 'kɒŋɡres /

UK / ˈkɑŋɡrɪs /

B1
  • noun
  • Meeting of elected or appointed representatives
  • American governing body of elected representatives

free

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US / fri: /

UK / fri /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Living, happening without being controlled
  • Costing no money
  • Not working; not busy
  • verb
  • To release (e.g. bird) from a cage or prison

happy

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US / ˈhæpi /

UK / ˈhæpi /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Feeling pleasure or joy; glad

this

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US / ðɪs /

UK / ðɪs /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Used to indicate something already been discussed
  • Used to indicate something happening around now
  • adverb
  • An indication by a physical motion or gesture
  • A specific amount of
  • determiner
  • Person, thing, or idea near you
  • pronoun
  • Person, thing that has already been discussed

word

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US / wɜ:d /

UK / wɚd /

A1
  • noun
  • Unit of language that has a meaning
  • Promise
  • Short remark or piece of information
  • verb
  • To express something by choosing particular words

accept

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US / ək'sept /

UK / ækˈsɛpt /

A1
  • verb
  • To agree to receive or take something offered
  • To admit that something is true or correct

state

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US / steɪt /

UK / stet /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning region within a country
  • noun
  • Region within a country, with its own government
  • Situation or condition something is in
  • verb
  • To say; declare as fact

consider

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US / kən'sɪdə(r) /

UK / kənˈsɪdər /

A1
  • verb
  • To think carefully about something

debt

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US / det /

UK / dɛt /

A2
  • noun
  • Sum of money owed to someone that is not yet paid

population

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US / ˌpɒpjuˈleɪʃn /

UK / ˌpɑpjəˈleʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Number of people who live in a country, area etc.

concern

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US / kənˈsɜ:n /

UK / kənˈsɚn /

A2
  • noun
  • Company, firm or business
  • Feeling of worry or anxiety
  • verb
  • To be about a particular topic
  • To have a direct impact on someone
  • To be responsible or mixed up in; to be involved
  • To feel worry or anxiety

side

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US / saɪd /

UK / saɪd /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • In addition to the central or most important thing
  • Next to, or very close to, the right or left of
  • noun
  • Position or opinion that is opposite to another
  • Right or left part of a person's body
  • Feature of someone's personality
  • Straight edge of an object
  • One of two or more groups fighting each other
  • verb
  • To decide to agree with one point, not the other

reason

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US / 'ri:zn /

UK / ˈrizən /

A1
  • noun
  • Ability to think about facts and form a judgment
  • Explanation for why something occurred or was done
  • verb
  • To think and make conclusions in a logical manner

union

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US / 'ju:nɪən /

UK / ˈjunjən /

A2
  • noun
  • Act of joining two or more things into one
  • Marriage
  • Organization of workers to look after their needs

too

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • adverb
  • In addition, also; with emphasis
  • Say that something is more than you want

divide

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US / dɪ'vaɪd /

UK / dɪˈvaɪd /

A2
  • verb
  • To split numbers by another number, e.g. 6 / 2 = 3
  • To separate something into equal pieces

day

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US / deɪ /

UK / de /

A1
  • noun
  • A period of 24 hours beginning at midnight
  • The period of time when it is light outside
  • Person's name

proposal

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US / prəˈpəʊzl /

UK / prəˈpozəl /

B1
  • noun
  • Act of asking someone to marry you
  • Offer or plan to people who can decide about it

sure

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US / ʃʊə(r) /

UK / ʃʊr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Having no doubts about something
  • Have confidence in your own words or actions
  • Firmly established or held; being firm or stable
  • Being correct or true
  • adverb
  • What you say to agree willingly

balance

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US / ˈbæləns /

UK / ˈbæləns /

A2
  • noun
  • Instrument for weighing things
  • Being stable; having equal weight on both sides
  • Money remaining after paying costs
  • verb
  • To be steady by having equal weight on both sides
  • To make two or more things equal

fold

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US / fəʊld /

UK / fold /

B1
  • noun
  • Pen where sheep are kept
  • Group of people who have a common belief
  • verb
  • To bend one part of something against another
  • (Of business) to fail or close down
  • To hold something together such as your two arms

massive

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US / ˈmæsɪv /

UK / ˈmæsɪv /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Very big; large; too big

here

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US / hɪə(r) /

UK / hɪr /

A1
  • adverb
  • In this place; at this location, position or time

lose

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US / lu:z /

UK / luz /

A1
  • verb
  • To be unable to keep in check or control something
  • To decrease in value or quantity (e.g. weight)
  • To stop having certain qualities or abilities
  • To stop having or being entitled to
  • To fail to win something that is being contested
  • To be unable to find something you once had
  • To be dependent on someone (used with 'not')

new

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US / nju: /

UK / nu, nju /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Not old, recently born, built or made
  • Being or doing something for the first time
  • Not felt, seen or known previously
  • Having been recently bought or obtained

after

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US / 'ɑ:ftə(r) /

UK / ˈæftɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Later than another time, or behind something
  • conjunction
  • Following something before
  • preposition
  • When an event happened or time has passed

independence

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US / ˌɪndɪ'pendəns /

UK / ˌɪndɪˈpɛndəns /

A2
  • noun
  • Having the freedom to make your own decisions

many

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US / 'menɪ /

UK / ˈmɛni /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer a large number of things

texas

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US / ˈtɛksəs /

UK / ˈtɛksəs /

A1
  • other
  • The second largest state; located in southwestern United States on the Gulf of Mexico

will

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US / wɪl /

UK / wɪl /

A1
  • noun
  • Desire or choice of someone
  • Document saying who gets your money when you die
  • Strong desire to do something; determination
  • Desire to do something; strong wish to do
  • other
  • Used with verbs to express the future
  • verb
  • To leave property to someone after your death
  • To use mental effort to make something happen
  • Am (is, are) likely to do
  • To influence someone to do something
  • To make something happen by strongly wanting it

east

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US / i:st /

UK / i:st /

A1
  • noun
  • Direction where the sun rises
  • Geographic area including India, China, Japan etc.

keep

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US / ki:p /

UK / kip /

A1
  • noun
  • Large, strong tower in the middle of a castle
  • Money spent on you so you can live in a place
  • verb
  • To continue doing something; not to stop
  • To stop balls going in a goal in sports
  • To not give back or return something
  • (Of food) to not spoil or not rot
  • To take possession of something to own, e.g. a pet
  • To have and continue to hold something
  • To do something that you have promised or agreed
  • To stay in a certain place or condition
  • To maintain the rules

large

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US / lɑ:dʒ /

UK / lɑ:rdʒ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Big; of great size; broad, tall, wide, or fat

most

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US / məʊst /

UK / most /

A1
  • adverb
  • Very; extremely
  • Greatest possible degree
  • pronoun
  • Nearly all of something

mostly

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US / ˈməʊstli /

UK / ˈmoʊstli /

A2
  • adverb
  • In large part; mainly or chiefly

rest

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US / rest /

UK / rɛst /

A1
  • noun
  • Time when one relaxes, sleeps, or is inactive
  • State in which there is a lack of motion
  • Part of something remaining after some was used
  • verb
  • To stop working or avoid activity to recover
  • (Of dead person) to lie in a grave
  • To lean, support or place something against
  • To not be tired because you had enough sleep

cede

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US / si:d /

UK / sid /

A1
  • verb
  • To give someone control of something

help

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US / help /

UK / hɛlp /

A1
  • noun
  • Something given to enable a person to do something
  • Assistance given to someone in need
  • Someone who makes something easier or possible
  • verb
  • To act to enable a person to do something; assist
  • To make something better or less difficult

brand

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US / brænd /

UK / brænd /

A2
  • noun
  • A mark burned on an animal to show who owns it
  • Product made or designed by a named company
  • verb
  • To burn a mark on an animal to show who owns it
  • To describe someone as a liar, coward, etc.
  • To give a famous name to a product or service

join

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US / dʒɔɪn /

UK / dʒɔɪn /

A1
  • verb
  • To bring something close to another, to become one
  • To become a member of
  • To participate in an activity with others

only

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US / ˈəunli /

UK / ˈonli /

A1
  • adverb
  • Just one; just that amount or thing; not more than
  • Not very important or serious
  • Just that type of thing, person
  • Short time ago; not before a certain time
  • conjunction
  • Except; but

put

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US / pʊt /

UK / pʊt /

A1
  • phrasal verb
  • to make a light stop shining by pressing or moving a switch
  • verb
  • To move or place a thing in a particular position
  • To rate something in importance or value
  • To write or say something in a certain manner

two

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US / tu: /

UK / tu /

A1
  • number
  • 2

and

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US / ənd /

UK / ənd, ən,ænd /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used to refer to two or more things
  • Plus; in addition; on top of that
  • Used to introduce an action that follows another

ignore

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US / ɪɡ'nɔ:(r) /

UK / ɪɡˈnɔr, -ˈnor /

A2
  • verb
  • To not listen to, look at, or pay attention to

lot

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US / lɒt /

UK / lɑt /

A1
  • noun
  • What happens to a person in life from chance; fate
  • A group of people seen together
  • Item for sale at an auction
  • Small area of land used for a purpose e.g. parking

money

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US / 'mʌnɪ /

UK / ˈmʌni /

A1
  • noun
  • Coins or notes we use to pay for things

propose

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US / prə'pəʊz /

UK / prəˈpoz /

A2
  • verb
  • To make an offer of marriage
  • To offer or put forward an idea for consideration

unofficial

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US / ˌʌnəˈfɪʃl /

UK / ˌʌnəˈfɪʃəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • In a properly authorized way

until

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US / ənˈtɪl /

UK / ʌnˈtɪl /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Up to; to a time when something happens
  • preposition
  • Before (a specific time)

anything

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US / ˈeniθɪŋ /

UK / ˈɛniˌθɪŋ /

A1
  • pronoun
  • A thing of any kind

form

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US / fɔ:m /

UK / fɔrm /

A1
  • noun
  • Sports team or person's current winning record
  • Document you complete when making an application
  • Visible shape or style; type; kind
  • verb
  • To organize something such as a club or group
  • To develop; to come into a shape or substance
  • To make something into a particular shape

from

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US / frəm /

UK / frʌm, frɑm,frəm /

A1
  • preposition
  • Starting at a particular place, time or level

over

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US / 'əʊvə(r) /

UK / ˈovɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Finished; no longer happening
  • Towards the ground/away from a standing position
  • noun
  • A set of six consecutive balls bowled in cricket
  • other
  • Finished
  • preposition
  • Showing the relation when a thing is above another
  • On or covering something
  • Above or across something
  • More than you need
  • From one side to the other
  • In the direction of; toward

another

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US / əˈnʌðə(r) /

UK / əˈnʌðɚ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • One more, but not this
  • determiner
  • One more added
  • pronoun
  • One more (thing)

issue

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US / 'ɪʃu: /

UK / ˈɪʃu /

A2
  • noun
  • Important topic discussed, debated or argued over
  • Single edition of a magazine
  • verb
  • To make something available to be used or sold
  • To deliver a statement, etc. in an official manner

podcast

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US / 'pɒdkɑ:st /

UK / 'pɑ:dkæst /

A2
  • noun
  • A digital recording (e.g. radio show) for download

unpopular

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US / ʌnˈpɒpjələ(r) /

UK / ʌnˈpɑpjəlɚ /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Disliked by many people

call

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US / kɔ:l /

UK / kɔl /

A1
  • noun
  • A order or request for action
  • The sound an animal makes, often when in danger
  • A correct prediction, e.g. a decision in a game
  • A short visit to a place or person
  • A decision by a referee or umpire in a game
  • verb
  • To make a request or order for action
  • (Animal) to make sounds to warn of danger
  • To announce the date of an election
  • To make a judgment about something
  • To give someone or something a name
  • To guess in advance the result or outcome
  • To visit a place or person for a short time
  • To phone someone
  • To speak, announce or shout in a loud voice

far

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US / fɑ:(r) /

UK / fɑr /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • A long way away
  • Being a long way away
  • adverb
  • To a large degree or extent

enough

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US / ɪˈnʌf /

UK / ɪˈnʌf /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Sufficient to answer the need
  • adverb
  • To a satisfactory degree
  • pronoun
  • Equal to what is needed; as much as required
  • Adequate number or amount

mean

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US / mi:n /

UK / min /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being good at
  • Nasty; unkind
  • Not liking to spend money; cheap; stingy
  • noun
  • Average of a set of numbers
  • verb
  • To express a particular idea or thought
  • To intend to do something in particular
  • To have a particular meaning or value

require

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US / rɪ'kwaɪə(r) /

UK / rɪˈkwaɪr /

A2
  • verb
  • To demand that someone does something
  • To need to do something, to make it necessary

pearce

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US / pi:k /

UK / pik /

A1

wield

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US / wi:ld /

UK / wild /

B2
  • verb
  • To exercise (authority or influence, for example)

fun

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US / fʌn /

UK / fʌn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Amusing and enjoyable
  • noun
  • Enjoyable or amusing quality or feeling

mexican

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US / ˈmeksɪkən /

UK / ˈmɛksɪkən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Concerning the culture and people of Mexico
  • noun
  • Person from Mexico

firm

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US / fɜ:m /

UK / fɚm /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Fairly hard or solid, not soft
  • Unchanging and strong
  • noun
  • Company that sells goods or services
  • verb
  • To make something become more solid or durable

first

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US / fɜ:st /

UK / fɚst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • 1st; Coming before all others in time or place
  • noun
  • Something that has not happened before
  • Position of the winner of a competition

get

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US / ɡet /

UK / ɡɛt /

A1
  • verb
  • To become affected by illness or disease
  • To begin to feel or understand an emotion or idea
  • To send or bring someone or something home, etc.
  • To go somewhere to obtain something
  • To (cause to) do a particular thing
  • To obtain, receive or be given something
  • To currently have
  • To prepare for use
  • To understand something being said or read

obvious

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US / ˈɒbviəs /

UK / ˈɑbviəs /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Easily understood and clear; plain to see

win

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US / wɪn /

UK / wɪn /

A1
  • noun
  • Success in beating the other team or competitors
  • Success in a game or contest
  • verb
  • To get something as a prize because of a success
  • To gain something you want because of your efforts
  • To succeed in a game or contest

argue

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US / ˈɑ:gju: /

UK / ˈɑ:rgju: /

A1
  • verb
  • To fight or disagree over something
  • To state your reasons for or against an idea

happen

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US / 'hæpən /

UK / ˈhæpən /

A1
  • verb
  • To take place or occur

prominent

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US / ˈprɒmɪnənt /

UK / ˈprɑmənənt /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Being important or well known
  • Being easily noticeable
  • Sticking out beyond something

about

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US / ə'baʊt /

UK / əˈbaʊt /

A1
  • adverb
  • To be ready to; going to
  • Nearly; approximately; roughly
  • Near; next to; close to
  • In every direction; in the area of
  • preposition
  • Concerning or of (a topic)

again

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US / ə'ɡen /

UK / əˈɡɛn /

A1
  • adverb
  • One more time, once more

even

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US / 'i:vn /

UK / ˈivən /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in influence, power, possibility etc.
  • Being divided equally or fairly
  • (Of teams/contest) with similar chances of success
  • Smooth, level, or regular
  • Can be divided by 2; ending in 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0
  • At a regular, equally steady manner
  • Remaining steady and unchanging
  • adverb
  • (When this is surprising) as well; too
  • (Used to compare two things/stress the difference)
  • verb
  • To make something level; to flatten
  • To make something equal

like

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US / laɪk /

UK / laɪk /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being equal in status or kind to something else
  • Similar; the same
  • adverb
  • For example
  • preposition
  • Used as a filler; used to ad emphasis
  • In a way similar to the way something is done
  • Such as; for example
  • verb
  • To want to
  • To find something pleasing; to prefer something

that

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US / ðæt /

UK / ðæt, ðət /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • The person or thing being talked about
  • Used to identify something both the speakers know
  • adverb
  • Used to reinforce adjectives and adverbs
  • To such a degree
  • conjunction
  • Used to connect a noun clause
  • Used to introduce an adverbial clause
  • Used to introduce a noun clause
  • determiner
  • Used as a noun to refer to something
  • pronoun
  • Referring an object far away
  • Used to refer to the relative pronoun ‘which’

what

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US / wɒt /

UK / hwɑt, hwʌt, wɔt, wʌt,hwət, wət /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Thing or things that; the same kind as
  • Used to emphasize something you are about to say
  • adjecitve
  • Used to refer to a particular amount, or number
  • Used to place emphasis on a particular quality
  • adverb
  • To a certain degree
  • determiner
  • Question words used for asking for information
  • exclamation
  • Used to express excitement, shock, or surprise
  • Used to ask people to repeat something they said

anymore

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US / 'enɪmɔ: /

UK / ˌɛniˈmɔr, -ˈmor /

A2
  • adverb
  • No longer; no more

during

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US / ˈdjʊərɪŋ /

UK / ˈdʊrɪŋ, ˈdjʊr- /

A1
  • preposition
  • At some point in the course of an event or thing

claim

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US / kleɪm /

UK / klem /

A2
  • noun
  • Demand for something that is believed to be due
  • Something said to be true when others don't agree
  • verb
  • To demand something that is believed to be due
  • To cause someone's life to come to an end
  • To say something is true when others may not agree

clay

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US / kleɪ /

UK / kle /

B1
  • noun
  • Heavy sticky earth used to make pottery
  • Person's name

north

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US / nɔ:θ /

UK / nɔ:rθ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Coming from the opposite direction to the south
  • noun
  • Direction to your left when facing the rising sun

member

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US / ˈmembə(r) /

UK / ˈmɛmbɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Part of the body of a human, animal
  • Person or thing belonging to a group or team

really

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US / ˈri:əli /

UK / ˈriəˌli, ˈrili /

A1
  • adverb
  • Used to stress something that is said; definitely
  • In a true or accurate manner
  • Very

would

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US / wʊd /

UK / wʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Used to indicate something imagined
  • Used to ask or request something politely
  • Verb used to indicate possibility, request etc.
  • Used to indicate a preference
  • Used to indicate a reaction
  • Indicates something that occurred repeatedly
  • Used to indicate willingness or ability to do

reject

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US / rɪˈdʒekt /

UK / rɪˈdʒɛkt /

A2
  • noun
  • Goods that are not suitable for sale at full price
  • Person others do not like, or refuse to accept
  • verb
  • To decide that something is not good enough
  • To refuse, deny to believe, accept, or consider

war

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US / wɔ:(r) /

UK / wɔr /

A2
  • noun
  • Situation where armies fight each other

can

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US / kæn /

UK / kən,kæn /

A1
  • noun
  • A metal container for storing food
  • other
  • Able to; have the skill to; have the time to
  • verb
  • To have permission to
  • To be possible to do
  • To preserve food by sealing it in a metal container

but

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US / bət /

UK / bʌt,bət /

A1
  • conjunction
  • Used before you say something different, opposite

benton

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US / 'benɪ /

UK / 'benɪ /

A1

give

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US / ɡɪv /

UK / ɡɪv /

A1
  • noun
  • Degree of flexibility in something, a material
  • verb
  • To hand over or present something to someone
  • To cause someone to have or experience something

overlap

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US / ˌəʊvəˈlæp /

UK / ˌoʊvərˈlæp /

B1
  • noun
  • Amount shared in the same space, form, idea
  • verb
  • To lie over or cover a part of something else
  • To happen at the same time as another event
  • To share qualities or functions

nobody

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US / ˈnəʊbədi /

UK / ˈnoʊbədi /

A1
  • pronoun
  • No person; no one; not any person

river

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US / ˈrɪvə(r) /

UK / ˈrɪvɚ /

A1
  • noun
  • Flowing water that runs from mountains to the sea

become

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US / bɪ'kʌm /

UK / bɪˈkʌm /

A1
  • verb
  • To begin to be; grow to be; develop into
  • To be suitable for a particular job or role

mexico

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US / 'meksɪkəʊ /

UK / 'meksɪkoʊ /

A1
  • proper noun
  • A country in southwestern North America, with extensive coastlines on the Gulf of Mexico and the Pac

tiny

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US / 'taɪnɪ /

UK / ˈtaɪni /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Very, very small

belong

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US / bɪ'lɒŋ /

UK / bɪˈlɔŋ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be a welcomed as a new member of a group
  • To own something
  • To be in the right place or situation

not

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US / nɒt /

UK / nɑt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Word indicating the negative
  • (Used to form the negative of verbs)

opening

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US / ˈəʊpnɪŋ /

UK / ˈoʊpnɪŋ /

A1
  • noun
  • Free job; job you can apply for
  • Action of starting something, e.g. a new business
  • verb
  • To make accessible or able to be used, e.g. road
  • To start the activities or services of a business
  • To make a space or hole appear in something
  • To move or change so that it is no longer closed
  • To start something, e.g. a new business

whole

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US / həul /

UK / hol /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Complete or full; all of
  • Being in a good condition
  • noun
  • Complete amount or sum; total

book

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US / bʊk /

UK / bʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • Thing made of pages with writing on that you read
  • verb
  • (Police) to officially record someone's crimes
  • To reserve (hotel room, etc.) in advance
  • To produce a red or yellow card to a soccer player

want

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US / wɔnt /

UK / wɑnt, wɔnt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something you desire or wish for
  • State or condition of poverty
  • verb
  • To desire or wish for something; hope for a thing

henry

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US / ˈhenri /

UK / ˈhenri /

A1
  • noun
  • A unit of inductance in which an induced electromotive force of one volt is produced when the curren

jacinto

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US / dʒəˈsɪntoʊ /

UK / /

A1

kansas

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US / ˈkænzəs /

UK / ˈkænzəs /

A1
  • other
  • A state in midwestern United States

look

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US / lʊk /

UK / lʊk /

A1
  • noun
  • Person's beauty or physical attractiveness
  • Particular style of dress, clothes, or appearance
  • The way someone, something appears to be
  • Act of searching for or examining something
  • verb
  • To appear to be; seem

both

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US / bəuθ /

UK / boθ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time
  • pronoun
  • Used to refer to two things at the same time

hold

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US / həʊld /

UK / hold /

A1
  • noun
  • Section of a ship or plane used for storing things
  • Influence or power held over someone
  • Place of support for hands or feet when climbing
  • verb
  • To agree to keep something for someone
  • To have the capacity to support/contain something
  • To control an area and protect it from attack
  • To not allow someone to leave a place
  • To cause an event to happen at a place or time
  • To use hands or arms to carry or keep something
  • To have a specific quality or property
  • To keep an image, belief or feeling in your mind
  • To have or own something
  • To wait before being able to talk on the phone
  • To limit the movement of someone in a sport

territory

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US / 'terətrɪ /

UK / ˈtɛrɪˌtɔri, -ˌtori /

B1
  • noun
  • Area of land defended by an animal
  • Area of particular knowledge or experience
  • Area owned or controlled by a government, person
  • Area of land with a specific defining feature

all

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US / ɔ:l /

UK / ɔl /

A1
  • adverb
  • Completely; totally
  • determiner
  • Being every one of something
  • pronoun
  • 100% of something; the complete amount

its

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US / ɪts /

UK / ɪts /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Referring to or belonging to ‘it’
  • determiner
  • Of something; belonging or related to something
  • other
  • Possessive form of “it”

return

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US / rɪ'tɜ:n /

UK / rɪ'tɜ:rn /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Do again; repeated
  • noun
  • Faulty or unwanted product sent back to a company
  • Enter key; the main key on the computer keyboard
  • Profit made as a result of a business activity
  • Process of going back to a previous way or state
  • verb
  • To hit something back to the other player or team
  • To come back after being away from somewhere
  • To repay someone's actions, kindness etc.
  • To put, bring, take, give, or send something back
  • To occur again

who

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US / hu: /

UK / hu /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Which person
  • Used to introduce information about people

jim

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US / ˈdʒɪm /

UK / ˈdʒɪm /

A1

splitting

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US / ˈsplɪtɪŋ /

UK / ˈsplɪtɪŋ /

A2
  • verb
  • To become divided or broken along a straight line
  • To cause a cut in (lip, etc.)
  • To have difference of opinion in a group
  • To separate into two or more pieces
  • To divide something in an even or fair way

take

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US / teɪk /

UK / tek /

A1
  • noun
  • Filming of a single scene for TV or the movies
  • verb
  • To accept something that is offered
  • To use a method of traveling, e.g. a bus or train
  • To use a camera to make (a photo)
  • To pick up something and go away with it
  • To study a subject in school
  • To attempt to pass (an exam)
  • To require a certain amount of time, money, space

agree

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US / əˈgri: /

UK / əˈɡri /

A1
  • verb
  • To have the same opinion as someone else

nowhere

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US / 'nəʊweə(r) /

UK / ˈnoˌhwɛr, -ˌwɛr /

A2
  • adverb
  • Not in or at any place; no place

their

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US / ðɛː /

UK / ðer /

A1
  • determiner
  • Belonging to them

whilst

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US / waɪlst /

UK / hwaɪlst,waɪlst /

A1
  • conjunction
  • During the time that; at the same time

carve

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US / kɑ:v /

UK / kɑ:rv /

B1
  • verb
  • To cut a piece of cooked meat into thin slices
  • To make a cut in, e.g. to write your name on tree
  • To cut wood, etc., into a particular shape

they

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US / ðeɪ /

UK / ðe /

A1
  • pronoun
  • Two or more people, animals, or things

washington

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US / 'wɒʃɪŋtən /

UK / 'wɑ:ʃɪŋtənˌ 'wɔ:ʃɪŋ- /

A1
  • other
  • A state in northwestern United States on the Pacific

several

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US / ˈsevrəl /

UK / ˈsɛvərəl,ˈsɛvrəl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Many of
  • pronoun
  • More than two but not a large amount

thomas

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US / 'tɒməs /

UK / 'tɑməs /

A1
  • other
  • A radio broadcast journalist during World War I and World War II noted for his nightly new broadcast

never

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US / 'nevə(r) /

UK / ˈnɛvɚ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Not ever; not at any time

missouri

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US / mɪ'zʊərɪ /

UK / mɪ'zʊrɪ /

A1
  • noun
  • A dialect of the Chiwere language spoken by the Missouri
  • A member of the Siouan people formerly inhabiting the valley of the Missouri river in Missouri
  • A midwestern state in central United States; a border state during the American Civil War, Missouri
  • Longest river in the United States; arises in the montana and flows southeastward to become a tribut

acceptable

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US / əkˈseptəbl /

UK / ækˈsɛptəbəl /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • Satisfactory; good enough

colorado

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US / ˌkɒlə'rɑ:dəʊ /

UK / ˌkɑ:lə'rædoʊˌ -'rɑ:doʊ /

A1
  • proper noun
  • A river that rises in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado and flows southwest for 1,468 miles (
  • A state in the central US; population 4,939,456 (est. 2008); capital, Denver. Colorado extends from
  • A river that flows east for 900 miles (1,450 km) across Texas, from the Llano Estacado to the Gulf o

just

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US / dʒʌst /

UK / dʒʌst /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Proper or appropriate; as is deserved
  • Doing or being what is right or fair
  • Legally correct; having enough evidence
  • adverb
  • Almost; nearly
  • Exactly at the time of
  • Exactly (the same as, like)

definitely

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US / ˈdefɪnətli /

UK / ˈdefɪnətli /

A2
  • adverb
  • Without question; beyond doubt

soon

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US / su:n /

UK / sun /

A1
  • adverb
  • At a time not long from now

such

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US / sʌtʃ /

UK / sʌtʃ /

A1
  • determiner
  • Being similar to
  • (Thing) as previously stated or referred to
  • adverb
  • (Used to emphasize the quality of an adjective)

control

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US / kən'trəʊl /

UK / kənˈtrol /

A1
  • noun
  • A device designed to operate a machine
  • Participant in experiment that is left untouched
  • Act to dominate or command; make manageable
  • A law limiting the growth or spread of something
  • A place which overseas or manages e.g. a factory
  • verb
  • To direct or influence the behavior of something

promise

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US / 'prɒmɪs /

UK / ˈprɑmɪs /

A1
  • verb
  • To say you will certainly do something

those

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US / ðəʊz /

UK / ðoz /

A1
  • determiner
  • The people or things we are talking about
  • pronoun
  • The objects far from the speaker

though

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US / ðəu /

UK / ðo /

A1
  • adverb
  • Although, despite the fact that

split

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US / splɪt /

UK / splɪt /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • No longer married or in a relationship
  • (Injured) by cutting it open, as in someone's lip
  • (Of a decision) when people cannot decide a winner
  • noun
  • Difference of opinion in a group causing a break
  • Separation or a break in something
  • verb
  • To become divided or broken along a straight line
  • To cause a cut in (lip, etc.)
  • To have difference of opinion in a group
  • To separate into two or more pieces
  • To divide something in an even or fair way

tribe

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US / traɪb /

UK / traɪb /

B1
  • noun
  • Racial group united by language, religion, customs

border

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US / 'bɔ:də(r) /

UK / ˈbɔrdɚ /

A2
  • noun
  • Outer part or edge of something
  • Line separating one country, state from another
  • verb
  • To be right next to another country or state
  • To form the edge of something
  • To form the edge of (road, etc.)

fact

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US / fækt /

UK / fækt /

A1
  • noun
  • Something that is known or proved to be true

incorporate

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US / ɪn'kɔ:pəreɪt /

UK / ɪnˈkɔrpəˌret /

A2
  • verb
  • To form into a company or business corporation
  • To include or involve as part of something else

much

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US / mʌtʃ /

UK / mʌtʃ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Very; to a high level or degree
  • adverb
  • A lot; large amount; a high degree of
  • Nearly; basically
  • On many occasions; often
  • noun
  • A large amount; a great quantity

strong

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US / strɒŋ /

UK / strɔŋ /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • (Of tea or beer) dark or thick
  • Having big muscles; physically powerful

for

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US / fə(r) /

UK / fɔr,fə /

A1
  • preposition
  • Used to show the purpose, or need of something

nowadays

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US / ˈnaʊədeɪz /

UK / ˈnaʊəˌdez /

A2
  • adverb
  • At the present time; now

short

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US / ʃɔ:t /

UK / ʃɔrt /

A1
  • adverb
  • Less than what is needed
  • Suddenly stopping what you are saying or doing
  • verb
  • (Of electric circuit) to spark because faulty
  • adjecitve
  • Measuring a small distance
  • Happening for a small amount of time
  • Unfriendly or rude

why

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US / waɪ /

UK / hwaɪ, waɪ /

A1
  • adverb
  • Question word to ask for a reason
  • exclamation
  • (Used to express surprise or approval)

victory

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US / 'vɪktərɪ /

UK / ˈvɪktəri /

B1
  • noun
  • Defeating or beating someone or something

discussion

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US / dɪˈskʌʃn /

UK / dɪˈskʌʃən /

A2
  • noun
  • Any long communication about a particular topic

land

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US / lænd /

UK / lænd /

A1
  • noun
  • Region or country
  • Earth; the ground
  • verb
  • To arrive or cause a boat to arrive at the shore
  • To obtain or get something that you wanted
  • To (cause to) come down to the ground safely
  • To cause to arrive in a specific place or state

piece

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US / pi:s /

UK / pis /

A1
  • noun
  • A counter in a board game
  • Small part of something larger
  • verb
  • To put items together to assemble something

senator

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US / ˈsenətə(r) /

UK / ˈsɛnətɚ /

B2
  • noun
  • An elected politician belonging to the senate

well

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US / wel /

UK / wɛl /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • Being in a fortunate, good condition or state
  • Healthy and in good condition
  • adverb
  • In an acceptable, proper, or successful manner
  • In a complete, total, or full manner
  • A great and considerable degree
  • In a successful way, in a good or satisfactory way
  • exclamation
  • Used to begin or continue a particular statement
  • Used to show you want to start saying something
  • Used to express that you are waiting for a reply
  • You say this to change the topic of a conversation
  • Used to indicate you are making a final remark
  • noun
  • Long deep hole in the ground to get water
  • verb
  • To cause your eyes to fill with tears

question

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US / 'kwestʃən /

UK / ˈkwɛstʃən /

A1
  • noun
  • Issue or problems you are dealing with
  • What you ask about; issue
  • verb
  • To ask for or try to get information
  • To have or express concerns or uncertainty

federal

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US / 'fedərəl /

UK / ˈfɛdərəl, ˈfɛdrəl /

B1
  • adjecitve
  • Consisting of several united states

could

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US / kəd /

UK / kʊd /

A1
  • other
  • Past form of 'can' to mean have ability
  • Used to ask for something politely, or to offer

know

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US / nəʊ /

UK / noʊ /

A1
  • verb
  • To be familiar with a person or place, thing
  • To feel sure or be convinced about something
  • To discover or be aware of something
  • To be able to distinguish
  • To have knowledge of things

rack

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US / ræk /

UK / ræk /

B1
  • noun
  • A frame, stand, hook on which things are hung
  • verb
  • To cause someone pain or suffering

break

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US / breɪk /

UK / brek /

A1
  • noun
  • Time you stop an activity before continuing
  • End of a relationship
  • An escape from a place such as a jail
  • (Lucky) advantage or benefit from something
  • Find a solution or answer to a problem or crime
  • Change in the weather
  • verb
  • To create a new record e.g. running the 100m dash
  • To form a crack in something
  • To burst or become damaged
  • To end a relationship
  • To escape from a place such as a jail
  • To train a wild animal e.g. a horse
  • To separate into pieces by force, or by dropping
  • To act against a law, rule, or promise
  • To become known suddenly, as in the news
  • To not do what you promised e.g. not keep promises
  • To solve a crime, or answer a problem
  • To stop functioning properly
  • To suddenly start, open or commence
  • To change in pitch suddenly, as in a voice
  • To fall on the shore, as in waves
  • To begin or change suddenly; the dawn or weather
  • To defeat by causing the person to lose their will

decade

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US / ˈdekeɪd /

UK / ˈdɛkˌed, dɛˈked /

B1
  • noun
  • Period of 10 years

end

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US / end /

UK / ɛnd /

A1
  • noun
  • The point where a process or activity stops
  • A point that marks the limit of something; finish
  • Goal or desired result
  • The tip, edge or limit of something
  • verb
  • To be the last part of something

furthermore

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US / ˌfɜ:ðəˈmɔ:(r) /

UK / ˌfɜ:rðərˈmɔ:r /

B1
  • adverb
  • In addition to what has been said

loss

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US / lɒs /

UK / lɔ:s /

A2
  • noun
  • Friend, family, or other loved person's death
  • Decrease or decline in quantity or amount
  • Experience or state of failing to have or keep
  • A situation when you lose a game
  • Process of failing to have or keep something
  • Difficulty or trouble caused by someone's leaving
  • Situation when more money is spent than is earned

government

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US / ˈgʌvənmənt /

UK / ˈɡʌvənmənt /

A1
  • noun
  • Group of people and system that rule a nation

with

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US / wɪð /

UK / wɪð, wɪθ /

A1
  • preposition
  • As an employee of a certain company
  • Against something or someone
  • By using something as a means
  • Due to; because of
  • Including
  • Possessing as a feature
  • Related to
  • (Of the manner/attitude by which you do something)
  • Used to express that people or things are together

hand

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US / hænd /

UK / hænd /

A1
  • noun
  • Cards given to a player in a card game
  • Piece of a clock that points to the time
  • Someone who performs physical tasks or work
  • Body part at the end of a person's arm
  • Help for someone performing a particular action
  • Condition of having power or influence
  • Member of the crew of a ship
  • verb
  • To give something to someone personally

next

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US / nekst /

UK / nɛkst /

A1
  • adverb
  • The one that follows another in time or order
  • At a time or place directly after the present one
  • noun
  • The one that follows after
  • adjecitve
  • Immediately after the previous one
  • First occurrence after the present one

raise

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US / reɪz /

UK / rez /

A1
  • noun
  • Increase in a bet above another when playing cards
  • Pay increase
  • verb
  • To increase a bet above another when playing cards
  • To gather donations for a cause or charity
  • To bring up and educate a child to maturity
  • To bring a dead person to life
  • To increase a quantity, size, intensity or price
  • To lift (e.g. your hand) to a higher position
  • To mention a topic /issue for discussion; bring up
  • To increase (salary, etc.)
  • To grow or care for plants or animals

worm

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US / wɜ:m /

UK / wɚm /

B2
  • noun
  • Small thin tube-shaped animal without legs
  • verb
  • To remove worms from an animals stomach
  • To get information, etc. out of, by tricking them
  • To cause something to move slowly or weave through

extra

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US / 'ekstrə /

UK / 'ekstrə /

A2
  • adjecitve
  • More than necessary; additional
  • noun
  • Items more than you need; additional items
  • Person who has a small part in a movie
  • Special version of a newspaper

initially

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US / ɪˈnɪʃəli /

UK / ɪˈnɪʃəli /

A2
  • adverb
  • At first; originally

have

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US / həv /

UK / hæv /

A1
  • verb
  • To drink, smoke, eat or use something
  • To experience the effects of something
  • To organize an event, or join in an activity
  • To own, possess, or hold something
  • To cause to happen or produce a particular effect

part

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US / pɑ:t /

UK / pɑ:rt /

A1
  • adjecitve
  • To some degree; half; not fully
  • noun
  • Division of a book
  • Ratio of something, e.g. 3 of gin, 1 of tonic
  • A line in a person's hair, made with a comb
  • Character an actor plays on stage, movie, or TV
  • Some, but not all of a specific thing
  • Role in causing something to happen
  • verb
  • To make a line in a person's hair, by using a comb
  • To move two things apart creating a space
  • To leave someone, or to break off a relationship

plan

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US / plæn /

UK / plæn /

A1
  • noun
  • Drawing of how something should be done or made

onto

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US / ˈɒntə /

UK / ˈɑnˌtu, -tə, ˈɔn- /

A1
  • preposition
  • Towards a certain direction/into a certain area

see

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US / si: /

UK / si /

A1
  • verb
  • To go on a date with someone
  • To predict whether something is, or will be true
  • To understand what someone says
  • To use your eyes to look at something
  • To visit a place often for sightseeing or pleasure
  • To visit or meet with someone
  • To find out by waiting or looking
  • To watch (a game, movie or TV show)

texan

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US / /

UK / /

A1
  • other
  • A native or resident of Texas
  • Of or relating to or characteristic of Texas or its residents
  • Introduction to Video Content
  • When Texas joined the United States, it initially included a vast amount of land. However, within five years, Texas lost all of these lands to New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and Wyoming. This raises the question of why Texas gave up these territories and why the Texans agreed to it. In 1836, Texas gained independence from Mexico after a short war. Despite Mexico's refusal to accept this independence, they were unable to return Texas to their control due to the support it received from the United States during the war. The Republic of Texas claimed all the disputed territory, but they only had firm control over a portion of it. Most of the land was actually controlled by the Comanche tribe, although their claim was not recognized. After ignoring Texas politically for about a decade, the United States decided to annex it as a state. However, this led to overlapping claims with Mexico and ultimately resulted in the Mexican-American War. The United States emerged victorious and Mexico lost all the disputed territory. One would assume that Texas would be granted its claimed lands after winning the war, but this was not the case. The federal government argued that Texas' claim was not strong and that the land no longer belonged to Mexico but also was not fully Texan. The concern was that Texas, as a large state, would have too much power in the future. Consequently, several prominent senators proposed dividing Texas as part of a broader discussion on how to incorporate the new land acquired by America.
  • Subtitles section
  • As many of you will know, when Texas joined the United States, it looked like this.
  • However, a mere five years later, it had lost all of these lands, which nowadays form parts of New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and even Wyoming.
  • This massive loss of land raises an obvious question, why?
  • Why did Texas lose all this territory, and why did the Texans agree to it?
  • So, in 1836, Texas won its independence from Mexico after a short war.
  • Mexico didn't really accept this independence, but there was little they could do about returning Texas to the fold, given all of the unofficial help that the United States had given it during the war.
  • The brand new Republic of Texas claimed all of this territory, but only really had firm control over this.
  • That doesn't mean Mexico controlled it.
  • In fact, most of it was controlled by the Comanche tribe, but nobody recognised their claim to anything.
  • So, after about a decade of politically ignoring Texas, the US annexed it as a state.
  • The overlapping claims of the US's newest member in Mexico soon led to the Mexican-American War, which ended with the US victory, and Mexico losing all of this.
  • So, after winning a war for Texas' disputed territory, it would be fair to assume that Texas would be given its claimed lands, but fun fact, no.
  • Instead, the federal government argued that the Texan claim wasn't that strong, and that even though the land definitely wasn't Mexican anymore, it also wasn't Texan.
  • The concern was that this new state was far too large, and thus would wield too much power in the future.
  • And so, as part of a broader discussion on how to incorporate America's new land, several prominent senators put forward proposals on how to divide Texas.
  • The first idea was that of Missouri Senator Thomas Benton, who proposed that Texas be divided like this, with the North and West going to the federal government as part of the territory of New Mexico,
  • And the rest being divided into two states, Texas and Colorado.
  • This plan was much more about keeping the free state-slave state balance in the Union, but it was also unpopular with the Texans.
  • Furthermore, it broke the rule of splitting states.
  • The next plan was put forward by Senator Henry Foote, who pushed for Texas to simply be divided into two states.
  • Texas and the brand new state of Jacinto.
  • This went nowhere because again, no splitting states.
  • And if the Texans didn't like those plans, they really weren't going to like that of Senator John Bell.
  • This would see this territory handed to New Mexico, and Texas divided into two new states.
  • The land east of the Trinity River would be the state of Texas, and the rest of the land would become the Colorado territory.
  • That was until its population got large enough that it could be split into two new states, which Bell wanted to call Colorado and Washington.
  • This proposal wasn't even considered by the Texans.
  • Thus, the US government needed to make sure that Texas kept much more of its territory, and two ideas were put forward.
  • The first was by Henry Clay, who just did this, giving this land to New Mexico.
  • This was rejected because it meant that this tiny piece of land here would be ceded from New Mexico to Texas, which meant opening a whole new can of worms.
  • And thus, no.
  • In the end, it was Senator James Pearce that settled the issue.
  • He put forward this border, which took this from Texas and gave it to the federal government.
  • This was acceptable to Congress because it didn't require splitting the state of Texas.
  • So long as you considered this to be Texas, and this to be extra territory that just happened to belong to Texas.
  • So why did the Texans agree to this when initially they just wanted to keep all of their land?
  • Well, the answer was money.
  • Texas has racked up a lot of debt from its independence war, and the federal government promised to take on that debt in return for Texas being carved up.
  • Another reason was that whilst Texas did claim all of this, it never really held onto it, and so what it was given was still seen as extra and still made Texas the largest state in the union.
  • As such, both sides were mostly happy, and Texas took on the shape that it has to this day.
  • Jim Strumberg, Words About Books podcast, and Charles I.